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Computer Sciences

2001

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Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Automated Online News Classification With Personalization, Chee-Hong Chan, Aixin Sun, Ee Peng Lim Dec 2001

Automated Online News Classification With Personalization, Chee-Hong Chan, Aixin Sun, Ee Peng Lim

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Classification of online news, in the past, has often been done manually. In our proposed Categorizor system, we have experimented an automated approach to classify online news using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). SVM has been shown to deliver good classification results when ample training documents are given. In our research, we have applied SVM to personalized classification of online news.


Reifying Communication At The Application Level, Andrew P. Black, Jie Huang, Jonathan Walpole Oct 2001

Reifying Communication At The Application Level, Andrew P. Black, Jie Huang, Jonathan Walpole

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Middleware, from the earliest RPC systems to recent Object-Oriented Remote Message Sending (RMS) systems such as Java RMI and CORBA, claims transparency as one of its main attributes. Coulouris et al. define transparency as “the concealment from the … application programmer of the separation of components in a distributed system.” They go on to identify eight different kinds of transparency.

We considered titling this paper “Transparency Considered Harmful”, but that title is misleading because it implies that all kinds of transparency are bad. This is not our view. Rather, we believe that the choice of which transparencies should be offered by ...


Infopipes—An Abstraction For Information Flow, Jie Huang, Andrew P. Black, Jonathan Walpole, Calton Pu Jun 2001

Infopipes—An Abstraction For Information Flow, Jie Huang, Andrew P. Black, Jonathan Walpole, Calton Pu

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Building Object-Oriented Distributed Systems has been facilitated by Remote Message Sending (RMS) systems like Java RMI and implementations of CORBA. However, RMS systems are designed to support request/response interactions. Streaming applications, in contrast, are characterized by high-bandwidth, long-duration communication with stringent performance requirements. Examples of streaming applications include video-on-demand, teleconferencing, on-line education, and environmental observation. These applications transfer huge amounts of data and focus on distributed information flow rather than request/response.

To simplify the task of building distributed streaming applications, we propose a new abstraction for information flow—Infopipes. Using Infopipes, information flow becomes the heart of the ...


Comparison Of Two Distributed Fuzzy Logic Controllers For Flexible-Link Manipulators, Linda Z. Shi, Mohamed Trabia May 2001

Comparison Of Two Distributed Fuzzy Logic Controllers For Flexible-Link Manipulators, Linda Z. Shi, Mohamed Trabia

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Presentations

The paper suggests that fuzzy logic controllers present a computationally efficient and robust alternative to conventional controllers. The paper presents two possible structures for the distributed fuzzy logic controller of a single-link flexible manipulator. A linear quadratic regulator method is used to prove the effectiveness of fuzzy logic controllers.


Modeling The Transient Rate Behavior Of Bandwidth Sharing As A Hybrid Control System, Kang Li, Molly H. Shor, Jonathan Walpole, Calton Pu Mar 2001

Modeling The Transient Rate Behavior Of Bandwidth Sharing As A Hybrid Control System, Kang Li, Molly H. Shor, Jonathan Walpole, Calton Pu

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper uses hybrid control to model a problem of computer network systems, the dynamic behavior of bandwidth sharing among competing TCP traffic. It has been well known in the computer network community that well-behaved (TCP-friendly) congestion control mechanisms are crucial to the robustness of the Internet. Congestion control determines the transmission rate for each flow. Right now, most TCP-friendly research focuses only on the average throughput behavior without considering how the data is sent out in the short-term (e.g. bursty or smooth). However, recent experimental results show that short-term rate adjustments can change the bandwidth sharing result. Therefore ...


Infosphere Project: An Overview, Calton Pu, Jonathan Walpole Mar 2001

Infosphere Project: An Overview, Calton Pu, Jonathan Walpole

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

We describe the Infosphere project, which is building the systems software support for information-driven applications such as digital libraries and electronic commerce. The main technical contribution is the Infopipe abstraction to support information flow with quality of service. Using building blocks such as program specialization, software feedback, domain-specific languages, and personalized information filtering, the Infopipe software generates code and manage resources to provide the specified quality of service with support for composition and restructuring.


