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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jul 2015

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Richard A. Malthaner

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jul 2015

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Richard A. Malthaner

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


A Pneumatically Actuated Manipulandum For Neuromotor Control Research, Aaron J Suminski, Kristina Ropella, Robert Scheidt Mar 2015

A Pneumatically Actuated Manipulandum For Neuromotor Control Research, Aaron J Suminski, Kristina Ropella, Robert Scheidt

Robert Scheidt

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have great potential for identifying which neural structures are involved in the control of goal-directed reaching movements. However, fMRI techniques alone are not capable of probing the neural mechanisms involved in acquisition of novel motor behaviors because such studies require that the moving limb be perturbed in a controlled fashion. We outline a plan to design and develop a non-metallic, pneumatically actuated tool that, along with systems identification techniques and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), will characterize and quantify how the human central nervous system uses sensory information during practice-based motor learning.


Visual Error Augmentation For Enhancing Motor Learning And Rehabilitative Relearning, Yejun Wei, Preeti Bajaj, Robert A. Scheidt, James L. Patton Mar 2015

Visual Error Augmentation For Enhancing Motor Learning And Rehabilitative Relearning, Yejun Wei, Preeti Bajaj, Robert A. Scheidt, James L. Patton

Robert Scheidt

We developed a real-time controller for a 2 degree-of-freedom robotic system using xPC Target. This system was used to investigate how different methods of performance error feedback can lead to faster and more complete motor learning in individuals asked to compensate for a novel visuo-motor transformation (a 30 degree rotation). Four groups of normal human subjects were asked to reach with their unseen arm to visual targets surrounding a central starting location. A cursor tracking hand motion was provided during each reach. For one group of subjects, deviations from the "ideal" compensatory hand movement (i.e. trajectory errors) were amplified ...


A Low-Field P-31 Nmr Spectrometer To Measure Bone Mineral In The Human Wrist, Joseph Battocletti, Thomas Meyers, Robert Scheidt Mar 2015

A Low-Field P-31 Nmr Spectrometer To Measure Bone Mineral In The Human Wrist, Joseph Battocletti, Thomas Meyers, Robert Scheidt

Robert Scheidt

Nuclear magnetic resonance phosphorus spectroscopy (NMRS) is a method of measuring the mineral content of bone as a diagnostic tool for osteoporosis. A description is given of the design and construction of a low-field spectrometer for the human wrist. It uses a small-size permanent magnet of neodymium-iron-boron. The questions of whether a low-field spectrometer is sensitive enough to measure the phosphorus mineral content of bone and to what extent the phosphorus in soft tissue affects the measurement of bone mass are discussed


Interface Stress In Socket/Residual Limb With Transtibial Prosthetic Suspension Systems During Locomotion On Slopes And Stairs Jan 2015

Interface Stress In Socket/Residual Limb With Transtibial Prosthetic Suspension Systems During Locomotion On Slopes And Stairs

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of different suspension methods on the interface stress inside the prosthetic sockets of transtibial amputees when negotiating ramps and stairs. DESIGN: Three transtibial prostheses, with a pin/lock system, a Seal-In system, and a magnetic suspension system, were created for the participants in a prospective study. Interface stress was measured as the peak pressure by using the F-socket transducers during stairs and ramp negotiation. RESULTS: Twelve individuals with transtibial amputation managed to complete the experiments. During the stair ascent and descent, the greatest peak pressure was observed in the prosthesis with the ...


Design And Validation Of A Bi-Axial Loading Bioreactor For Mechanical Stimulation Of Engineered Cartilage, Noor Azuan Jan 2011

Design And Validation Of A Bi-Axial Loading Bioreactor For Mechanical Stimulation Of Engineered Cartilage, Noor Azuan

Noor Azuan

A mechanical-conditioning bioreactor has been developed to provide bi-axial loading to three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs within a highly controlled environment. The computer-controlled bioreactor is capable of applying axial compressive and shear deformations, individually or simultaneously at various regimes of strain and frequency. The reliability and reproducibility of the system were verified through validation of the spatial and temporal accuracy of platen movement, which was maintained over the operating length of the system. In the presence of actual specimens, the system was verified to be able to deliver precise bi-axial load to the specimens, in which the deformation of every specimen ...


