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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

P&O, Arezoo Eshraghi Dec 2013

P&O, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


A Real-Time, 3-D Musculoskeletal Model For Dynamic Simulation Of Arm Movements, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Robert F. Kirsch Dec 2013

A Real-Time, 3-D Musculoskeletal Model For Dynamic Simulation Of Arm Movements, Edward K. Chadwick, Dimitra Blana, Antonie J. Van Den Bogert, Robert F. Kirsch

Antonie J. van den Bogert

Neuroprostheses can be used to restore movement of the upper limb in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury. Development and evaluation of command and control schemes for such devices typically require real-time, ldquopatient-in-the-looprdquo experimentation. A real-time, 3-D, musculoskeletal model of the upper limb has been developed for use in a simulation environment to allow such testing to be carried out noninvasively. The model provides real-time feedback of human arm dynamics that can be displayed to the user in a virtual reality environment. The model has a 3-DOF glenohumeral joint as well as elbow flexion/extension and pronation/supination and contains ...


Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford Nov 2013

Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Computer generated three-dimensional (3-D) models are being used at increasing rates in the fields of entertainment, education, research, and engineering. One of the aspects of interest includes the behavior and function of the musculoskeletal system. One such tool used by engineers is the finite element method (FEM) to simulate the physics behind muscle mechanics. There are several ways to represent 3-D muscle geometry, namely a bulk, a central line of action and a spline model. The purpose of this study is to exmine how these three representations affect the overall outcome of muscle movement. This is examined in a series ...


Towards A More Robust Lower Neck Compressive Injury Tolerance - An Approach Combining Multiple Test Methodologies, Daniel Toomey, King H. Yang, N Yoganadan, F A. Pintar, C A. Van Ee Sep 2013

Towards A More Robust Lower Neck Compressive Injury Tolerance - An Approach Combining Multiple Test Methodologies, Daniel Toomey, King H. Yang, N Yoganadan, F A. Pintar, C A. Van Ee

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research Publications

Objective.The compressive tolerance of the cervical spine has traditionally been reported in terms of axial force at failure. Previous studies suggest that axial compressive force at failure is particularly sensitive to the alignment of the cervical vertebra and the end conditions of the test methodology used. The present study was designed to develop a methodology to combine the data of previous experiments into a diverse dataset utilizing multiple test methods to allow for the evaluation of the robustness of current and proposed eccentricity based injury criteria.

Methods. Data was combined from two studies composed of dynamic experiments including whole ...


Design And Development Of A Novel Expanding Pedicle Screw For Use In The Osteoporotic Lumbar Spine, Parham Rasoulinejad Aug 2013

Design And Development Of A Novel Expanding Pedicle Screw For Use In The Osteoporotic Lumbar Spine, Parham Rasoulinejad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pedicle screws are commonly utilized in spinal surgery; however, traditional designs often do not provide adequate fixation in osteoporotic spines. The objective of this thesis was to develop a novel expanding screw for use in osteoporotic lumbar pedicles. Helical screws capable of expanding post insertion were built on a rapid prototype machine. A materials testing machine performed axial load to failure tests in both Sawbones and cadaveric specimens comparing the new design to traditional screws (rate = 10mm/min to 20 mm). Output parameters included yield load, ultimate load, stiffness, energy to failure and total energy. The expanding screw showed a ...


Interleukin Expression After Injury And The Effects Of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Connie S. Chamberlain, Ellen M. Leiferman, Kayt E. Frisch, Stacey L. Brickson, William L. Murphy, Geoffrey S. Baer, Ray Vanderby Aug 2013

Interleukin Expression After Injury And The Effects Of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Connie S. Chamberlain, Ellen M. Leiferman, Kayt E. Frisch, Stacey L. Brickson, William L. Murphy, Geoffrey S. Baer, Ray Vanderby

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

Ligament healing follows a series of complex coordinated events involving various cell types, cytokines, as well as other factors, producing a mechanically inferior tissue more scar-like than native tissue. Macrophages provide an ongoing source of cytokines to modulate inflammatory cell adhesion and migration as well as fibroblast proliferation. Studying interleukins inherent to ligament healing during peak macrophage activation and angiogenesis may elucidate inflammatory mediators involved in subsequent scar formation. Herein, we used a rat healing model assayed after surgical transection of their medial collateral ligaments (MCLs). On days 3 and 7 post-injury, ligaments were collected and used for microarray analysis ...