Moving Towards Massively Scalable Video-Based Sensor Networks, Wu-Chi Feng, Jonathan Walpole, Calton Pu, Wu-Chang Feng Mar 2001

Moving Towards Massively Scalable Video-Based Sensor Networks, Wu-Chi Feng, Jonathan Walpole, Calton Pu, Wu-Chang Feng

Computer Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Networking and computing technologies are becoming advanced enough to enable a wealth of diverse applications that will drastically change our everyday lives. Some past examples of these developments include the World Wide Web and wireless data networking infrastructures. As is quite obvious, the World Wide Web has enabled a fundamental change in the way many people deal with day-to-day tasks. Through the web, one can now make on-line reservations for travel, pay bills through on-line banking services, and view personalized on-line newscasts. More recently, developments in wireless technologies have enabled anywhere, anytime access to information over wireless medium. As wireless ...


Scheduling Processing Resources In Programmable Routers, Prashanth Pappu, Tilman Wolf Jan 2001

Scheduling Processing Resources In Programmable Routers, Prashanth Pappu, Tilman Wolf

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

To provide flexibility in deploying new protocols and services, general-purpose processing engines are being placed in the datapath of routers. Such network processors are typically simple RISC multiprocessors that perform forwarding and custom application processing of packets. The inherent unpredictability of execution time of arbitrary instruction code poses a significant challenge in providing QoS guarantees for data flows that compete for such processing resources in the network. However, we show that network processing workloads are highly regular and predictable. Using estimates of execution times of various applications on packets of given lengths, we provide a method for admission control and ...


Performance Of Deferred Reservations In Data Networks, Samphel Norden, Jonathan Turner Jan 2001

Performance Of Deferred Reservations In Data Networks, Samphel Norden, Jonathan Turner

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

This paper studies the performance of deferred resource reservation in data networks. Conventional resource reservation protocols, such as PNNI and RSVP adopt an all-or-nothing approach, where partially acquired resources must be released if resources are not available at all links on the chosen path. During periods of high network load, this leads users to retry requests repeatedly, adding control traffic at exactly the time when the network's capacity to process that control traffic is exhausted. Deferred REServation (DRES) can significantly improve performance by reducing the overall call rejection probability, allowing more traffic to be carried, using the same resources ...


Parbit: A Tool To Transform Bitfiles To Implement Partial Reconfiguration Of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (Fpgas), Edson L. Horta, John W. Lockwood Jan 2001

Parbit: A Tool To Transform Bitfiles To Implement Partial Reconfiguration Of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (Fpgas), Edson L. Horta, John W. Lockwood

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can be partially reconfigured to implement Dynamically loadable Hardware Plugin (DHP) modules. A tool called PARBIT has been developed that transforms FPGA configuration bitfiles to enable DHP modules. With this tool it is possible to define a partial reconfigurable area inside the FPGA and download it into a specified region of the FPGA device. One or more DHPs, with different sizes can be implemented using PARBIT.


Design Of Wavelength Converting Switches For Optical Burst Switching, Jeyashankher Ramamirtham, Jonathan Turner Jan 2001

Design Of Wavelength Converting Switches For Optical Burst Switching, Jeyashankher Ramamirtham, Jonathan Turner

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is an experimental network technology that enables the construction of very high capacity routers, using optical data paths and electronic control. In this paper, we study two designs for wavelength converting switches that are suitable for use in optical burst switching systems and evaluate their performance. Both designs use tunable lasers to implement wavelength conversion. One is strictly nonblocking design, that also requires optical crossbars. The second substitutes Wavelength Grating Routers (WGR) for the optical crossbars, reducing cost, but introducing some potential for blocking. We show how the routing problem for the WGR-based switches can be ...


Fuzzycast: Media Broadcasting For Multiple Asynchronous Receivers, Marcel Waldvogel, Wei Deng, Ramaprabhu Janakiraman Jan 2001

Fuzzycast: Media Broadcasting For Multiple Asynchronous Receivers, Marcel Waldvogel, Wei Deng, Ramaprabhu Janakiraman

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

When using an on-demand media streaming system on top of a network with Multicast support, it is sometimes more efficient to use broadcast to distribute popular content. There has been a lot of research in broadcasting on-demand content to multiple, asynchronous receivers. In this paper, we propose a family of novel, practical techniques for broadcasting on-demand media, which achieve lowest known server/network bandwidth usage and I/O efficient client buffer management, while retaining the simplicity of a frame-based single channel scheme.


