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2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nucleic Acid-Functionalized Nanomaterials, Brianna S. Carroll, Jong Hyun Choi Oct 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nucleic Acid-Functionalized Nanomaterials, Brianna S. Carroll, Jong Hyun Choi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Motor proteins such as kinesin move along microtubules in order to transport cellular cargos throughout the cell by obtaining energy from RNA hydrolysis which allows the cell to complete the tasks needed to stay alive. In this work, we developed synthetic molecular motors using DNA enzymes (DNAzyme) and fluorescent nanomaterials which mimic the functions and structures of motor proteins. A DNAzyme-capped CdS nanoparticle and a RNA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) were used as a walker and a track in the motor platform, respectively. As a walking mechanism, the DNAzyme cleaved the RNA substrates in the presence of metal cations. The ...


Bicistronic Design For Precise And Reliable Gene Expression, Nidhi N. Menon, Jenna Rickus Oct 2013

Bicistronic Design For Precise And Reliable Gene Expression, Nidhi N. Menon, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Despite having progressed extensively in the field of synthetic biology in terms of DNA synthesis, analysis and transplanting, we still cannot reliably, quantitatively measure expression of new genetic constructs. We engineered a biobrick compatible expression cassette to control transcription and translation initiation which can be reused in new genetic contexts. Previous research has shown that the Bicistronic design have much lesser variations in expression with varying genes of interest as compared to the regular monocistronic design.(Mutalik, Endy, Guimaraes, Cambray, Lam, Juul, Tran & Paull, 2013) The Bicistronic design(BCD) consists of two Shine-Dalgarno sequences in its translation element which when ...


In Vivo Flow Measurements Of Murine Renal Arteries And Veins With High Frequency Ultrasound, Amy E. Bogucki, Hilary D. Schroeder, Alexa A. Yrineo, Craig J. Goergen Oct 2013

In Vivo Flow Measurements Of Murine Renal Arteries And Veins With High Frequency Ultrasound, Amy E. Bogucki, Hilary D. Schroeder, Alexa A. Yrineo, Craig J. Goergen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The number of glomeruli in the kidneys has been shown to have an effect on the decline in renal function over time (Brenner, Garcia, Anderson 1988). Furthermore, flow in the renal arteries and veins may depend on the number of glomeruli in the kidney. Consistent in vivo measurements of volumetric flow in the renal arteries and veins are difficult to obtain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop non-invasive imaging techniques capable of estimating arterial and venous flow to kidneys. A high-frequency small animal ultrasound system was chosen based upon its excellent spatial and temporal resolution when imaging ...


Determination Of Master Compliance Curve For Extruded Semolina Pasta, Laura E. Emery, Martin Okos Oct 2013

Determination Of Master Compliance Curve For Extruded Semolina Pasta, Laura E. Emery, Martin Okos

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The dependence of the rate of relaxation of semolina pasta on moisture content and temperature and how it affects shrinkage during drying has not yet been determined. The purpose of this research was to develop an equation that relates moisture content and temperature in order to obtain a master curve for creep of the product. When found, this equation could help to optimize the drying process and increase the quality of the final pasta product. Semolina flour mixed with water and propionic acid to create a 35% wet basis product was extruded on a C.W. Brabender 2523 to obtain ...


Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao Oct 2013

Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Engineering synthetic multicellular systems will lead to new synthetic biology technological platforms, inform developmental biology through recapitulation of natural systems and possibly unveil novel morphologies with practical applications not before reached throughout natural history (Maharbiz, 2012). Creating an exogenous molecular circuit that will polarize unicellular cells into “apical” and “basal” domains relative to a substrate plane would fulfill a missing component towards fully multicellular synthetic cellular communities (Maharbiz, 2012). To this end, a PIP3 polarization network previously designed by Chau and associates (Chau, Walter, Gerardin, Tang, Lim 2012) was coupled to the specific activation by niacin of a recombinant ...


