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Full-Text Articles in Complex Fluids

Mixed Municipal Solid Waste Hygienisation For Refuse-Derived Fuel Production By Ozonation In The Novel Configuration Using Fluidized Bed And Horizontal Reactor, Witold Zukowski Sep 2017

Mixed Municipal Solid Waste Hygienisation For Refuse-Derived Fuel Production By Ozonation In The Novel Configuration Using Fluidized Bed And Horizontal Reactor, Witold Zukowski

Witold Zukowski

Purpose
This study aimed to determine whether mixed municipal solid waste used for alternative fuel production can be effectively treated with ozone hygienisation in a gaseous phase.
Methods
It was determined that the use of a fluidised bed reactor and a horizontal reactor with respect to processing the light fraction and the heavy fraction of waste effectively contributes to the elimination or reduction of the number of selected groups of microorganisms inhabiting mixed municipal solid waste. With the use of microbiological analysis, the presence of vegetative bacteria, spores, fungi, actinomycetes and pathogenic bacteria, i.g. Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella ...


Bubble Dynamics And Bed Expansion For Single-Component And Binary Gas-Solid Fluidization Systems, Bowen Han Aug 2017

Bubble Dynamics And Bed Expansion For Single-Component And Binary Gas-Solid Fluidization Systems, Bowen Han

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gas-solid fluidized beds are widely used in industrial dry coal preparation to separate waste from coal (still a primarily important energy source worldwide). It is the density difference between coal and the waste that enables the separation. Experiments were carried out in a two dimensional gas-solid fluidized bed. Filtered air at room temperature was used as the fluidizing gas, while magnetite, sand (two types) and FCC catalyst particles belonging to Geldart groups A and B were used as bed particles. Image processing and Matlab were applied for bubble size and velocity measurements. Bubble properties and bed expansion in fluidized beds ...


Numerical Description Of Dilute Particle-Laden Flows By A Quadrature-Based Moment Method, N. Le Lostec, Rodney O. Fox, O. Simonin, P. Villedieu Jun 2017

Numerical Description Of Dilute Particle-Laden Flows By A Quadrature-Based Moment Method, N. Le Lostec, Rodney O. Fox, O. Simonin, P. Villedieu

Rodney O. Fox

The numerical simulation of gas-particle flows is divided into two families of methods. In Euler-Lagrange methods individual particle trajectories are computed, whereas in Euler-Euler methods particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. Lagrangian methods are very precise but their computational cost increases with instationarity and particle volume fraction. In Eulerian methods (also called moment methods) the particle-phase computational cost is comparable to that of the fluid phase but requires strong simplificaions. Existing Eulerian models consider unimodal or close-to-equilibrium particle velocity distributions and then fail when the actual distribution is far from equilibrium. Quadrature-based Eulerian methods introduce a new reconstruction of the ...


Treatment Of Fast Chemistry In Fdf/Les: In Situ Adaptive Tabulation, Van Vliet E., Rodney O. Fox, J. J. Derksen, S. B. Pope Jun 2017

Treatment Of Fast Chemistry In Fdf/Les: In Situ Adaptive Tabulation, Van Vliet E., Rodney O. Fox, J. J. Derksen, S. B. Pope

Rodney O. Fox

The feasibility to implement fast-chemistry reactions in a three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) of a turbulent reacting flow using a filtered density function (PDF) technique is studied. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is used as an representative reaction due to the stiff nature of the ordinary differential equation (ODE's) describing the kinetics. In FDF/LES, the chemistry needs to be evaluated many times for a large number of fictitious particles that are tracked in the flow, and therefore a constraint is put to the CPU time needed to solve the kinetics. Pope (1997) developed an in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) to ...