A Proposal For A Scalable Internet Multicast Architecture, Sherlia Shi Jan 2001

A Proposal For A Scalable Internet Multicast Architecture, Sherlia Shi

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

We propose a new network and system architecture for multicast in the Internet. Our main objectives are to find a cost-effective way to scale to a large number of multicast groups whose members are geographically dispersed, and to enable small and less capable devices to participate in group communications. In order to preserve the efficiency of data distribution gained by multicast, while avoiding the control complexity previously exhibited by IP multicast, we propose the use of an overlay network for multicast services. We construct "virtual" multicast trees, which consist of unicast connections joining multicast servers in the network. These servers ...


Aggregated Hierarchical Multicast For Active Networks, Tilman Wolf, Sumi Y. Choi Jan 2001

Aggregated Hierarchical Multicast For Active Networks, Tilman Wolf, Sumi Y. Choi

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Active Networking is the basis for a range of new and innovative applications that make use of computational resources inside network routers. One such application is Aggregated Hierarchical Multicast, which aims at implementing efficient many-to-many communication. In certain scenarios it is possible to transmit less accurate, aggregated data and thus achieve better scalability. Using Active Networks, this aggregation computation can be done transparently by network routers without end system support. We present how aggregated data streams can be structured in a hierarchical fashion to allow easy access of data at the desired aggregation level. We introduce two application examples to ...


Fast Incremental Crc Updates For Ip Over Atm Networks, Florian Braun, Marcel Waldvogel Jan 2001

Fast Incremental Crc Updates For Ip Over Atm Networks, Florian Braun, Marcel Waldvogel

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

In response to the increasing network speeds, many operations in IP routers and similar devices are being made more efficient. With the advances in other areas of packet processing, the verification and regeneration of cyclic redundancy check (CRC) codes of the data link layer is likely to become a bottleneck in the near future. In this paper, we present a mechanism to defer CRC verification without compromising reliability. This opens the possibility of incremental updates of the CRC. We introduce a new high-speed technique and present efficient implementation, speeding up CRC processing by a factor of 15. Although the paper ...


Layered Protocol Wrappers For Internet Packet Processing In Reconfigurable Hardware, Florian Braun, John Lockwood, Marcel Waldvogel Jan 2001

Layered Protocol Wrappers For Internet Packet Processing In Reconfigurable Hardware, Florian Braun, John Lockwood, Marcel Waldvogel

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

The ongoing increases of line speed in the Internet backbone combined with the need for increased functionality of network devices presents a major challenge. These demands call for the use of reprogrammable hardware to provide the required flexible, high-speed functionality, at all network layers. The Field Programmable Port Extender (FPX) provides such an environment for development of networking components in reprogrammable hardware. We present a framework to streamline and simplify networking applications that process ATM cells, AAL5 frames, Internet Protocol (IP) packets and UDP datagrams directly in hardware.


Obiwan - An Internet Protocol Router In Reconfigurable Hardware, Florian Braun, Marcel Waldvogel, John Lockwood Jan 2001

Obiwan - An Internet Protocol Router In Reconfigurable Hardware, Florian Braun, Marcel Waldvogel, John Lockwood

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

The ongoing exponential increase of line speed in the Internet and combined with the uncountable requests for increased functionality of network devices presents a major challenge. These demands call for the use of reprogrammable hardware to provide the required flexible high-speed functionaltiy. The Field Programmable Port Extender (FPX) provides such an environment for development of networking components in reprogrammable hardware. We present the high-speed IP routing components in reprogrammable hardware. We present the high-speed IP routing module "OBIWAN" (Optimal Binary search IP lookup for Wide Area Networks) built on top of an IP processing framework.


The Fpx Kcpsm Module: An Embedded, Reconfigurable Active Processing Module For The Field Programmable Port Extender (Fpx), Henry Fu, John W. Lockwood Jan 2001

The Fpx Kcpsm Module: An Embedded, Reconfigurable Active Processing Module For The Field Programmable Port Extender (Fpx), Henry Fu, John W. Lockwood

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

While hardware plugins are well suited for processing data with high throughput, software plugins are well suited for implementing complex control functions. A plugin module has been implemented for the FPX that executes software on an embedded soft-core processor. By including this module in an FPX design, it is possible to implement active networking functions on the FPX using both hardware and software. The KCPSM, an 8-bit microcontroller developed by Xilinx Corp., has been embedded into an FPX module. The module includes circuits to be reprogrammed over the network and to execute new programs between the processing of data packerts ...