The Efficacy And Optimization Of Somatosensory Intracortical Microstimulation In Rats, Sean P. Mcdowell, Ryan S. Verner, Kevin J. Otto Dr. Oct 2013

The Efficacy And Optimization Of Somatosensory Intracortical Microstimulation In Rats, Sean P. Mcdowell, Ryan S. Verner, Kevin J. Otto Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Demand exists for brain-machine interfaces that offer a wide range of sensory feedback along with volitional motor control to individuals with limited control of natural sensory or motor function. As these sensorimotor devices are developed, it is necessary to improve the interaction between the prostheses and higher-level cortical structures. Optimizing these somatosensory stimulation parameters will require the use of a high-throughput experimental design. To address this, one Sprague-Dawley rat was trained to respond to auditory stimuli during a conditioned-avoidance behavior task and then implanted with a penetrating microelectrode array in the part of the somatosensory cortex corresponding to the left ...


In Vivo Method For Labeling And Tracking Cells In The Mammalian Limb Bud, James T. Mccarthy, Andrew Schilb, Sarah Calve Oct 2013

In Vivo Method For Labeling And Tracking Cells In The Mammalian Limb Bud, James T. Mccarthy, Andrew Schilb, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of many different proteins excreted by cells and is believed to play a very important role in development as well as regeneration and wound healing. In this research, a method to determine the ECM’s effect on the migration of muscle progenitor cells into the mammalian limb bud was investigated. It has traditionally been difficult to obtain in vivo images of the limb bud, due to the difficulty of maintaining embryos in culture and limitations of imaging techniques. In this study, we have worked on optimizing the culture conditions to allow growth of mouse ...


Visualization Of Complex Flow Patterns In Angiotensin Ii-Induced Dissecting Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms With High Frequency Ultrasound, Hilary D. Schroeder, Alexa A. Yrineo, Amy E. Bogucki, Craig J. Goergen Oct 2013

Visualization Of Complex Flow Patterns In Angiotensin Ii-Induced Dissecting Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms With High Frequency Ultrasound, Hilary D. Schroeder, Alexa A. Yrineo, Amy E. Bogucki, Craig J. Goergen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a common cause of mortality in the United States. Current treatments are only employed once the risk of rupture outweighs the risks associated with surgery. Murine models have been developed to characterize AAA pathogenesis in the hope that new treatments will be developed. For this study, angiotensin II (AngII) was infused subcutaneously into apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice using an osmotic mini-pump over 28 days. ApoE-/- mice (16-week-old, 3 females, 2 males) were imaged using a VisualSonics Vevo 2100 high frequency ultrasound before pump implantation and 3, 7, 14, 21, and 27 days following implantation ...


Image Skeletal Muscle Progenitors In Situ To Investigate How The Ecm Composition Regulates Musculoskeletal Assembly, Andrew L. Schilb, Sarah Calve Oct 2013

Image Skeletal Muscle Progenitors In Situ To Investigate How The Ecm Composition Regulates Musculoskeletal Assembly, Andrew L. Schilb, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Regenerative medicine has difficulty with the human body’s inability to functionally repair tissues lost as a result of disease or serious accident. Through tissue engineering, there has been development of various scaffolding with the purpose of enhancing skeletal muscle regrowth and functionality. The scaffolds are typically constructed from artificial polymers or decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics adult tissue. These standardized scaffolds are hindered though by the host since tissue engineers have not taken into account of how the composition musculoskeletal ECM during tissue repair is dramatically different than that of a homeostatic adult. Now green fluorescent protein positive ...


The Effects Of Exogenous Extracellular Matrix And Substrate Stiffness On Mouse Tendon Cells In Vitro, Caleb J. Mcdaniel, Sarah Calve Oct 2013

The Effects Of Exogenous Extracellular Matrix And Substrate Stiffness On Mouse Tendon Cells In Vitro, Caleb J. Mcdaniel, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

To improve the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, a better understanding of the transitional environment in which progenitor cells form mature musculoskeletal constructs is necessary. This need arises because injury repair requires restructuring of tissue, similar to the initial tissue construction that occurs during embryonic development by progenitor cells. Differences in both the biochemical and mechanical environments between a transitional and a differentiated state are known to take place, but how these differences affect cell behavior had not yet been characterized in mammalian tendon cells. In order to investigate this, we have determined the effects of exogenous extracellular matrix and the ...


