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Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Objectively Measuring Effects Of Electro-Acupuncture In Parkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys, Rui Zhang, Anders H. Andersen, Peter A. Hardy, Eric Forman, April Evans, Yi Ai, Jin Yue, Guihua Yue, Don M. Gash, Richard Grondin, Zhiming Zhang Jan 2018

Objectively Measuring Effects Of Electro-Acupuncture In Parkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys, Rui Zhang, Anders H. Andersen, Peter A. Hardy, Eric Forman, April Evans, Yi Ai, Jin Yue, Guihua Yue, Don M. Gash, Richard Grondin, Zhiming Zhang

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Acupuncture has increasingly been used as an alternative therapy for treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the efficacy of acupunture for PD still remains unclear. The present study was designed to objectively and safely monitor anti-parkinsonian effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and brain activity in nonhuman primates modeling human PD. Six middle-aged rhesus monkeys were extensively studied by a computerized behavioral testing battery and by pharmacological MRI (phMRI) scans with specific dopaminergic drug stimulations. All animals were evaluated for behavior and phMRI responses under normal, parkinsonian, parkinsonian with EA treatment and parkinsonian after EA treatment conditions. Stable parkinsonian features were ...


Computational Sensitivity Investigation Of Hydrogel Injection Characteristics For Myocardial Support, Hua Wang, Christopher B. Rodell, Madonna E. Lee, Neville N. Dusaj, Joseph H. Gorman Iii, Jason A. Burdick, Robert C. Gorman, Jonathan F. Wenk Nov 2017

Computational Sensitivity Investigation Of Hydrogel Injection Characteristics For Myocardial Support, Hua Wang, Christopher B. Rodell, Madonna E. Lee, Neville N. Dusaj, Joseph H. Gorman Iii, Jason A. Burdick, Robert C. Gorman, Jonathan F. Wenk

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Biomaterial injection is a potential new therapy for augmenting ventricular mechanics after myocardial infarction (MI). Recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that hydrogel injections can mitigate the adverse remodeling due to MI. More importantly, the material properties of these injections influence the efficacy of the therapy. The goal of the current study is to explore the interrelated effects of injection stiffness and injection volume on diastolic ventricular wall stress and thickness. To achieve this, finite element models were constructed with different hydrogel injection volumes (150 µL and 300 µL), where the modulus was assessed over a range of 0.1 ...


High Resolution Imaging Of The Mitral Valve In The Natural State With 7 Tesla Mri, Sam E. Stephens, Serguei Liachenko, Neil B. Ingels, Jonathan F. Wenk, Morten O. Jensen Aug 2017

High Resolution Imaging Of The Mitral Valve In The Natural State With 7 Tesla Mri, Sam E. Stephens, Serguei Liachenko, Neil B. Ingels, Jonathan F. Wenk, Morten O. Jensen

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Imaging techniques of the mitral valve have improved tremendously during the last decade, but challenges persist. The delicate changes in annulus shape and papillary muscle position throughout the cardiac cycle have significant impact on the stress distribution in the leaflets and chords, thus preservation of anatomically accurate positioning is critical. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro method and apparatus for obtaining high-resolution 3D MRI images of porcine mitral valves in both the diastolic and systolic configurations with physiologically appropriate annular shape, papillary muscle positions and orientations, specific to the heart from which the valve was ...


Toxicity Evaluation Of Magnetic Hyperthermia Induced By Remote Actuation Of Magnetic Nanoparticles In 3d Micrometastasic Tumor Tissue Analogs For Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Nathanael A. Stocke, Pallavi Sethi, Amar Jyoti, Ryan Chan, Susanne M. Arnold, J. Zach Hilt, Meenakshi Upreti Mar 2017

Toxicity Evaluation Of Magnetic Hyperthermia Induced By Remote Actuation Of Magnetic Nanoparticles In 3d Micrometastasic Tumor Tissue Analogs For Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Nathanael A. Stocke, Pallavi Sethi, Amar Jyoti, Ryan Chan, Susanne M. Arnold, J. Zach Hilt, Meenakshi Upreti

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs ...


3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jul 2015

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Richard A. Malthaner

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jul 2015

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Richard A. Malthaner

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse., Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F. Othman, Jay Reddy Jun 2014

Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse., Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F. Othman, Jay Reddy

School of Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Articles

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only -10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-α 334-352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-α 334-352 is shown. EAM and ...