Computational Biomechanical Modeling Of The Human Knee During Kneeling, Tariq R. Abo-Alhol Aug 2013

Computational Biomechanical Modeling Of The Human Knee During Kneeling, Tariq R. Abo-Alhol

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Total knee replacement benefits patients who suffer from severe knee pain or joint stiffness and other joint related illnesses that limit everyday activities. There has been an increase in the number of procedures performed each year and a need to evaluate the performance of these implants during specialized activities such as kneeling. Most computational studies lack insight into inter-patient variability and the results do not apply to large population. This study developed: (1) three-dimensional explicit finite element (FE) models to investigate natural and implanted knee joint kinematics and bone strain and (2) a platform to enable population-based evaluation by combining ...


Measuring The Mechanical Properties Of Living Cells Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Nancy Burnham, Gawain Thomas, Terri Camesano, Qi Wen Jun 2013

Measuring The Mechanical Properties Of Living Cells Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Nancy Burnham, Gawain Thomas, Terri Camesano, Qi Wen

Nancy A. Burnham

Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) play important roles in many biological processes including stem cell differentiation, tumor formation, and wound healing. Changes in stiffness of cells and ECM are often signs of changes in cell physiology or diseases in tissues. Hence, cell stiffness is an index to evaluate the status of cell cultures. Among the multitude of methods applied to measure the stiffness of cells and tissues, micro-indentation using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) provides a way to reliably measure the stiffness of living cells. This method has been widely applied to characterize the micro-scale stiffness for ...


Hir Prosthetics Research Group Achievements: Road To Success, Arezoo Eshraghi May 2013

Hir Prosthetics Research Group Achievements: Road To Success, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Magnetic Suspension System, Arezoo Eshraghi May 2013

Magnetic Suspension System, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


The Design And Validation Of A Computational Model Of The Human Wrist Joint, Afsarul Mir May 2013

The Design And Validation Of A Computational Model Of The Human Wrist Joint, Afsarul Mir

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in computational capabilities have allowed researchers to turn towards modeling as an efficient tool to replicate and predict outcomes of complex systems. Computational models of the musculoskeletal system have gone through various iterations with early versions employing dramatic simplifications. In this work, a three-dimensional computational model of the wrist joint was developed. It accurately recreated the skeletal structures of the hand and wrist and represented the constraints imposed by soft tissue structures like ligaments, tendons, and other surrounding tissues. It was developed to function as a tool to investigate the biomechanical contributions of structures and the kinematic response of ...


The Effect Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On The Behavioral And Neurophysiological Performance Of Healthy Subjects During Reaching, Ryan Michael Chapman May 2013

The Effect Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On The Behavioral And Neurophysiological Performance Of Healthy Subjects During Reaching, Ryan Michael Chapman

Theses and Dissertations

It is well established that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can decrease the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) in humans. Despite the cortical inhibition caused by cathodal tDCS, it remains unknown how this intervention alters unrestrained dynamic reaching movements qualitatively. Accordingly, we designed this study to examine how cathodal tDCS impacts unrestrained dynamic reaching as measured by qualitative kinematic features and electromyography (EMG). Ten young, healthy adult subjects were recruited to participate in a two day protocol involving repetitively reaching to two different targets (large and small) both before and following cathodal tDCS applied over the contralateral ...


Biomechanics Of Failure Modalities In Total Hip Arthroplasty, Jacob Matthias Elkins May 2013

Biomechanics Of Failure Modalities In Total Hip Arthroplasty, Jacob Matthias Elkins

Theses and Dissertations

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the treatment of choice to relieve joint pain and loss of mobility as a result of advanced stage osteoarthritis or other hip pathologies. Despite their general success, THAs do fail, with revision rates estimated near 5% per year. Instability, defined as the complete subluxation (dislocation) of the femoral head from the acetabular socket - which usually occurs due to implant impingement - has recently supplanted wear-induced osteolytic aseptic loosening as the leading cause of failure in THA. Soft tissue integrity has long been recognized as influencing joint stability, and therefore there has been great interest recently in ...


An Investigation Of Subaxial Cervical Spine Trauma And Surgical Treatment Through Biomechanical Simulation And Kinematic Analysis, Stewart D. Mclachlin Apr 2013

An Investigation Of Subaxial Cervical Spine Trauma And Surgical Treatment Through Biomechanical Simulation And Kinematic Analysis, Stewart D. Mclachlin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In vitro biomechanical investigations can help to identify changes in subaxial cervical spine (C3-C7) stability following injury, and determine the efficacy of surgical treatments through controlled joint simulation experiments and kinematic analyses. However, with the large spectrum of cervical spine trauma, a large fraction of the potential injuries have not been examined biomechanically. This includes a lack of studies investigating prevalent flexion-distraction injuries. Therefore, the overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the changes in subaxial cervical spine kinematic stability with simulated flexion-distraction injuries and current surgical instrumentation approaches using both established and novel biomechanical techniques.