Effect Of Electrolytes On Co−Water Mass Transfer, Haiyang Zhu, Brent H. Shanks, Theodore J. Heindel Jun 2017

Effect Of Electrolytes On Co−Water Mass Transfer, Haiyang Zhu, Brent H. Shanks, Theodore J. Heindel

Brent H Shanks

The influence of various electrolytes such as sulfate, nitrate, and chloride on CO−water mass transfer was investigated in this study. The results indicate that the enhancement in the CO−water volumetric mass-transfer coefficient ranged from 1.5 to 4.7 times that of a baseline system without electrolytes, depending on electrolyte type and concentration. For those electrolytes with the same anions, copper-containing electrolytes provided stronger enhancement, whereas for those electrolytes with the same cations, sulfate-containing electrolytes showed stronger enhancement. By measuring both the CO−water volumetric mass-transfer coefficient (kLa) and the mass-transfer coefficient (kL), it was found that the ...


Evaluation Of A Microfluidic Mixer Utilizing Staggered Herringbone Channels: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach, Brian Hama Jan 2017

Evaluation Of A Microfluidic Mixer Utilizing Staggered Herringbone Channels: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach, Brian Hama

ETD Archive

Microfluidic platforms offer a variety of advantages including improved heat transfer, low working volumes, ease of scale-up, and strong user control on parameters. However, flow within microfluidic channels occurs at low Reynolds numbers, which makes mixing difficult to accomplish. Adding V-shaped ridges to channel walls, a pattern called the staggered herringbone design (SHB), might alleviate this problem by introducing transverse flow patterns that enable enhanced mixing. However, certain factors affecting the SHB mixer’s performance remain largely unexplored.

In this work, a microfluidic mixer utilizing the SHB geometry was developed and characterized using computational fluid dynamics based simulations and complimentary ...


Experimental Analysis Of R134a, R22, And R404 For An Edibon Taab: Air Conditioning Lab Unit, Kyle T. Heesen Jan 2017

Experimental Analysis Of R134a, R22, And R404 For An Edibon Taab: Air Conditioning Lab Unit, Kyle T. Heesen

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This paper presents an experimental analysis of an Ebidon® TAABTM: Air Conditioning Lab unit running on R-134a being compared with R22 and R404 refrigerants, a $24,449 piece of equipment purchased by the JMU ISAT Department. In this paper we will compare the performance of the R-134a refrigerant under a range of working conditions and compare them to how the system would run on R22 or R404. The experimental tests use varying fan speeds and the R-134a data collected is compared to simulated data collected for R22 and R404. Analysis of the collected data and simulated data will be compared ...


The Rheology And Roll-To-Roll Processing Of Shear-Thickening Particle Dispersions, Sunilkumar Khandavalli Jan 2017

The Rheology And Roll-To-Roll Processing Of Shear-Thickening Particle Dispersions, Sunilkumar Khandavalli

Doctoral Dissertations

Particle dispersions are ubiquitous in our daily lives ranging from food and pharmaceutical products to inks. There has been great interest in the recent years in formulation of functional inks to fabricate myriad flexible electronic devices through high-throughput roll-to-roll technologies. The formulations often contain several functional additives or rheological modifiers that can affect the microstructure, rheology and processing. Understanding the rheology of formulations is important for tuning the formulation for optimal processing. This thesis presents investigations on the rheology of particle dispersions and their impact on roll-to-roll technologies.

Shear-thickening behavior is common in particle dispersions, particularly, concentrated particulate inks. We ...


Synthesis Of Biopolymer Materials Tailored For Biological Applications, Nathan P. Birch Jan 2017

Synthesis Of Biopolymer Materials Tailored For Biological Applications, Nathan P. Birch

Doctoral Dissertations

Biopolymers are able to address a wide variety of medical concerns from chronic wounds to stem cell cultivation to antibacterial and antifouling applications. They are non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible, making them ideal candidates for creating green materials for biological applications. In this thesis, we cover the synthesis of two novel materials from the biopolymers, chitosan and pectin. Chitosan is a biocompatible antibacterial polycation and pectin is an anti-inflammatory polyanion with a strong propensity for hydrogen-bonding. The two chitosan:pectin materials, particles and hydrogels, explore some of the structures that can be created by tuning the electrostatic interactions between chitosan and ...