The Osteogenic Potential Of The Marine-Derived Multi-Mineral Formula Aquamin Is Enhanced By The Presence Of Vitamin D., Amro Widaa, Orlaith Brennan, D M. O'Gorman, Fergal J. O'Brien May 2014

The Osteogenic Potential Of The Marine-Derived Multi-Mineral Formula Aquamin Is Enhanced By The Presence Of Vitamin D., Amro Widaa, Orlaith Brennan, D M. O'Gorman, Fergal J. O'Brien

Anatomy Articles

Bone degenerative diseases are on the increase globally and are often problematic to treat. This has led to a demand to identify supplements that aid bone growth and formation. Aquamin is a natural multi-mineral food supplement, derived from the red algae Lithothamnion species which contains calcium, magnesium and 72 other trace minerals. It has been previously reported to increase bone formation and mineralisation. This study aimed to investigate the 28 day in vitro osteogenic response of Aquamin supplemented with Vitamin D. The osteogenic potential of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells was analysed in standard osteogenic medium supplemented with Aquamin +/- Vitamin D3, and ...


An Imaging-Based Platform For High-Content, Quantitative Evaluation Of Therapeutic Response In 3d Tumour Models, Jonathan P. Celli, Imran Rizvi, Adam R. Blanden, Iqbal Massodi, Iqbal Massodi, Michael D. Glidden, Brian Pogue, Tayyaba Hasan Jan 2014

An Imaging-Based Platform For High-Content, Quantitative Evaluation Of Therapeutic Response In 3d Tumour Models, Jonathan P. Celli, Imran Rizvi, Adam R. Blanden, Iqbal Massodi, Iqbal Massodi, Michael D. Glidden, Brian Pogue, Tayyaba Hasan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

While it is increasingly recognized that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models recapitulate drug responses of human cancers with more fidelity than monolayer cultures, a lack of quantitative analysis methods limit their implementation for reliable and routine assessment of emerging therapies. Here, we introduce an approach based on computational analysis of fluorescence image data to provide high-content readouts of dose-dependent cytotoxicity, growth inhibition, treatment-induced architectural changes and size-dependent response in 3D tumour models. We demonstrate this approach in adherent 3D ovarian and pancreatic multiwell extracellular matrix tumour overlays subjected to a panel of clinically relevant cytotoxic modalities and appropriately designed controls ...


Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok Jan 2014

Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok

Bioelectrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Chondrocytes respond to biomechanical and bioelectrochemical stimuli by secreting appropriate extracellular matrix proteins that enable the tissue to withstand the large forces it experiences. Although biomechanical aspects of cartilage are well described, little is known of the bioelectrochemical responses. The focus of this study is to identify bioelectrical characteristics of human costal cartilage cells using dielectric spectroscopy.

METHODS: Dielectric spectroscopy allows non-invasive probing of biological cells. An in house computer program is developed to extract dielectric properties of human costal cartilage cells from raw cell suspension impedance data measured by a microfluidic device. The dielectric properties of chondrocytes are ...


Coordinated Dynamic Gene Expression Changes In The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala During Alcohol Withdrawal., Kate Freeman, Mary M. Staehle, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Gregory E Gonye, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, Jan B Hoek, James S Schwaber Jan 2013

Coordinated Dynamic Gene Expression Changes In The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala During Alcohol Withdrawal., Kate Freeman, Mary M. Staehle, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Gregory E Gonye, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, Jan B Hoek, James S Schwaber

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use causes widespread changes in the cellular biology of the amygdala's central nucleus (CeA), a GABAergic center that integrates autonomic physiology with the emotional aspects of motivation and learning. While alcohol-induced neurochemical changes play a role in dependence and drinking behavior, little is known about the CeA's dynamic changes during withdrawal, a period of emotional and physiologic disturbance.

METHODS: We used a qRT-PCR platform to measure 139 transcripts in 92 rat CeA samples from control (N = 33), chronically alcohol exposed (N = 26), and withdrawn rats (t = 4, 8, 18, 32, and 48 hours; N = 5 ...