Three in vitro ...


Iranian Elites, Arezoo Eshraghi Apr 2013

Iranian Elites, Arezoo Eshraghi

AREZOO ESHRAGHI

No abstract provided.


Correlations Between Internal And External Power Outputs During Weightlifting Exercise, Kristof Kipp, Chad Harris, Michelle B. Sabick Apr 2013

Correlations Between Internal And External Power Outputs During Weightlifting Exercise, Kristof Kipp, Chad Harris, Michelle B. Sabick

Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Identifying loads that maximize mechanical power is important because training at such loads may optimize gains in dynamic athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between measures of external mechanical power output and internal mechanical joint power output across different loads during a weightlifting exercise. Ten subjects performed 3 sets of the clean exercise at 65, 75, and 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak external mechanical power output was calculated with 4 commonly used methods, whereas an inverse dynamics approach was used to calculate peak internal mechanical power output for the hip, knee, and ankle ...


A Robotic Neuro-Musculoskeletal Simulator For Spine Research, Robb W. Colbrunn Jan 2013

A Robotic Neuro-Musculoskeletal Simulator For Spine Research, Robb W. Colbrunn

ETD Archive

An influential conceptual framework advanced by Panjabi represents the living spine as a complex neuromusculoskeletal system whose biomechanical functioning is rather finely dependent upon the interactions among and between three principal subsystems: the passive musculoskeletal subsystem (osteoligamentous spine plus passive mechanical contributions of the muscles), the active musculoskeletal subsystem (muscles and tendons), and the neural and feedback subsystem (neural control centers and feedback elements such as mechanoreceptors located in the soft tissues) [1]. The interplay between subsystems readily encourages "thought experiments" of how pathologic changes in one subsystem might influence another--for example, prompting one to speculate how painful arthritic changes ...


Cervical Spine Tolerance And Response In Compressive Loading Modes Including Combined Compression And Lateral Bending, Daniel Toomey Jan 2013

Cervical Spine Tolerance And Response In Compressive Loading Modes Including Combined Compression And Lateral Bending, Daniel Toomey

Wayne State University Dissertations

Injuries in motor vehicle accidents continue to be a serious and costly societal problem. Automotive safety researchers have observed noticeable lateral bending of the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) neck prior to or in conjunction with head impact with the vehicle roof in rollover crash tests. Since there is scant data available about the effects of lateral bending on overall compressive tolerance of the human cervical spine, it is unknown if the presence of lateral bending is important to consider during impacts with the apex of the head. Compressive injury tolerance has historically been reported by identifying the axial force at ...


Effect Of Rolling On Viscoelastic Fluids Using A Novel Testing Device, Aswini Mangadu Jan 2013

Effect Of Rolling On Viscoelastic Fluids Using A Novel Testing Device, Aswini Mangadu

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this research thesis project was to develop a mechanical testing device that could enable us to load articular cartilage with a rolling/sliding motion. This novel device was then used to observe the effect of a rolling motion on the fluid film thickness of different lubricants (motor oil, synovial fluid and Hyaluronic Acid (HA)) to varying loads (1kg, 2,kg, 3kg and 4kg) and speeds (10, 25, 48 and 91 mm/s) applied on the sample fluids for 10 cycles. We were able to examine the effect of different speeds within each load for each of the ...


Biomechanics Of Porcine Renal Artery And The Development Of A Replacment Vessel, Mohamed Gabr Jan 2013

Biomechanics Of Porcine Renal Artery And The Development Of A Replacment Vessel, Mohamed Gabr

Theses and Dissertations

Mechanical characterization of biological soft tissues is essential in the field of biomedical engineering. In this study several loading experiments have been performed to efficiently characterize the passive mechanical response of both native porcine renal arteries and newly developed tissue constructs. The first aim of these studies is to determine whether there is a difference in mechanical response between the main renal artery and its first branch. After fitting the bi-axial data to a Holzapfel-type constitutive model, the results show that there is no statistical difference between the model parameters for renal artery and the first branch. The only significant ...