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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Quantitative Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Rodent Models Of Eye And Lung Injuries, Zahra Ghanian Dec 2016

Quantitative Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Rodent Models Of Eye And Lung Injuries, Zahra Ghanian

Theses and Dissertations

Optical imaging techniques have emerged as essential tools for reliable assessment of organ structure, biochemistry, and metabolic function. The recognition of metabolic markers for disease diagnosis has rekindled significant interest in the development of optical methods to measure the metabolism of the organ.

The objective of my research was to employ optical imaging tools and to implement signal and image processing techniques capable of quantifying cellular metabolism for the diagnosis of diseases in human organs such as eyes and lungs. To accomplish this goal, three different tools, cryoimager, fluorescent microscope, and optical coherence tomography system were utilized to study the ...


Investigating The Impact Of Process Optimization On Productivity, Product Quality, Cell Metabolism, And Intracellular Environment, Shailendra Singh May 2016

Investigating The Impact Of Process Optimization On Productivity, Product Quality, Cell Metabolism, And Intracellular Environment, Shailendra Singh

Cell Culture Engineering XV

One of the key goals in process development for monoclonal antibodies is to improve productivity and product quality as needed. The early stage cell culture process developed for an antibody had titers averaging 4 g/L and variable aggregates levels within cell culture. Through process optimization work, involving changes in media formulations, feeding strategy, and process parameters, the final optimized process achieved industry leading titers (greater than 10 g/L) with consistently lower aggregate levels. To understand the impact of process optimization on the CHO cell metabolism and intracellular environment we evaluated 4 conditions: Early stage cell culture process, 2 ...


Evidence That Myo-Inositol Plus Ethanolamine Elevates Plasmalogen Levels And Lends Protection Against Oxidative Stress In Neuro-2a Cells, Isaie Sibomana Jan 2016

Evidence That Myo-Inositol Plus Ethanolamine Elevates Plasmalogen Levels And Lends Protection Against Oxidative Stress In Neuro-2a Cells, Isaie Sibomana

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Plasmalogens are glycerophospholipids abundant in brain and heart tissues. Evidence suggests that they have antioxidant properties. Studies from our laboratory showed that rats treated with myo-inositol plus ethanolamine (ME) have elevated ethanolamine plasmalogens (PE-Pls) in brain and are protected against phosphine-induced oxidative stress. We hypothesized that ME elevates PE-Pls levels and protects against oxidative stress through oxidation of its vinyl ether bond. We tested this hypothesis in Neuro-2A cell culture and assessed the effects of treatments with myo-inositol (M), ethanolamine (Etn), or a combination (ME) on the: (1) effects on phospholipid (PL) classes, especially Etn PLs; (2) effects on cell ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes Jan 2016

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...


Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Lung Tissue: Rodent Models, Reyhaneh Sepehr May 2014

Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Lung Tissue: Rodent Models, Reyhaneh Sepehr

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: There currently exists a need for reliable measurements of tissue metabolic state at cellular levels. The objective of this research was to study tools capable of evaluating cellular redox states in intact tissue. To meet this goal, three different instruments (cryoimager, fluorometer, and fluorescent microscope) were used to study the metabolism and functions of the mitochondria at different levels and regimes (cryo, ex vivo, in vivo and in vitro).

Introduction: Through optical monitoring of autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, as well as exogenous fluorophores, the state of mitochondria can be probed in real time in many intact organs and in ...


Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran Jan 2013

Applications Of Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Polymers To Inhibit Injury And Disease, David B. Cochran

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

There is an undeniable link between oxidative stress, inflammation, and disease. Currently, approaches using antioxidant therapies have been largely unsuccessful due to poor delivery and bioavailability. Responding to these limitations, we have developed classes of polymer and delivery systems that can overcome the challenges of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy. In our initial studies, nanoparticles of poly(trolox), a polymeric form of trolox, were surface-modified with antibodies. This modification allows for specific targeting to endothelial cells, affording controllable and localized protection against oxidative stress. We have shown these targeted nanoparticles bind, internalize, and provide protection against oxidative stress generation and cytotoxicity ...


Optical Cryoimaging Of Celular Redox In Kidneys From Diabetic Mice, Sepideh Maleki Aug 2012

Optical Cryoimaging Of Celular Redox In Kidneys From Diabetic Mice, Sepideh Maleki

Theses and Dissertations

Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is the major single cause of end stage renal diseases (ESRD) in the United States. Diabetes is the third leading fatal disorder after cancer and heart disease. It is affecting 8.3% of the residents of the United States, with a total healthcare cost of $174 billion/yr by 2010.

There currently exists a need for a sensitive and specific diagnosis for temporal detection of oxidative stress (OS) in cellular metabolic levels, which plays an early role in the development of DN. The objective of this research is to use a fluorescence optical imaging technique in order ...


Static Compressive Stress Induces Mitochondrial Oxidant Production In Articular Cartilage, Marc James Brouillette May 2012

Static Compressive Stress Induces Mitochondrial Oxidant Production In Articular Cartilage, Marc James Brouillette

Theses and Dissertations

While mechanical loading is essential for articular cartilage homeostasis, it also plays a central role in the etiology of osteoarthritis. The mechanotransduction events underlying these dual effects, however, remain unclear. Previously, we have shown that lethal amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were liberated from mitochondrial complex 1 in response to a mechanical insult. The sensitivity of this response to an actin polymerase inhibitor, cytochalasin B, indicated a link between ROS release and cytoskeletal distortion caused by excessive compressive strain. It did not, however, rule out the possibility that ROS may also mediate the beneficial effects of normal stresses that ...


Evidence That Free Fatty Acid-Iron Complexes Directly Initiate Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro And In Vivo: A New Mechanism Of Oxidative Stress, Steven C. Salaris, Charles F. Babbs, Joann Pham, John J. Turek Jun 1992

Evidence That Free Fatty Acid-Iron Complexes Directly Initiate Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro And In Vivo: A New Mechanism Of Oxidative Stress, Steven C. Salaris, Charles F. Babbs, Joann Pham, John J. Turek

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Working Papers

Through a series of biochemical and histochemical experiments we explored the novel hypothesis that iron and free fatty acids, liberated after tissue injury, combine to form liposoluble complexes that directly initiate lipid peroxidation. The addition of 100 M ferric iron to 30 mM linoleate suspensions at pH 7.4 produced time dependent lipid peroxidation, measured as conjugated diene formation. Complexes of 100 M ferric iron and 600 M pentanoate also initiated formation of conjugated dienes in linoleate suspensions and formation of malondialdehyde-like materials in rat liver slices. A histochemical stain for free fatty acids revealed positive reactions within cell membranes ...