Quantitative, Spectrally-Resolved Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging, Pablo A. Valdés, Frederic Leblond, Valerie L. Jacobs, Brian C. Wilson, Keith D. Paulsen, David W. Roberts Nov 2012

Quantitative, Spectrally-Resolved Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging, Pablo A. Valdés, Frederic Leblond, Valerie L. Jacobs, Brian C. Wilson, Keith D. Paulsen, David W. Roberts

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Intraoperative visual fluorescence imaging (vFI) has emerged as a promising aid to surgical guidance, but does not fully exploit the potential of the fluorescent agents that are currently available. Here, we introduce a quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach that converts spectrally-resolved data into images of absolute fluorophore concentration pixel-by-pixel across the surgical field of view (FOV). The resulting estimates are linear, accurate, and precise relative to true values, and spectral decomposition of multiple fluorophores is also achieved. Experiments with protoporphyrin IX in a glioma rodent model demonstrate in vivo quantitative and spectrally-resolved fluorescence imaging of infiltrating tumor margins for the ...


Rapid Temporal Changes In The Expression Of A Set Of Neuromodulatory Genes During Alcohol Withdrawal In The Dorsal Vagal Complex: Molecular Evidence Of Homeostatic Disturbance., Kate Freeman, Mary M. Staehle, Zeynep H Gümüş, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Gregory E Gonye, Carmen N Nichols, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, Jan B Hoek, James S Schwaber Oct 2012

Rapid Temporal Changes In The Expression Of A Set Of Neuromodulatory Genes During Alcohol Withdrawal In The Dorsal Vagal Complex: Molecular Evidence Of Homeostatic Disturbance., Kate Freeman, Mary M. Staehle, Zeynep H Gümüş, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Gregory E Gonye, Carmen N Nichols, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, Jan B Hoek, James S Schwaber

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol exposure produces neuroadaptation, which increases the risk of cellular excitotoxicity and autonomic dysfunction during withdrawal. The temporal progression and regulation of the gene expression that contributes to this physiologic and behavioral phenotype is poorly understood early in the withdrawal period. Further, it is unexplored in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), a brainstem autonomic regulatory structure.

METHODS: We use a quantitative polymerase chain reaction platform to precisely and simultaneously measure the expression of 145 neuromodulatory genes in more than 100 rat DVC samples from control, chronically alcohol-exposed, and withdrawn rats. To gain insight into the dynamic progression and ...


Quantitative Cherenkov Emission Spectroscopy For Tissue Oxygenation Assessment, Johan Axelsson, Adam K. Glaser, David J. Gladstone, Brian W. Pogue Feb 2012

Quantitative Cherenkov Emission Spectroscopy For Tissue Oxygenation Assessment, Johan Axelsson, Adam K. Glaser, David J. Gladstone, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Measurements of Cherenkov emission in tissue during radiation therapy are shown to enable estimation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation non-invasively, through spectral fitting of the spontaneous emissions from the treated tissue. Tissue oxygenation plays a critical role in the efficacy of radiation therapy to kill tumor tissue. Yet in-vivo measurement of this has remained elusive in routine use because of the complexity of oxygen measurement techniques. There is a spectrally broad emission of Cherenkov light that is induced during the time of irradiation, and as this travels through tissue from the point of the radiation deposition, the tissue absorption and scatter ...


Methamphetamine Administration Targets Multiple Immune Subsets And Induces Phenotypic Alterations Suggestive Of Immunosuppression., Robert Z. Harms, Brenda M. Morsey, Craig W. Boyer, Howard S. Fox, Nora E. Sarvetnick Jan 2012

Methamphetamine Administration Targets Multiple Immune Subsets And Induces Phenotypic Alterations Suggestive Of Immunosuppression., Robert Z. Harms, Brenda M. Morsey, Craig W. Boyer, Howard S. Fox, Nora E. Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Methamphetamine (Meth) is a widely abused stimulant and its users are at increased risk for multiple infectious diseases. To determine the impact of meth on the immune system, we utilized a murine model that simulates the process of meth consumption in a typical addict. Our phenotypic analysis of leukocytes from this dose escalation model revealed that meth affected key immune subsets. Meth administration led to a decrease in abundance of natural killer (NK) cells and the remaining NK cells possessed a phenotype suggesting reduced responsiveness. Dendritic cells (DCs) and Gr-1(high) monocytes/macrophages were also decreased in abundance while Gr-1 ...