Renewable Energy And Sustainable Development (Resd) Group, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2016

Renewable Energy And Sustainable Development (Resd) Group, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Abstract Template Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2016

Abstract Template Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Proceedings Of The 2nd Resrb 2017 Conference, June 19-21, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2016

Proceedings Of The 2nd Resrb 2017 Conference, June 19-21, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2018, June 18-20, Brussels, Belgium, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2016

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2018, June 18-20, Brussels, Belgium, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


C.V. - Wojciech Budzianowski, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2016

C.V. - Wojciech Budzianowski, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

-


Registration Form Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2016

Registration Form Resrb 2018, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Synthesis And Characterization Of Porous Liquids, Yuanyou Gao Dec 2016

Synthesis And Characterization Of Porous Liquids, Yuanyou Gao

Masters Theses

Porous liquids consisting of modified hollow spheres which are fabricated by surface engineering with suitable corona and canopy species is one of interesting porous liquids reported recently. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as a gas transport pathway, porous liquids can function as promising candidates for postcombustion gas separation and thermal insulation purposes. Moreover, this synthetic strategy can be applied to other nanostructure-based porous liquids, facilitating production of porous liquids with specific request. In this thesis, a new member of this type of porous liquid with hollow spheres ranging from ...


Determination Of Aqueous Surfactant Solution Surface Tensions With A Surface Tensiometer, Remelisa Esteves, Birce Dikici Ph.D, Matthew Lehman, Qayyum Mazumder, Nonso Onukwuba Nov 2016

Determination Of Aqueous Surfactant Solution Surface Tensions With A Surface Tensiometer, Remelisa Esteves, Birce Dikici Ph.D, Matthew Lehman, Qayyum Mazumder, Nonso Onukwuba

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

Surfactant solutions are applicable to engineering systems for cooling equipment for electronics. Surfactants can be added to water to improve heat transfer. An application of using aqueous surfactant solutions can be through microchannel heat sink. Although it is ideal to redesign these systems to reduce heat, it is a costly method. Surfactant solutions at optimal solution concentration can be able to transfer heat quickly and effectively with minimum expense. The surface tension of surfactant solutions is an important parameter for boiling heat transfer and must be taken into consideration. The purpose of this research is to measure surface tension of ...


Determination Of Surfactant Solution Viscosities With A Rotational Viscometer, Remelisa Esteves, Nonso Onukwuba, Birce Dikici Ph.D Nov 2016

Determination Of Surfactant Solution Viscosities With A Rotational Viscometer, Remelisa Esteves, Nonso Onukwuba, Birce Dikici Ph.D

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

Aqueous surfactant solutions are used in engineering systems for improving boiling heat transfer. The purpose of this research is to determine the viscosities of surfactant solutions and to investigate the effect of composition on viscosity. The results obtained can possibly be used as reference for further study in the effects of surfactant solution viscosities on nucleate boiling. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosities of three surfactant solutions – SLS, EH-14, and SA-9 – of various compositions at room temperature. It was discovered that the viscosities of SLS, EH-14, and SA-9 had a nearly consistent pattern as their compositions increased ...


Numerical Simulation On The Combustion Characteristic Of Iron Ore Sintering With Flue Gas Recirculation, Gan Wang, Zhi Wen, Guofeng Lou, Ruifeng Dou, Xunliang Liu, Fuyong Su, Sizong Zhang Oct 2016

Numerical Simulation On The Combustion Characteristic Of Iron Ore Sintering With Flue Gas Recirculation, Gan Wang, Zhi Wen, Guofeng Lou, Ruifeng Dou, Xunliang Liu, Fuyong Su, Sizong Zhang

The 8th International Conference on Physical and Numerical Simulation of Materials Processing

No abstract provided.


Reactor Performances And Hydrodynamics Of Various Gas-Solids Fluidized Beds, Jiangshan Liu Aug 2016

Reactor Performances And Hydrodynamics Of Various Gas-Solids Fluidized Beds, Jiangshan Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The reactor performances and hydrodynamics were systematically studied in a multifunctional fluidized-bed system which included a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB), a turbulent fluidized bed (TFB) as well as a newly identified circulating turbulent fluidized bed (CTFB) using the same batch of activated FCC particles. Catalytic ozone decomposition was employed as the model reaction to experimentally investigate the reactor performances of BFB, TFB and CTFB. The complete mappings of ozone concentration were obtained in these fluidized beds, showing close relationship with the solids holdup distributions. In the BFBs and TFBs, the study of scale-up effect revealed that the static bed height ...