Wireless Myoelectric Sensor Minimization And Packaging, Ásbjörg Einarsdóttir, Pedro Irazoqui Dr. Oct 2013

Wireless Myoelectric Sensor Minimization And Packaging, Ásbjörg Einarsdóttir, Pedro Irazoqui Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Many people suffer from amputation, which affects their lives severely by disabling them from doing chores in their daily life as well as chores related to work and leisure. For the last years, prosthetics’ development has been fast and the devices that are being used now are a miracle compared to what has been used before. But still, the battle is not over yet. Although scientists have techniques and devices to use nerve residues from the amputated limb to control the prosthetic, smaller devices that can detect the signals from those nerves better need to be developed. In this research ...


Toward An Optogenetic Autonomous Nerve Control (Oanc) System, Malika S. Datta, Matthew Ward, Steven Lee, Kevin Seburn, Pedro Irazoqui Oct 2013

Toward An Optogenetic Autonomous Nerve Control (Oanc) System, Malika S. Datta, Matthew Ward, Steven Lee, Kevin Seburn, Pedro Irazoqui

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Optogenetics is a developing field in neuroscience, where nerves are stimulated through optical instead of electrical signals, allowing for a more selective action of nerve populations [Aravanis et al, 2007]. In the context of electrical stimulation, the autonomous nerve control (ANC) system has been used successfully, first to map the response of different nerve fibers to create a Nerve Activation Profile, and then to use this profile in recruiting specific nerve fibers in a controlled way [MP Ward et al, unpublished manuscript in preparation]. The objective of the present project is to apply the ANC system to optical stimulation thus ...


Inkjet Printing Of Polarized Yeast Cells, Xiuyuan Yang, Kari Clase Oct 2013

Inkjet Printing Of Polarized Yeast Cells, Xiuyuan Yang, Kari Clase

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The motivation is to applying engineering knowledge to develop 3D bio-printing in inkjet printer (first stage--monolayer). To achieve the goal, there are three problems to solve. First, we have to figure out regulation of growth of target cells; inability to regulate the location and pattern of growing cells make us even unable to build 3D printer in the direct way. Second problem is how to protect of yeast cells from high temperature and viscous force when printing. The third issue is how to modify the inkjet printer especially the feeding system in order to implement printing on other materials rather ...


Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu Oct 2013

Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Sutures and staples commonly used to close surgical wounds tend to be much stiffer than the surrounding tissue, often resulting in external tissue damage. Surgical adhesives provide a promising alternative to these sutures and staples. Ideal surgical adhesives are biocompatible, able to set well and remain sticky in moist conditions, possess strong adhesive and cohesive properties, and exhibit mechanical properties that mimic those of the surrounding tissue. Unfortunately, the adhesives available today are unable to satisfactorily meet all of these criteria. We are utilizing protein engineering techniques to design, create, and test a new surgical adhesive that combines the adhesive ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of A Paper-Based, Laser-Defined, Oxygen-Generating Platform For Chronic Wounds, Tiffany L. Huang, Babak Ziaie Oct 2013

A Quantitative Analysis Of A Paper-Based, Laser-Defined, Oxygen-Generating Platform For Chronic Wounds, Tiffany L. Huang, Babak Ziaie

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients a year while consuming US$25 billion in health care costs (Sen 2009 Wound Repair Regen.). Despite advances in wound management therapies, modern treatment for chronic wounds still requires continual professional attention and expensive equipment, posing serious practical and financial burdens for the regular patient. To provide an alternative solution, we are developing a low-cost smart bandage platform that integrates actuators and sensors to monitor and treat chronic wounds. One component of the integrated platform is an oxygen-generating module. It is a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device fabricated on a parchment paper substrate ...


