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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Interactions Of Peptide Triazole Thiols With Env Gp120 Induce Irreversible Breakdown And Inactivation Of Hiv-1 Virions, Arangassery Bastian, Mark Contarino, Lauren D. Bailey, Rachna Aneja, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Kevin Freedman, Karyn Mcfadden, Caitlin Duffy, Ali Emileh Dec 2013

Interactions Of Peptide Triazole Thiols With Env Gp120 Induce Irreversible Breakdown And Inactivation Of Hiv-1 Virions, Arangassery Bastian, Mark Contarino, Lauren D. Bailey, Rachna Aneja, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Kevin Freedman, Karyn Mcfadden, Caitlin Duffy, Ali Emileh

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Background: We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity.

Results: KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while ...


Dopaminergic Modulation Of Memory And Affective Processing In Parkinson Depression, Lee X. Blonder, John T. Slevin, Richard J. Kryscio, Catherine A. Martin, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D Smith, Frederick A. Schmitt Nov 2013

Dopaminergic Modulation Of Memory And Affective Processing In Parkinson Depression, Lee X. Blonder, John T. Slevin, Richard J. Kryscio, Catherine A. Martin, Anders H. Andersen, Charles D Smith, Frederick A. Schmitt

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Depression is common in Parkinson's disease and is associated with cognitive impairment. Dopaminergic medications are effective in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease; however, little is known regarding the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on cognitive function in depressed Parkinson patients. This study examines the neuropsychological effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in Parkinsonian depression. We compared cognitive function in depressed and non-depressed Parkinson patients at two time-points: following overnight withdrawal and after the usual morning regimen of dopaminergic medications. A total of 28 non-demented, right-handed patients with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated. Ten of these patients ...


A Fully Automated Non-External Marker 4d-Ct Sorting Algorithm Using A Serial Cine Scanning Protocol, Greg Carnes, Stewart Gaede, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee Apr 2009

A Fully Automated Non-External Marker 4d-Ct Sorting Algorithm Using A Serial Cine Scanning Protocol, Greg Carnes, Stewart Gaede, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee

Edward Yu

Current 4D-CT methods require external marker data to retrospectively sort image data and generate CT volumes. In this work we develop an automated 4D-CT sorting algorithm that performs without the aid of data collected from an external respiratory surrogate. The sorting algorithm requires an overlapping cine scan protocol. The overlapping protocol provides a spatial link between couch positions. Beginning with a starting scan position, images from the adjacent scan position (which spatial match the starting scan position) are selected by maximizing the normalized cross correlation (NCC) of the images at the overlapping slice position. The process was continued by 'daisy ...


The Use Of Ct Density Changes At Internal Tissue Interfaces To Correlate Internal Organ Motion With An External Surrogate, Stewart Gaede, Gregory Carnes, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee Jan 2009

The Use Of Ct Density Changes At Internal Tissue Interfaces To Correlate Internal Organ Motion With An External Surrogate, Stewart Gaede, Gregory Carnes, Edward Yu, Jake Van Dyk, Jerry Battista, Ting-Yim Lee

Edward Yu

The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-invasive method to monitor the motion of internal organs affected by respiration without using external markers or spirometry, to test the correlation with external markers, and to calculate any time shift between the datasets. Ten lung cancer patients were CT scanned with a GE LightSpeed Plus 4-Slice CT scanner operating in a ciné mode. We retrospectively reconstructed the raw CT data to obtain consecutive 0.5 s reconstructions at 0.1 s intervals to increase image sampling. We defined regions of interest containing tissue interfaces, including tumour/lung interfaces that move ...


Automated Migration Analysis Based On Cell Texture: Method & Reliability, Jianfeng Qin, Thomas W. Chittenden, Ling Gao, Justin D D. Pearlman Mar 2005

Automated Migration Analysis Based On Cell Texture: Method & Reliability, Jianfeng Qin, Thomas W. Chittenden, Ling Gao, Justin D D. Pearlman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Background: In this paper, we present and validate a way to measure automatically the extent of cell migration based on automated examination of a series of digital photographs. It was designed specifically to identify the impact of Second Hand Smoke (SHS) on endothelial cell migration but has broader applications. The analysis has two stages: (1) preprocessing of image texture, and (2) migration analysis.

Results: The output is a graphic overlay that indicates the front lines of cell migration superimposed on each original image, with automated reporting of the distance traversed vs. time. Expert preference compares to manual placement of leading ...


Planning Evaluation Of Radiotherapy For Complex Lung Cancer Cases Using Helical Tomotherapy, Tomas Kron, Grigor Grigorov, Edward Yu, Slav Yartsev, Jeff Chen, Eugene Wong, George Rodrigues, Kris Trenka, Terry Coad, Glenn Bauman, Jake Van Dyk Aug 2004

Planning Evaluation Of Radiotherapy For Complex Lung Cancer Cases Using Helical Tomotherapy, Tomas Kron, Grigor Grigorov, Edward Yu, Slav Yartsev, Jeff Chen, Eugene Wong, George Rodrigues, Kris Trenka, Terry Coad, Glenn Bauman, Jake Van Dyk

Edward Yu

Lung cancer treatment is one of the most challenging fields in radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate what role helical tomotherapy (HT), a novel approach to the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions using intensity-modulated radiation fan beams, can play in difficult cases with large target volumes typical for many of these patients. Tomotherapy plans were developed for 15 patients with stage III inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. While not necessarily clinically indicated, elective nodal irradiation was included for all cases to create the most challenging scenarios with large target volumes. A 2 cm margin was used ...


Interpreting Hemoglobin And Water Concentration, Oxygen Saturation, And Scattering Measured In Vivo By Near-Infrared Breast Tomography, Subhadra Srinivasan, Brian W. Pogue, Shudong Jiang, Hamid Dehghani, Christine Kogel, Sandra Soho, Jennifer J. Gibson, Tor D. Tosteson, Steven P. Poplack, Keith D. Paulsen Oct 2003

Interpreting Hemoglobin And Water Concentration, Oxygen Saturation, And Scattering Measured In Vivo By Near-Infrared Breast Tomography, Subhadra Srinivasan, Brian W. Pogue, Shudong Jiang, Hamid Dehghani, Christine Kogel, Sandra Soho, Jennifer J. Gibson, Tor D. Tosteson, Steven P. Poplack, Keith D. Paulsen

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Near-infrared spectroscopic tomography was used to measure the properties of 24 mammographically normal breasts to quantify whole-breast absorption and scattering spectra and to evaluate which tissue composition characteristics can be determined from these spectra. The absorption spectrum of breast tissue allows quantification of (i) total hemoglobin concentration, (ii) hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and (iii) water concentration, whereas the scattering spectrum provides information about the size and number density of cellular components and structural matrix elements. These property data were tested for correlation to demographic information, including subject age, body mass index, breast size, and radiographic density. Total hemoglobin concentration correlated inversely ...