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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Biomedical Sciences

Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Comprehensive Tool And Analytical Pathway For Differential Molecular Profiling And Biomarker Discovery, Claude Curtis Grigsby Jan 2013

A Comprehensive Tool And Analytical Pathway For Differential Molecular Profiling And Biomarker Discovery, Claude Curtis Grigsby

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The key requirements to any empirically based study are to: (1) accurately measure and then compare the collected results in determining the result of the hypothesis being tested; and (2) collect a sample representative of the entities being studied. To demonstrate that an informatics tool can be designed that provides spectral registration, spectral and chromatographic alignment, visualization, and comparative analysis for data generated from multiple analytical platforms, e.g., LC-MS and GC-MS, the results and data analysis of five unique sets of experiments using a suite of novel informatics tools are presented. Comprehensive and reproducible sample collection techniques were developed ...


Simulating Hemodynamics In In Vitro Culture Models: Implications On Nano-Biointeractions, Monita Sharma Jan 2013

Simulating Hemodynamics In In Vitro Culture Models: Implications On Nano-Biointeractions, Monita Sharma

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Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have demonstrated great potential in the development of a variety of tools with applications ranging from biomedical to military fields. Consequently, there is increasing concern regarding the toxic potential of these nanomaterials. Biodistribution studies demonstrate clearance of Au-NPs from peripheral circulation and bulk localization primarily in the liver and spleen post- intravenous administration. Deposition of Au-NPs in spleen suggests the potential for direct exposure of immune cells to these foreign materials under relatively static conditions. Although much less, due to the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), Au-NPs appear to also deposit in the brain, suggesting that the resident ...


Reactive Oxygen Modulates B Lymphocyte Function Via The Nfκb/Rel Pathway, Eric J. Romer Jan 2013

Reactive Oxygen Modulates B Lymphocyte Function Via The Nfκb/Rel Pathway, Eric J. Romer

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Reactive Oxygen Intermediates (ROI) can significantly affect B Lymphocyte function, but the effects on key signaling pathways and gene expression in activated and non-activated B lymphocytes are largely undefined. This study demonstrates a concentration dependent effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on the transcriptional regulation of a 3' regulatory region of the Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (3'IghRR). Specifically, low μM hydrogen peroxide induces an enhancing effect while higher μM hydrogen peroxide (greater than or equal to 100 μM) is suppressive. The enhancing effects of hydrogen peroxide on 3'IghRR activity are dependent on the NFκB/Rel pathway, and appear to ...


Differential Regulation Of The Hippocampal Taurine Transporter Protein In Rat Brain: Mechanisms Contributing To Neuronal Volume Regulation, Amanda Noelle Freeman Jan 2013

Differential Regulation Of The Hippocampal Taurine Transporter Protein In Rat Brain: Mechanisms Contributing To Neuronal Volume Regulation, Amanda Noelle Freeman

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Background. In osmotic edema, net efflux of taurine from neurons and accumulation by astrocytes contributes to neuronal volume regulation and astrocytic swelling. Taurine is accumulated in both cell types by a sodium- and chloride-dependent 72-75 kDa protein transporter, TauT. TauT functional activity decreases in osmotically swollen neurons but is unaltered in swollen astrocytes, in vitro. This swelling-induced downregulation of neuronal TauT activity is blocked with the tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor, genistein. In contrast, PKC activation has no effect on neuronal TauT, but inhibits astrocytic TauT. Thus, we hypothesize that during osmotic swelling, neuronal TauT activity is regulated by a TK ...


New Insights Into The Spinal Recurrent Inhibitory Pathway Normally And After Motoneuron Regeneration, Ahmed Zayed Obeidat Jan 2013

New Insights Into The Spinal Recurrent Inhibitory Pathway Normally And After Motoneuron Regeneration, Ahmed Zayed Obeidat

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Despite more than seven decades of intensive research, uncertainty is the hallmark of spinal recurrent inhibition. The simplest possible structure that is formed between the a-motoneuron and its inhibitory interneurons has been the subject of long lasting scientific debate. To date, there is no consensus on the functional significance of this circuit. Even the simplest assumption of a negative feedback loop does not hold true. The current work used the technique of in vivo intracellular recording from the adult rat a-motoneurons to study the normal function and the plasticity after nerve injury and regeneration of this simple, yet intricate spinal ...


Elucidating A Role Of Btf And Trap150 In Pre-Mrna Processing And Cell Cycle Progression, Sapna N. Varia Jan 2013

Elucidating A Role Of Btf And Trap150 In Pre-Mrna Processing And Cell Cycle Progression, Sapna N. Varia

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Transcription of protein-coding genes is coordinated with pre-mRNA processing as well as mRNP assembly and nuclear export in mammalian cells. In this dissertation, I examined the functions of two homologous non-classical serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins, Btf (BCLAF1) and TRAP150 in these steps of gene regulation. Since Btf and TRAP150 share 39% sequence identity and 66% sequence similarity, I also examined whether Btf and TRAP150 have overlapping or distinct functions in pre-mRNA processing. Using two different reporter loci, I showed in-situ recruitment of Btf and TRAP150 at reporter transcription sites, and I identified both Btf and TRAP150 being associated with a core ...


The Molecular Genetics Learning Progressions: Revisions And Refinements Based On Empirical Testing In Three 10th Grade Classrooms, Amber Nicole Todd Jan 2013

The Molecular Genetics Learning Progressions: Revisions And Refinements Based On Empirical Testing In Three 10th Grade Classrooms, Amber Nicole Todd

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In the past few decades, there has been a large push for increasing scientific literacy (AAAS, 1989; AAAS, 1993; Achieve, 2013; NRC, 1996; NRC, 2012), especially in areas that are rapidly advancing, like molecular genetics. Much research has been done on student understandings of molecular genetics and the consensus is that the concepts are difficult both to learn and teach (Fisher, 1992; Horwitz, 1996; Kindfield, 1992; Lewis & Kattmann, 2004; Marbach-Ad & Stavy, 2000; Stewart et al., 2005; Venville & Treagust, 1998; etc.). Two learning progressions in molecular genetics have been produced (Duncan et al., 2009; Roseman et al. 2006), but both progressions are hypothetical as neither have been ...