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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Cancer

2016

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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj Aug 2016

Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hypoxia is a common motif among tumors, contributing to metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular epigenetic abnormality, and resistance to cancer therapy. Hypoxia also plays a pivotal role in oncological studies, where it can be used as a principal target for new anti-cancer therapeutic methods. Oxygen nanobubbles were designed in an effort to target the hypoxic tumor regions, thus interrupting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulatory pathway and inhibiting tumor progression. At less than 100nm, oxygen nanobubbles act as a vehicle for site-specific oxygen delivery, while also serving as an ultrasound contrast agent for advanced imaging purposes. Through in vitro and in vivo studies ...


Targeted Combination Treatment For Glioblastoma Multiforme (Gbm) Using Polymeric Nanoparticle, Praveena Velpurisiva, Michael Tilton, Brandon Piel, Prakash Rai May 2016

Targeted Combination Treatment For Glioblastoma Multiforme (Gbm) Using Polymeric Nanoparticle, Praveena Velpurisiva, Michael Tilton, Brandon Piel, Prakash Rai

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive cancer that originates from astrocytes and spreads to spinal cord and other parts of the brain. Increase in replication of glial cells leads to advantageous mutations in the tumor. In 2015 about 15,320 deaths were reported due to GBM. Five-year survival is less than 5% making GBM a dreadful cancer. Current treatment involves complex invasive surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation. There is a desperate unmet need for a targeted treatment of GBM with minimum damage to the surrounding normal tissue. Combination treatments are increasingly being used to target multiple hallmarks of cancer ...


A Novel Minimally Invasive Tumour Localization Device, Doran Avivi Apr 2016

A Novel Minimally Invasive Tumour Localization Device, Doran Avivi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death, by cancer. The usual treatment is surgical resection of tumours. However, patients who are weak or have poor pulmonary function are deemed unfit for surgery. For these patients, a minimally-invasive approach is desired. A major problem associated with minimally-invasive approaches is tumour localization in real time and accurate measurement of tool--tissue forces.

This thesis describes the design, analysis, manufacturing and validation of a minimally-invasive instrument for tumour localization, named Palpatron. The instrument has an end effector that is able to support two previously designed jaws, one containing an ultrasound sensor ...


A Trans-Dimensional View Of Drug Resistance Evolution In Multiple Myeloma Patients, Timothy Jacobson Mar 2016

A Trans-Dimensional View Of Drug Resistance Evolution In Multiple Myeloma Patients, Timothy Jacobson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a treatable, yet incurable, malignancy of bone marrowplasma cells. This cancer affects many patients and many succumb to relapse of tumor burden despite a large number of available chemotherapeutic agents developed for therapy. This is because MM tumors are heterogeneous and receive protection from therapeutic agents by the microenvironment and other mechanisms including homologous MM-MM aggregation. Therefore, therapy failure and frequent patient relapse is due to the evolution of drug resistance, not a lack of available drugs. To analyze and understand this problem, the evolution of drug resistance has been explored and presented herein. We seek ...


Enhancement Of Cancer Vaccine Efficacy Via Nanoparticle Or Molecular-Based Adjuvants, Myunggi An Jan 2016

Enhancement Of Cancer Vaccine Efficacy Via Nanoparticle Or Molecular-Based Adjuvants, Myunggi An

Wayne State University Theses

Adjuvants are immunomodulators which enhance immune responses to vaccines. However, parenteral administration of unformulated adjuvants fails to reach lymph nodes (LNs), the anatomic organ where the primary functions of immune cells are orchestrated. The LN-targeting delivery plays the key roles in promoting immune activation and has the great potential to transform disease treatment. The main goal of this thesis is to develop efficient vaccine delivery systems to target therapeutics into draining lymph nodes (dLNs) for ensuring their immunostimulatory activity. We introduced therapeutic applications of activating TLR9 with synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) agonists in nanoparticle or molecular form to activate immune ...


Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments, Katherine Jean Reeder Lewis Jan 2016

Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments, Katherine Jean Reeder Lewis

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar ...


Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly Jan 2016

Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer metastasis directly accounts for an estimated 90% of all cancer related deaths and is correlated with the presence of malignant cells in systemic circulation. This observed relationship has prompted efforts to develop a fluid biopsy, with the goal of detecting these rare cells in patient peripheral blood as surrogate markers for metastatic disease as a partial replacement or supplement to tissue biopsies. Numerous platforms have been designed, yet these have generally failed to support a reliable fluid biopsy due to poor performance parameters such as low throughput, low purity of enriched antigen positive cells, and insufficiently low detection thresholds ...


Decitabine-Loaded Nanogel Treatment To Reverse Cancer Drug Resistance, Samantha A. Cramer Jan 2016

Decitabine-Loaded Nanogel Treatment To Reverse Cancer Drug Resistance, Samantha A. Cramer

ETD Archive

Cancers in which epigenetic changes, such as hypermethylation of DNA, lead to drug resistance cause the cancer to become unresponsive to existing chemotherapeutic treatments. The epigenetic drug – 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine, DAC) – is a potent hypomethylating agent, but its effect is transient due to its instability. Previous studies have shown that loading DAC into nanogel significantly enhances its antiproliferative effect (compared to DAC in solution) in drug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). Further, the previous studies demonstrated changes in the membrane lipid profile of resistant cells following treatment with DAC either as solution or in nanogels. The objective of the present ...


Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen Jan 2016

Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in facilitating tumor growth and mediating tumor cells' resistance to drugs. However, during drug development, potential chemotherapeutics are screened in plastic plates, which lack relevant ECM physicochemical cues. In order to improve drug development process, this dissertation includes the development of relevant 2D and 3D biomaterial systems that can be used to study carcinoma cell response to drug treatment.

A novel poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphorylcholine (PEG-PC) high-throughput biomaterial platform was developed to study how the ECM mechanochemical properties affect cancer cells' response to drug. The PEG-PC biomaterial is optically transparent, has ...