Particle Agglomeration In A Slurry Bubble Column Due To Interparticle Liquid Bridging, Shona Macintyre Aug 2016

Particle Agglomeration In A Slurry Bubble Column Due To Interparticle Liquid Bridging, Shona Macintyre

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Particle agglomeration in heavy oil upgrading may occur due to the formation of a secondary liquid phase, known as carbonaceous mesophase. This secondary liquid phase is denser and more viscous compared to the continuous phase and may cause operational challenges. The experimental system in this work consisted of biodiesel (continuous liquid), aqueous glycerol (secondary liquid), glass beads, and nitrogen in a cold-flow, non-reacting slurry bubble column. The effects of the secondary liquid loading, secondary liquid viscosity, and particle diameter on the fluid dynamic behaviour are examined. Overall the addition of a denser and more viscous secondary liquid phase was found ...


The Influence Of Relative Particle Size And Material Interactions On The Flow-Induced Detachment Of Particles From A Microchannel, Morgan Brittany Mayfield Jul 2016

The Influence Of Relative Particle Size And Material Interactions On The Flow-Induced Detachment Of Particles From A Microchannel, Morgan Brittany Mayfield

Graduate Theses - Chemical Engineering

Particulate transport in microfluidic channels is difficult due to confined geometries and low flow rates, which promote solids settling. To re-entrain these solids, the detachment behavior of closely-fitting particles from microchannel walls must be understood. Experiments were completed to examine the effects of particle size and material interactions on particle detachment velocity. Studies were conducted for various sizes of glass and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, spheres in glass and poly(dimethyl siloxane), PDMS, microfluidic channels. In addition, an inexpensive method to produce monodisperse PMMA microparticles was developed. To analyze the effect of material interactions, the work of adhesion between the ...


Role Of Induction Time And Other Properties In The Recovery Of Coal From Aqueous Suspensions By Agglomeration With Heptane, C.W. Fan, Y.C. Hu, R. Markuszewski, Thomas D. Wheelock Jun 2016

Role Of Induction Time And Other Properties In The Recovery Of Coal From Aqueous Suspensions By Agglomeration With Heptane, C.W. Fan, Y.C. Hu, R. Markuszewski, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

The percent recovery of fine coal or graphite particles suspended in water by agglomeration with heptane was highly dependent on the measured induction time, i.e., the gas bubble to particle attachment time of the material. The induction time was found to correlate closely with the heat of immersion of the solids in water, another indicator of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the material. For a series of coals and graphite, the agglomeration recovery decreased exponentially with increasing induction time. For the more oleophilic coal or graphite particles, an increase in salt (NaC1) concentration of the suspending medium caused an ...


Reductive Decomposition Of Calcium Sulfate With Carbon Monoxide: Reaction Mechanism, Jae Seung Oh, Thomas D. Wheelock Jun 2016

Reductive Decomposition Of Calcium Sulfate With Carbon Monoxide: Reaction Mechanism, Jae Seung Oh, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

When CaS04 was treated with a mixture of CO, COz, SOz, and Nz at 1150 "C in thermogravimetric analysis equipment, various reaction stages were identified, and the final product distribution was found to depend on the reducing potential (Pco/PcoJ of the gases. At low reducing potentials (_<0.10), the CaS04 was completely converted to CaO. At moderate reducing potentials (Le., 0.20), CaS04 was converted rapidly to CaO, which was then converted more slowly to Cas. The rate-controlling mechanisms seemed to differ markedly for the earlier and final reaction stages.


