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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Mechanical Demands On The Lower Back In Patients With Non-Chronic Low Back Pain During A Symmetric Lowering And Lifting Task, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Babak Bazrgari Mar 2018

Mechanical Demands On The Lower Back In Patients With Non-Chronic Low Back Pain During A Symmetric Lowering And Lifting Task, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

There is limited information in the literature related to the lower back loading in patients with LBP, particularly those with non-chronic LBP. Toward addressing such a research gap, a case-control study was conducted to explore the differences in lower back mechanical loads between a group of females (n=19) with non-chronic, non-specific LBP and a group of asymptomatic females (n=19). The differences in lower back mechanical loads were determined when participants completed one symmetric lowering and lifting of a 4.5 kg load at their preferred cadence. The axial, shearing, and moment components of task demand at the time ...


A Model-Based Approach For Estimation Of Changes In Lumbar Segmental Kinematics Associated With Alterations In Trunk Muscle Forces, Iman Shojaei, Navid Arjmand, Judith R. Meakin, Babak Bazrgari Mar 2018

A Model-Based Approach For Estimation Of Changes In Lumbar Segmental Kinematics Associated With Alterations In Trunk Muscle Forces, Iman Shojaei, Navid Arjmand, Judith R. Meakin, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

The kinematics information from imaging, if combined with optimization-based biomechanical models, may provide a unique platform for personalized assessment of trunk muscle forces (TMFs). Such a method, however, is feasible only if differences in lumbar spine kinematics due to differences in TMFs can be captured by the current imaging techniques. A finite element model of the spine within an optimization procedure was used to estimate segmental kinematics of lumbar spine associated with five different sets of TMFs. Each set of TMFs was associated with a hypothetical trunk neuromuscular strategy that optimized one aspect of lower back biomechanics. For each set ...


Walking Speed Differentially Alters Spinal Loads In Persons With Traumatic Lower Limb Amputation, Brad D. Hendershot, Iman Shojaei, Julian C. Acasio, Christopher L. Dearth, Babak Bazrgari Mar 2018

Walking Speed Differentially Alters Spinal Loads In Persons With Traumatic Lower Limb Amputation, Brad D. Hendershot, Iman Shojaei, Julian C. Acasio, Christopher L. Dearth, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Persons with lower limb amputation (LLA) perceive altered motions of the trunk/pelvis during activities of daily living as contributing factors for low back pain. When walking (at a singular speed), larger trunk motions among persons with vs. without LLA are associated with larger spinal loads; however, modulating walking speed is necessary in daily life and thus understanding the influences of walking speed on spinal loads in persons with LLA is of particular interest here. Three-dimensional trunk-pelvic kinematics, collected during level-ground walking at self-selected (SSW) and two controlled speeds (~1.0 and ~1.4 m/s), were obtained for seventy-eight ...


White Matter Hyperintensity Associations With Cerebral Blood Flow In Elderly Subjects Stratified By Cerebrovascular Risk, Ahmed A. Bahrani, David K. Powell, Guoqiang Yu, Eleanor S. Johnson, Gregory A. Jicha, Charles D. Smith Apr 2017

White Matter Hyperintensity Associations With Cerebral Blood Flow In Elderly Subjects Stratified By Cerebrovascular Risk, Ahmed A. Bahrani, David K. Powell, Guoqiang Yu, Eleanor S. Johnson, Gregory A. Jicha, Charles D. Smith

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Objective: This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Methods: Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluidattenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slicebased techniques. Results: dWMHs but not ...


Timing And Magnitude Of Lumbar Spine Contribution To Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return In Patients With Acute Low Back Pain, Iman Shojaei, Milad Vazirian, Elizabeth G. Salt, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari Feb 2017

Timing And Magnitude Of Lumbar Spine Contribution To Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return In Patients With Acute Low Back Pain, Iman Shojaei, Milad Vazirian, Elizabeth G. Salt, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Alterations in the lumbo-pelvic coordination denote changes in neuromuscular control of trunk motion as well as load sharing between passive and active tissues in the lower back. Differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and asymptomatic individuals have been reported; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic coordination in patients with acute LBP is scant. A case-control study was conducted to explore the differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between females with (n=19) and without (n=19) acute LBP. Participants in each group completed one experimental session wherein ...