The Smart Port Card: An Embedded Unix Processor Architecture For Network Management And Active Networking, John D. Dehart, William D. Richard, Edward W. Spitznagel, David E. Taylor Jan 2001

The Smart Port Card: An Embedded Unix Processor Architecture For Network Management And Active Networking, John D. Dehart, William D. Richard, Edward W. Spitznagel, David E. Taylor

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

This paper describes the architecture of the Smart Port Card (SPC) designed for use with the Washington University Gigabit Switch. The SPC uses an embedded Intel Pentium processor running open-source NetBSD to support network management and active networking applications. The SPC physically connects between a switch port and a normal link adapter, allowing cell streams to be processed as they enter or leave the switch. In addition to the hardware architecture, this paper describes current and future applications for the SPC.


Routing In Overlay Multicast Networks, Sherlia Y. Shi, Jonathan S. Turner Jan 2001

Routing In Overlay Multicast Networks, Sherlia Y. Shi, Jonathan S. Turner

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Multicast servises can be provided either as a basic network service or as an application-layer service. Higher level multicast implementations often provide more sophisticated features, and since they don't require network supoprt for multicast, they can provide multicast services, where no network layer support is available. Overlay multicast networks offer an intermediate option, potentially combining the flexibility and advanced features of application layer multicast with the greater efficiency of network layer multicast. Overlay multicast networks play an important role in the Internet. Indeed, since Internet Service Providers have been slow to enable IP multicast in their networks, Internet multicast ...


Efficient Queue Management For Tcp Flows, Anshul Kantawala, Jonathan Turner Jan 2001

Efficient Queue Management For Tcp Flows, Anshul Kantawala, Jonathan Turner

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Packets in the Internet can experience large queueing delays during busy periods. Backbone routers are generally engineered to have large buffers, in which packets may wait as long as half a second (assuming FIFO service, longer otherwise). During congestion periods, these bufferfs may stay close to full, subjecting packets to long delays, even when the intrinsic latency of the path is relatively small. This paper studies the performance improvements that can be obtained by using more sophisticated packet schedulers, than are typical of Internet routers. The results show that the large buffers found in WAN routers ocntribute only marginally to ...


Indra: A Distributed Approach To Network Intrusion Detection And Prevention, Qi Zhang, Ramaprabhu Janakiraman Jan 2001

Indra: A Distributed Approach To Network Intrusion Detection And Prevention, Qi Zhang, Ramaprabhu Janakiraman

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

While advances in computer and communications technology have made the network ubiquitous, they ahve also rendered networked systems vulnerable to malicious attacks orchestrated from a distance. These attacks, usually called cracker attacks or intrusions, start with crackers infiltrating a network through a vulnerable host and then going on to launch further attacks. Crackers depend on increasingly sophisticated techniques like using distributed attack sources. On the other hand, software that guards against them remains rooted in traditional centralized techniques, presenting an easily-targetable single point of failure. Scalable, distributed network intrusion prevention software is sorely needed. We propose Indra - a distributed scheme ...


Relying On Safe Distance To Ensure Consistent Group Membership In Ad Hoc Networks, Qingfeng Huang, Christine Julien, Gruia-Catalin Roman, Ali Hazemi Jan 2001

Relying On Safe Distance To Ensure Consistent Group Membership In Ad Hoc Networks, Qingfeng Huang, Christine Julien, Gruia-Catalin Roman, Ali Hazemi

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

The design of ad hoc mobile applications often requires the availability of a consistent view of the application state among the participating hosts. Such views are important because they simplify both the programming and verification tasks. Essential to constructing a consitent view is the ability to know what hosts are within proximity of each other, i.e., form a group in support of the particular application. In this paper we propose a protocol that allows hosts within communication range to maintain a consistent view of the group membership despite movement and frequent disconnections. The novel features of this protocol are ...


Scalable Ip Lookup For Programmable Routers, David E. Taylor, John W. Lockwood, Todd Sproull, David B. Parlour Jan 2001

Scalable Ip Lookup For Programmable Routers, David E. Taylor, John W. Lockwood, Todd Sproull, David B. Parlour

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Continuing growth in optical link speeds places increasing demands on the performance of Internet routers, while deployment of embedded and distributed network services imposes new demands for flexibility and programmability. IP adress lookup has become a significant performance bottleneck for the highest performance routers. New commercial products utilize dedicated Content Addressable Memory (CAM) devides to achieve high lookup speeds. This paper describes an efficient, scalable lookup engine design, able to achieve high-performance with the use of a small portion of a reconfigurable logic device and a commodity Random Access Memory (RAM) device. Based on Eatherton's Tree Bitmap algorithm [1 ...