Utilization Of Sulfur Oxides For The Production Of Sodium Sulfate, J.A.B. Satrio, S.B. Jagtap, Thomas D. Wheelock Jun 2016

Utilization Of Sulfur Oxides For The Production Of Sodium Sulfate, J.A.B. Satrio, S.B. Jagtap, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

The use of coal and other fossil fuels generates large quantities of sulfurous byproducts which could find an outlet in the manufacture of Na2SO4. In this work, the feasibility of converting SO2 and SO3 into Na2SO4 by employing modern technology, i.e., a fluidized-bed reactor, was investigated. Bench-scale and larger fluidized-bed reactors were used to study the reaction of SO2 or SO3 with NaCl, steam, and air at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 °C. Because the rate of reaction of SO2 with salt as in the Hargreaves process ...


The Electrical Resistance Of Gas Fluidized Beds, A.H. Pulsifer, Thomas D. Wheelock Jun 2016

The Electrical Resistance Of Gas Fluidized Beds, A.H. Pulsifer, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

The electrical resistance of fluidized beds of conducting particles is of both theoretical and practical interest. The bed resistance of carbonaceous solids has been measuredinseveral different laboratory systems using a four-point probe technique, It is a function of gas velocity, column diameter, particle size and other properties of the bed material. Also, as temperature is increased, the bed resistance decreases continuously at least in the temperature range between room temperature and 700°C.


Rapid Titrimetric Determination Of Sulfate In Mixtures Of Gypsum, Anhydrite, Calcium Oxide, And Calcium Sulfide Using Ion Exchange, L.A. Robbins, Thomas D. Wheelock Jun 2016

Rapid Titrimetric Determination Of Sulfate In Mixtures Of Gypsum, Anhydrite, Calcium Oxide, And Calcium Sulfide Using Ion Exchange, L.A. Robbins, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

The conventicnal sulfate determination by gravimetrically precipitating barium sulfate is very tedious and time consuming. The present technique uses an ion exchanger so the sulfate can be titrimetrically determined as sulfuric acid. An analysis can be completed in 30 minutes. This method is being used for the routine analysis of sulfate in mixtures of gypsum, anhydrite, calcium oxide, and calcium sulfide. The mixturrs are produced from laboratory and pilot plant investigations on the i


Reductive Decomposition Of Gypsum By Carbon Monoxide, Thomas D. Wheelock, D.R. Boylan Jun 2016

Reductive Decomposition Of Gypsum By Carbon Monoxide, Thomas D. Wheelock, D.R. Boylan

Thomas D. Wheelock

Tremendous domestic reserves of gypsum and anhydrite constitute a potential source of raw material f i x sulfur-based chemicals. As in Europe today, calcium sulfate may become one of our principal raw materials for sulfuric acid. Several European acid plants are based on a process in which sulfur dioxide is freed from anhydrite by heating the latter with coke and shale to a sintering temperature (4). The sulfur dioxide is converted into acid and the clinker is used for portland cement.


Production Of Hydrogen From Coal Char In An Electrofluid Reactor, A.H. Pulsifer, Thomas D. Wheelock Jun 2016

Production Of Hydrogen From Coal Char In An Electrofluid Reactor, A.H. Pulsifer, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

A potential industrial process for producing a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas by reacting coal char and steam in an electrofluid reactor is described. The characteristics of this type of reactor are reviewed, and a reaction model which appears to fit experimental results is proposed. Product gas compositions and energy requirements predicted by the model for the gasification process are presented for various possible operating conditions. The present state of development of the reaction system and foreseeable problems which must be worked out are reviewed. In addition, the adaptation of the process to the production of various products such as hydrogen, methane ...


Hydrogen From Coal Char In A Continuous Electrofluid Reactor, Justin L. Beeson, Allen H. Pulsifer, Thomas D. Wheelock Jun 2016

Hydrogen From Coal Char In A Continuous Electrofluid Reactor, Justin L. Beeson, Allen H. Pulsifer, Thomas D. Wheelock

Thomas D. Wheelock

The production of a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas from coal char and steam was investigated in a 12-in. diameter, continuous electrofluid reactor. The reactor has been operated at temperatures approaching 2000°F and using both single and three-phase ac power. Data on the gasification rate and the electrical characteristics of the system were taken and several different electrode materials were tested. A large part of the interelectrode resistance seemed to be due to contact resistance. Electrode life remains a problem.