A Fully Automated Non-External Marker 4d-Ct Sorting Algorithm Using A Serial Cine Scanning Protocol, Greg Carnes, Stewart Gaede, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee Apr 2009

A Fully Automated Non-External Marker 4d-Ct Sorting Algorithm Using A Serial Cine Scanning Protocol, Greg Carnes, Stewart Gaede, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee

Edward Yu

Current 4D-CT methods require external marker data to retrospectively sort image data and generate CT volumes. In this work we develop an automated 4D-CT sorting algorithm that performs without the aid of data collected from an external respiratory surrogate. The sorting algorithm requires an overlapping cine scan protocol. The overlapping protocol provides a spatial link between couch positions. Beginning with a starting scan position, images from the adjacent scan position (which spatial match the starting scan position) are selected by maximizing the normalized cross correlation (NCC) of the images at the overlapping slice position. The process was continued by 'daisy ...


The Use Of Ct Density Changes At Internal Tissue Interfaces To Correlate Internal Organ Motion With An External Surrogate, Stewart Gaede, Gregory Carnes, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee Jan 2009

The Use Of Ct Density Changes At Internal Tissue Interfaces To Correlate Internal Organ Motion With An External Surrogate, Stewart Gaede, Gregory Carnes, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee

Edward Yu

The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-invasive method to monitor the motion of internal organs affected by respiration without using external markers or spirometry, to test the correlation with external markers, and to calculate any time shift between the datasets. Ten lung cancer patients were CT scanned with a GE LightSpeed Plus 4-Slice CT scanner operating in a ciné mode. We retrospectively reconstructed the raw CT data to obtain consecutive 0.5 s reconstructions at 0.1 s intervals to increase image sampling. We defined regions of interest containing tissue interfaces, including tumour/lung interfaces that move ...


3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jan 2007

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Edward Yu

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


Planning Evaluation Of Radiotherapy For Complex Lung Cancer Cases Using Helical Tomotherapy, Tomas Kron, Grigor Grigorov, Edward Yu, Slav Yartsev, Jeff Chen, Eugene Wong, George Rodrigues, Kris Trenka, Terry Coad, Glenn Bauman, Jake Van Dyk Aug 2004

Planning Evaluation Of Radiotherapy For Complex Lung Cancer Cases Using Helical Tomotherapy, Tomas Kron, Grigor Grigorov, Edward Yu, Slav Yartsev, Jeff Chen, Eugene Wong, George Rodrigues, Kris Trenka, Terry Coad, Glenn Bauman, Jake Van Dyk

Edward Yu

Lung cancer treatment is one of the most challenging fields in radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate what role helical tomotherapy (HT), a novel approach to the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions using intensity-modulated radiation fan beams, can play in difficult cases with large target volumes typical for many of these patients. Tomotherapy plans were developed for 15 patients with stage III inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. While not necessarily clinically indicated, elective nodal irradiation was included for all cases to create the most challenging scenarios with large target volumes. A 2 cm margin was used ...


Computed Tomography To Assess Pulmonary Injury Associated With Concurrent Chemo-Radiotherapy For Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Galit Aviram, Edward Yu, Patricia Tai, Michael Lefcoe Nov 2001

Computed Tomography To Assess Pulmonary Injury Associated With Concurrent Chemo-Radiotherapy For Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Galit Aviram, Edward Yu, Patricia Tai, Michael Lefcoe

Edward Yu

OBJECTIVE: To characterize serial computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary injury after a uniform regimen of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer, and to compare the radiation-induced lung toxicity with other concurrent chemo-radiation regimens. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer received 2 induction cycles of cisplatin and vinblastine, followed by 2 further cycles of cisplatin and vinblastine, concurrent with 60 Gy radiation at 2 Gy per fraction. Radiation-induced lung injury in the acute and chronic phases was assessed by serial CT scans and compared with preradiation baseline scans. Acute radiation pneumonitis was evaluated using the ...


Functional Infrared Imaging Of The Breast, J. Keyserlingk, P. Ahlgren, E. Yu, N. Belliveau, M. Yassa Apr 2000

Functional Infrared Imaging Of The Breast, J. Keyserlingk, P. Ahlgren, E. Yu, N. Belliveau, M. Yassa

Edward Yu

In order to re-assess the potential contribution of infrared (IR) imaging as a first-line component of a multi-imaging strategy using currently available technology, we first review the history of its introduction and clinical application, including the results of the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Projects (BCDDP). We then discuss experiments with a new high-resolution, computerized IR station and software program acquired by the Ville Marie Breast Center to assess IR imaging's ability to complement clinical examination and mammography in the early detection of breast cancer. Our goal is to show that high-resolution IR imaging provides additional safe, practical, and objective ...