Estrogen Plus Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Alter Mineral Production By Osteoblasts In Vitro., Orlaith Brennan, Fergal J. O'Brien, Laoise M. Mcnamara Jan 2012

Estrogen Plus Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Alter Mineral Production By Osteoblasts In Vitro., Orlaith Brennan, Fergal J. O'Brien, Laoise M. Mcnamara

Anatomy Articles

In early postmenopausal women, estrogen withdrawal is associated with increased bone turnover leading to bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Recent studies have suggested that the remaining bone tissue is significantly stronger, stiffer and has an increased tissue-level mineral content. Such changes may occur to compensate for bone loss or as a direct result of estrogen deficiency. To date many details of the physiology of osteoblastic cells during estrogen deficiency are vague. In this study we test the hypothesis that osteoblastic matrix mineralisation is altered at the onset of estrogen deficiency. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out ...


Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo Nov 2011

Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that shows familial aggregation in humans and likely has genetic determinants. Disease linkage studies have revealed many susceptibility loci for T1D in mice and humans. The mouse T1D susceptibility locus insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility 3 (Idd3), which has a homologous genetic interval in humans, encodes cytokine genes Il2 and Il21 and regulates diabetes and other autoimmune diseases; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this regulation are still being elucidated. Here we show that T cells from NOD mice produce more Il21 and less Il2 and exhibit enhanced Th17 cell generation compared with ...


The Incidence Of Type-1 Diabetes In Nod Mice Is Modulated By Restricted Flora Not Germ-Free Conditions., Cecile King, Nora Sarvetnick Jan 2011

The Incidence Of Type-1 Diabetes In Nod Mice Is Modulated By Restricted Flora Not Germ-Free Conditions., Cecile King, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

In the NOD mouse, the incidence of type-1 diabetes is thought to be influenced by the degree of cleanliness of the mouse colony. Studies collectively demonstrate that exposure to bacterial antigen or infection in the neonatal period prevents diabetes [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], supporting the notion that immunostimulation can benefit the maturation of the postnatal immune system [11]. A widely accepted extrapolation from this data has been the notion that NOD mice maintained under germ-free conditions have an increased incidence of diabetes. However, evidence supporting this influential concept is surprisingly limited [12]. In this ...


Electrically Mediated Delivery Of Plasmid Dna To The Skin, Using A Multielectrode Array, Richard Heller, Yolmari Criz, Loree C. Heller, Richard A. Gilbert, Mark J. Jaroszeski Mar 2010

Electrically Mediated Delivery Of Plasmid Dna To The Skin, Using A Multielectrode Array, Richard Heller, Yolmari Criz, Loree C. Heller, Richard A. Gilbert, Mark J. Jaroszeski

Bioelectrics Publications

The easy accessibility of skin makes it an excellent target for gene transfer protocols. To take full advantage of skin as a target for gene transfer, it is important to establish an efficient and reproducible delivery system. Electroporation is a strong candidate to meet this delivery criterion. Electroporation of the skin is a simple, direct, in vivo method to deliver genes for therapy. Previously, delivery to the skin was performed by means of applicators with relatively large distances between electrodes, resulting in significant muscle stimulation and pain. These applicators also had limitations in controlling the directionality of the applied field ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller Jan 2010

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...


Il-21 Limits Peripheral Lymphocyte Numbers Through T Cell Homeostatic Mechanisms., Shrimati Datta, Nora E. Sarvetnick Jan 2008

Il-21 Limits Peripheral Lymphocyte Numbers Through T Cell Homeostatic Mechanisms., Shrimati Datta, Nora E. Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

BACKGROUND: IL-21, a member of the common gamma-chain utilizing family of cytokines, participates in immune and inflammatory processes. In addition, the cytokine has been linked to autoimmunity in humans and rodents.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the mechanism whereby IL-21 affects the immune system, we investigated its role in T cell homeostasis and autoimmunity in both non-autoimmune C57BL/6 and autoimmune NOD mice. Our data indicate that IL-21R knockout C57BL/6 and NOD mice show increased size of their lymphocyte population and decreased homeostatic proliferation. In addition, our experimental results demonstrate that IL-21 inhibits T cell survival. These data suggest ...


