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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo Nov 2011

Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that shows familial aggregation in humans and likely has genetic determinants. Disease linkage studies have revealed many susceptibility loci for T1D in mice and humans. The mouse T1D susceptibility locus insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility 3 (Idd3), which has a homologous genetic interval in humans, encodes cytokine genes Il2 and Il21 and regulates diabetes and other autoimmune diseases; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this regulation are still being elucidated. Here we show that T cells from NOD mice produce more Il21 and less Il2 and exhibit enhanced Th17 cell generation compared with ...


Il-21 Limits Peripheral Lymphocyte Numbers Through T Cell Homeostatic Mechanisms., Shrimati Datta, Nora E. Sarvetnick Jan 2008

Il-21 Limits Peripheral Lymphocyte Numbers Through T Cell Homeostatic Mechanisms., Shrimati Datta, Nora E. Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

BACKGROUND: IL-21, a member of the common gamma-chain utilizing family of cytokines, participates in immune and inflammatory processes. In addition, the cytokine has been linked to autoimmunity in humans and rodents.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the mechanism whereby IL-21 affects the immune system, we investigated its role in T cell homeostasis and autoimmunity in both non-autoimmune C57BL/6 and autoimmune NOD mice. Our data indicate that IL-21R knockout C57BL/6 and NOD mice show increased size of their lymphocyte population and decreased homeostatic proliferation. In addition, our experimental results demonstrate that IL-21 inhibits T cell survival. These data suggest ...


Identification And Expansion Of Pancreatic Stem/Progenitor Cells., You-Qing Zhang, Marcie Kritzik, Nora Sarvetnick Apr 2005

Identification And Expansion Of Pancreatic Stem/Progenitor Cells., You-Qing Zhang, Marcie Kritzik, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Pancreatic islet transplantation represents an attractive approach for the treatment of diabetes. However, the limited availability of donor islets has largely hampered this approach. In this respect, the use of alternative sources of islets such as the ex vivo expansion and differentiation of functional endocrine cells for treating diabetes has become the major focus of diabetes research. Adult pancreatic stem cells /progenitor cells have yet to be recognized because limited markers exist for their identification. While the pancreas has the capacity to regenerate under certain circumstances, questions where adult pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are localized, how they are regulated, and ...


Presented Antigen From Damaged Pancreatic Beta Cells Activates Autoreactive T Cells In Virus-Mediated Autoimmune Diabetes., Marc S. Horwitz, Alex Ilic, Cody Fine, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick Jan 2002

Presented Antigen From Damaged Pancreatic Beta Cells Activates Autoreactive T Cells In Virus-Mediated Autoimmune Diabetes., Marc S. Horwitz, Alex Ilic, Cody Fine, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

The induction of autoimmunity by viruses has been attributed to numerous mechanisms. In mice, coxsackievirus B4 (CB4) induces insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) resembling the final step of disease progression in humans. The immune response following the viral insult clearly precipitates IDDM. However, the molecular pathway between viral infection and the subsequent activation of T cells specific for islet antigen has not been elucidated. These T cells could become activated through exposure to sequestered antigens released by damaged beta cells, or they could have responded to factors secreted by the inflammatory response itself. To distinguish between these possibilities, we treated mice ...


Ifn-Gamma, Igif, And Iddm., Nora Sarvetnick Feb 1997

Ifn-Gamma, Igif, And Iddm., Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

No abstract provided.


Pancreatic Expression Of Interleukin-4 Abrogates Insulitis And Autoimmune Diabetes In Nonobese Diabetic (Nod) Mice., Regula Mueller, Troy Krahl, Nora Sarvetnick Sep 1996

Pancreatic Expression Of Interleukin-4 Abrogates Insulitis And Autoimmune Diabetes In Nonobese Diabetic (Nod) Mice., Regula Mueller, Troy Krahl, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is a T cell-dependent autoimmune disease. The destructive activities of autoreactive T cells have been shown to be tightly regulated by effector molecules. In particular, T helper (Th) 1 cytokines have been linked to diabetes pathogenesis, whereas Th2 cytokines and the cells that release them have been postulated to be protective from disease. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic NOD mice that express interleukin (IL) 4 in their pancreatic beta cells under the control of the human insulin promoter. We found that transgenic NOD-IL-4 mice, both females and males, were completely protected from ...


Myasthenia Gravis-Like Syndrome Induced By Expression Of Interferon Gamma In The Neuromuscular Junction., Danling Gu, Lise Wogensen, Nigel A. Calcutt, Chunyao Xia, Simin Zhu, John P. Merlie, Howard S. Fox, Jon Lindstrom, Henry C. Powell, Nora Sarvetnick Feb 1995

Myasthenia Gravis-Like Syndrome Induced By Expression Of Interferon Gamma In The Neuromuscular Junction., Danling Gu, Lise Wogensen, Nigel A. Calcutt, Chunyao Xia, Simin Zhu, John P. Merlie, Howard S. Fox, Jon Lindstrom, Henry C. Powell, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Abnormal humoral responses toward motor end plate constituents in muscle induce myasthenia gravis (MG). To study the etiology of this disease, and whether it could be induced by host defense molecules, we examined the consequences of interferon (IFN) gamma production within the neuromuscular junction of transgenic mice. The transgenic mice exhibited gradually increasing muscular weakness, flaccid paralysis, and functional disruption of the neuromuscular junction that was reversed after administration of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, features which are strikingly similar to human MG. Furthermore, histological examination revealed infiltration of mononuclear cells and autoantibody deposition at motor end plates. Immunoprecipitation analysis indicated ...