Comparison Of Lumbo-Pelvic Kinematics During Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return Between Patients With Acute Low Back Pain And Asymptomatic Controls, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari Jan 2017

Comparison Of Lumbo-Pelvic Kinematics During Trunk Forward Bending And Backward Return Between Patients With Acute Low Back Pain And Asymptomatic Controls, Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G. Salt, Quenten L. Hooker, Linda R. Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Background—Prior studies have reported differences in lumbo-pelvic kinematics during a trunk forward bending and backward return task between individuals with and without chronic low back pain; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic kinematics of patients with acute low back pain is scant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was set to investigate lumbo-pelvic kinematics in this cohort.

Methods—A case-control study was conducted to investigate the differences in pelvic and thoracic rotation along with lumbar flexion as well as their first and second time derivatives between females with and without acute low back pain. Participants in each group completed one ...


Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Tomography Of Human Breast Tumor, Lian He, Yu Lin, Chong Huang, Daniel Irwin, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu Aug 2015

Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Tomography Of Human Breast Tumor, Lian He, Yu Lin, Chong Huang, Daniel Irwin, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Our first step to adapt our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) system for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of blood flow distribution in human breast tumors is reported. A commercial 3-D camera was used to obtain breast surface geometry, which was then converted to a solid volume mesh. An ncDCT probe scanned over a region of interest on the mesh surface and the measured boundary data were combined with a finite element framework for 3-D image reconstruction of blood flow distribution. This technique was tested in computer simulations and in vivo human breasts with low-grade carcinoma. Results from computer simulations ...


Effects Of Individualized Centrifugation Training On Orthostatic Tolerance In Men And Women, Nandu Goswami, Joyce Evans, Stefan Schneider, Melanie Von Der Wiesche, Edwin Mulder, Andreas Rössler, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Andrew P. Blaber May 2015

Effects Of Individualized Centrifugation Training On Orthostatic Tolerance In Men And Women, Nandu Goswami, Joyce Evans, Stefan Schneider, Melanie Von Der Wiesche, Edwin Mulder, Andreas Rössler, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Andrew P. Blaber

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

AIMS: Exposure to artificial gravity (AG) at different G loads and durations on human centrifuges has been shown to improve orthostatic tolerance in men. However, the effects on women and of an individual-specific AG training protocol on tolerance are not known.

METHODS: We examined the effects of 90 minutes of AG vs. 90 minutes of supine rest on the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL), using head up tilt and lower body negative pressure until presyncope of 7 men and 5 women. Subjects were placed in the centrifuge nacelle while instrumented and after one-hour they underwent either: 1) AG exposure (90 minutes ...


Simultaneous Measurement Of Deep Tissue Blood Flow And Oxygenation Using Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Flow-Oximeter, Ting Li, Yu Lin, Yu Shang, Lian He, Chong Huang, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu Feb 2013

Simultaneous Measurement Of Deep Tissue Blood Flow And Oxygenation Using Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Flow-Oximeter, Ting Li, Yu Lin, Yu Shang, Lian He, Chong Huang, Margaret M. Szabunio, Guoqiang Yu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

We report a novel noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter for simultaneous quantification of relative changes in tissue blood flow (rBF) and oxygenation (Δ[oxygenation]). The noncontact probe was compared against a contact probe in tissue-like phantoms and forearm muscles (n = 10), and the dynamic trends in both rBF and Δ[oxygenation] were found to be highly correlated. However, the magnitudes of Δ[oxygenation] measured by the two probes were significantly different. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments revealed that the arm curvature resulted in a significant underestimation (~-20%) for the noncontact measurements in Δ[oxygenation], but not in rBF. Other ...


Load-Relaxation Properties Of The Human Trunk In Response To Prolonged Flexion: Measuring And Modeling The Effect Of Flexion Angle, Nima Toosizadeh, Maury A. Nussbaum, Babak Bazrgari, Michael L. Madigan Nov 2012

Load-Relaxation Properties Of The Human Trunk In Response To Prolonged Flexion: Measuring And Modeling The Effect Of Flexion Angle, Nima Toosizadeh, Maury A. Nussbaum, Babak Bazrgari, Michael L. Madigan

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Experimental studies suggest that prolonged trunk flexion reduces passive support of the spine. To understand alterations of the synergy between active and passive tissues following such loadings, several studies have assessed the time-dependent behavior of passive tissues including those within spinal motion segments and muscles. Yet, there remain limitations regarding load-relaxation of the lumbar spine in response to flexion exposures and the influence of different flexion angles. Ten healthy participants were exposed for 16 min to each of five magnitudes of lumbar flexion specified relative to individual flexion-relaxation angles (i.e., 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100%), during which lumbar ...