3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner Jan 2007

3d Thoracoscopic Ultrasound Volume Measurement Validation In An Ex Vivo And In Vivo Porcine Model Of Lung Tumours, V. Hornblower, E. Yu, A. Fenster, J. Battista, R. Malthaner

Edward Yu

The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial "tumours" were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the "tumours" were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ...


Organization And Signal Processing Of The Descending Tracts In The Cervical Spinal Cord, Yanmei Tie Jul 2005

Organization And Signal Processing Of The Descending Tracts In The Cervical Spinal Cord, Yanmei Tie

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the research for the development of spinal cord-computer interface (SCCI). The main objective of SCCI is to generate voluntary motor control signals for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).

In the neuroscience aspect, organization of the fibers in the descending tracts of the dorsolateral funiculus of the cervical spinal cord was investigated in cats. The spinal cord was penetrated with silicon substrate microelectrodes at 400 μm intervals in the medio-lateral direction at the C5/C6 and C6/C7 segmental borders. The stimulus consisted of a 20 ms train of charge-balanced biphasic pulses at 330 Hz. The evoked ...


Identification And Expansion Of Pancreatic Stem/Progenitor Cells., You-Qing Zhang, Marcie Kritzik, Nora Sarvetnick Apr 2005

Identification And Expansion Of Pancreatic Stem/Progenitor Cells., You-Qing Zhang, Marcie Kritzik, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Pancreatic islet transplantation represents an attractive approach for the treatment of diabetes. However, the limited availability of donor islets has largely hampered this approach. In this respect, the use of alternative sources of islets such as the ex vivo expansion and differentiation of functional endocrine cells for treating diabetes has become the major focus of diabetes research. Adult pancreatic stem cells /progenitor cells have yet to be recognized because limited markers exist for their identification. While the pancreas has the capacity to regenerate under certain circumstances, questions where adult pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are localized, how they are regulated, and ...


The Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1alpha/Cxcr4 Ligand-Receptor Axis Is Critical For Progenitor Survival And Migration In The Pancreas., Ayse G. Kayali, Kurt Van Gunst, Iain L. Campbell, Aleksandr Stotland, Marcie Kritzik, Guoxun Liu, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, You-Qing Zhang, Nora Sarvetnick Nov 2003

The Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1alpha/Cxcr4 Ligand-Receptor Axis Is Critical For Progenitor Survival And Migration In The Pancreas., Ayse G. Kayali, Kurt Van Gunst, Iain L. Campbell, Aleksandr Stotland, Marcie Kritzik, Guoxun Liu, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, You-Qing Zhang, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

The SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 ligand/chemokine receptor pair is required for appropriate patterning during ontogeny and stimulates the growth and differentiation of critical cell types. Here, we demonstrate SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 expression in fetal pancreas. We have found that SDF-1alpha and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed in islets, also CXCR4 is expressed in and around the proliferating duct epithelium of the regenerating pancreas of the interferon (IFN) gamma-nonobese diabetic mouse. We show that SDF-1alpha stimulates the phosphorylation of Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Src in pancreatic duct cells. Furthermore, migration assays indicate a stimulatory effect of SDF-1alpha on ductal cell migration ...


Ccr4-Bearing T Cells Participate In Autoimmune Diabetes., Soon H. Kim, Mary M. Cleary, Howard S. Fox, Icos Coporation, Nora Sarvetnick Dec 2002

Ccr4-Bearing T Cells Participate In Autoimmune Diabetes., Soon H. Kim, Mary M. Cleary, Howard S. Fox, Icos Coporation, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Chemokine receptor expression is exquisitely regulated on T cell subsets during the course of their migration to inflammatory sites. In the present study we demonstrate that CCR4 expression marks a pathogenic population of autoimmune T cells. CCR4 was found exclusively on memory CD4(+) T cells during the progression of disease in NOD mice. Cells expressing the CCR4 ligand TARC (thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine) were detected within infiltrated islets from prediabetic mice. Interestingly, neutralization of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) with Ab caused a significant reduction of CCR4-positive T cells within the pancreatic infiltrates and inhibited the development of insulitis and diabetes. Furthermore ...