Evaluation Of Motion-Jpeg2000 For Video Processing, Wei Yu, Ruibiao Qiu, Jason Fritts Jan 2001

Evaluation Of Motion-Jpeg2000 For Video Processing, Wei Yu, Ruibiao Qiu, Jason Fritts

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

The new ISO/ITU-T standard for still image coding, JPEG2000, has been shown to provide superior coding efficiency to the previous standard, JPEG. Because of the superb performance of JPEG2000, it is reasonable to argue that Motion-JPEG2000, the corresponding moving picture coding standard of JPEG2000, has equally outstanding performance. However, there has not been a sufficient performance evaluation of Motion-JPEG2000. To this end, we have studied the potential of Motion-JPEG2000 for video processing. Our experiments show that Motion-JPEG2000 provides high compression performance, strong error resilience, and good perceptual image quality. Together with a rich set of features inherited from JPEG2000 ...


Placing Servers For Session-Oriented Services, Sumi Choi, Yuval Shavitt Jan 2001

Placing Servers For Session-Oriented Services, Sumi Choi, Yuval Shavitt

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

The provisioning of dynamic forms of services is becoming the main stream of today's network. In this paper, we focus on services assisted by network servers and different forms of associated sessions. We identify two types of services: transparent, where the session is unaware of the server location, and configurable, where the sessions need to be configured to use their closest server. For both types we formalize the problem of optimally placing network servers and introduce approximated solutions. We present simulation result of approximations and heuristics. We also solve the location problem optimally for a special topology. We show ...


Relationship Between Two Generalized Images For Discrete And Differential Camera Motions, Robert Pless Jan 2001

Relationship Between Two Generalized Images For Discrete And Differential Camera Motions, Robert Pless

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

The recent popularity of catadioptic and multi-camera imaging systems indicates a need to create formal models for general, non-perspective camera geometries. Development of algorithmic tools for interpreting images from a generalized camera model will lead to a better understanding of how to design camera systems for particular tasks. Here we define the corollary to epi-polar constraints for standard cameras - the relationship between two images of a scene taken by generalized cameras from viewpoints related by discrete or differential motions.


Embedding Images In Non-Flat Spaces, Robert Pless Jan 2001

Embedding Images In Non-Flat Spaces, Robert Pless

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Multi-dimensional scaling is an analysis tool which transforms pairwise distances between points to an embedding of points in space which are consistent with those distances. Two recent techniques in statistical patter recognition, locally linear embedding (LLE) and Isomap, give a mechanism for finding the structure underlying point sets for which comparisons or distances are only meaningful between nearby points. We give a direct method to extend the embedding algorithm to new topologies, finding the optimal embedding of points whose geodesic distance on a surface mathes the given pairwise distance measurements. Surfaces considered include spheres, cylinders, tori, and their higher dimensional ...


Legends As A Device For Interacting With Visualizations, Mihail E. Tudoreanu, Eileen Kraemer Jan 2001

Legends As A Device For Interacting With Visualizations, Mihail E. Tudoreanu, Eileen Kraemer

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Users and developers of visualization tools must deal with the problem of specifying what information to show and how to represent it. Typically, the user's focus of interest will change over time, and the specifications must change with the user's interests. Techniques for the simple, direct, and intuitive creation and refinement of these specifications can be useful. In this paper we show how legends, a natural element of graphical displays, may be used as a direct and unobstrusive interaction device through which users may interactively specify new visualizations and animations.


Formal Specification And Design Of Mobile Systems, Gruia-Catalin Roman, Christine Julien, Qingfeng Huang Jan 2001

Formal Specification And Design Of Mobile Systems, Gruia-Catalin Roman, Christine Julien, Qingfeng Huang

All Computer Science and Engineering Research

Termination detection, a classical problem in distributed computing, is revisited in the new setting provided by the emerging mobile computing technology. A simple solution tailored for use in ad hoc networks is employed as a vehicle for demonstrating the applicability of formal requirements and design strategies to the new field of mobile computing. The approach is based on well understood techniquest in specification refinement, but the methodology is tailored to mobile applications and helps designers address novel concerns such as the mobility of hosts, transient interactions, and specific coordination constructs. The proof logic and programming notation of Mobile UNITY provide ...