Presented Antigen From Damaged Pancreatic Beta Cells Activates Autoreactive T Cells In Virus-Mediated Autoimmune Diabetes., Marc S. Horwitz, Alex Ilic, Cody Fine, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick Jan 2002

Presented Antigen From Damaged Pancreatic Beta Cells Activates Autoreactive T Cells In Virus-Mediated Autoimmune Diabetes., Marc S. Horwitz, Alex Ilic, Cody Fine, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

The induction of autoimmunity by viruses has been attributed to numerous mechanisms. In mice, coxsackievirus B4 (CB4) induces insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) resembling the final step of disease progression in humans. The immune response following the viral insult clearly precipitates IDDM. However, the molecular pathway between viral infection and the subsequent activation of T cells specific for islet antigen has not been elucidated. These T cells could become activated through exposure to sequestered antigens released by damaged beta cells, or they could have responded to factors secreted by the inflammatory response itself. To distinguish between these possibilities, we treated mice ...


A Defect In Interleukin 12-Induced Activation And Interferon Gamma Secretion Of Peripheral Natural Killer T Cells In Nonobese Diabetic Mice Suggests New Pathogenic Mechanisms For Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus., Marika Falcone, Brian Yeung, Lee Tucker, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick Oct 1999

A Defect In Interleukin 12-Induced Activation And Interferon Gamma Secretion Of Peripheral Natural Killer T Cells In Nonobese Diabetic Mice Suggests New Pathogenic Mechanisms For Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus., Marika Falcone, Brian Yeung, Lee Tucker, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

The function of natural killer T (NKT) cells in the immune system has yet to be determined. There is some evidence that their defect is associated with autoimmunity, but it is still unclear how they play a role in regulating the pathogenesis of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. It was originally proposed that NKT cells could control autoimmunity by shifting the cytokine profile of autoimmune T cells toward a protective T helper 2 cell (Th2) type. However, it is now clear that the major function of NKT cells in the immune system is not related to their interleukin (IL)-4 secretion ...


Interferon Gamma (Ifn-Gamma) Is Necessary For The Genesis Of Acetylcholine Receptor-Induced Clinical Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis In Mice., Balaji Balasa, Caishu Deng, Jae Lee, Linda M. Bradley, Dyanna K. Dalton, Premkumar Christadoss, Nora Sarvetnick Aug 1997

Interferon Gamma (Ifn-Gamma) Is Necessary For The Genesis Of Acetylcholine Receptor-Induced Clinical Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis In Mice., Balaji Balasa, Caishu Deng, Jae Lee, Linda M. Bradley, Dyanna K. Dalton, Premkumar Christadoss, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is an animal model of human myasthenia gravis (MG). In mice, EAMG is induced by immunization with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). However, the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of EAMG is not clear. Because EAMG is an antibody-mediated disease, it is of the prevailing notion that Th2 but not Th1 cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. To test the hypothesis that the Th1 cytokine, interferon (IFN)-gamma, plays a role in the development of EAMG, we immunized IFN-gamma knockout (IFN-gko) (-/-) mice and wild-type ...


Local Delivery Of Interleukin 4 By Retrovirus-Transduced T Lymphocytes Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis., Michael K. Shaw, James B. Lorens, Archana Dhawan, Richard Dalcanto, Harley Y. Tse, Alyssa B. Tran, Colleen Bonpane, Shanti L. Eswaran, Stefan Brocke, Nora Sarvetnick, Lawrence Steinman, Garry P. Nolan, C. Garrison Fathman May 1997

Local Delivery Of Interleukin 4 By Retrovirus-Transduced T Lymphocytes Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis., Michael K. Shaw, James B. Lorens, Archana Dhawan, Richard Dalcanto, Harley Y. Tse, Alyssa B. Tran, Colleen Bonpane, Shanti L. Eswaran, Stefan Brocke, Nora Sarvetnick, Lawrence Steinman, Garry P. Nolan, C. Garrison Fathman

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system which serves as a model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. We demonstrate here that encephalitogenic T cells, transduced with a retroviral gene, construct to express interleukin 4, and can delay the onset and reduce the severity of EAE when adoptively transferred to myelin basic protein-immunized mice. Thus, T lymphocytes transduced with retroviral vectors can deliver "regulatory cytokines" in a site-specific manner and may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of autoimmune disease.