Development Of Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging Techniques For Elastase-Induced Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Alexa A. Yrineo, Elizabeth A. Nunamaker, Hilary D. Schroeder, Amy E. Bogucki, Craig J. Goergen Oct 2013

Development Of Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging Techniques For Elastase-Induced Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Alexa A. Yrineo, Elizabeth A. Nunamaker, Hilary D. Schroeder, Amy E. Bogucki, Craig J. Goergen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are pathological dilations of the aorta which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms that cause this inflammatory disease are not fully understood and thus, are currently under investigation. In the hopes of preventing disease progression, rodent models that mimic the human condition have been developed to provide insight into the pathogenesis of AAAs. In this study, porcine pancreatic elastase (0.44 U; Sigma-Aldrich) was infused into the infrarenal aortas of male, Sprague Dawley rats to induce aneurysms. To perform the surgery, temporary ligatures were placed around proximal and distal sections of the ...


Direct Quantitative Analysis Of Biomarkers Using Mass Spectrometry, Morgan N. Mcluckey, Zheng Ouyang Oct 2013

Direct Quantitative Analysis Of Biomarkers Using Mass Spectrometry, Morgan N. Mcluckey, Zheng Ouyang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics describes a step in the medical treatment process where drugs can be monitored in a patient’s body on-site and in a timely fashion. Mass spectrometry (MS) can provide a quick, efficient, and highly accurate method of analysis of patient biofluids and tissues. Developing methods to bring this diagnostic mechanism to hospitals and clinics has the potential to improve patient care through, for example, personalized medicine. Our goal was to develop a way to effectively introduce internal standard (IS), a necessary chemical for the analytical process, to low-volume biofluid samples. Additionally, the effective direct quantitation of biomarkers ...


Iron-Magnesium Alloy Bioabsorbable Blood Stent, Kaitlyn Jarry, L Stanciu Oct 2013

Iron-Magnesium Alloy Bioabsorbable Blood Stent, Kaitlyn Jarry, L Stanciu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bioabsorbable materials are fairly new and proper alloys for implantation in the body have not yet been established. There are a few polymers that have showed promise, but they do not provide the proper mechanical support that metal does. These materials would be used to create devices such as blood stents and orthopedic screws. Investigation into the properties of different alloys can help to establish a material that can be used for implanted devices that are only needed for a limited amount of time. In order to investigate these alloys many different experiments will to be run to test the ...


Characterization Of The Saturation Level Of Nucleosome Arrays And Plasmids By Mnase Digestion, Wenjie Liu, Nathan Nurse, Chongli Yuan Oct 2013

Characterization Of The Saturation Level Of Nucleosome Arrays And Plasmids By Mnase Digestion, Wenjie Liu, Nathan Nurse, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Studying processes involving DNA such as DNA replication and transcription is best done in the context of chromatin because the structure of DNA influences the efficiency of such processes. Chromatin structure is derived from DNA wrapping around histone octamers with the histone octamer density termed saturation level. For in vitro studies on DNA replication and transcription, it is important to maintain a constant saturation level so that saturation level can be removed as a variable. Our goal is to characterize the saturation level of plasmids using the rate of MNase digestion. MNase digestions were first performed on reconstituted nucleosome arrays ...


Data Workflow In Large Scale Simulations Of Blood Flow In Aneurysms, Paolo Di Achille, Jay D. Humphrey Oct 2013

Data Workflow In Large Scale Simulations Of Blood Flow In Aneurysms, Paolo Di Achille, Jay D. Humphrey

Yale Day of Data

Aneurysms are responsibile for significant morbidity and mortality, and there is a need for an increased understanding of all the aspects of the natural history of these lesions. We are currently working to extend our analyses with the goal of creating models of aneurysmal progression that are able to predict rupture risk through the description of the evolving geometry, structure, properties, and loads.

Realization of patient specific models of the blood circulation necessitates a complex computationally and data intensive procedure that starts from the collection of medical images in a clinical setting and encompasses several stages of data processing on ...


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Booklet), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Booklet), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Website), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Website), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Survey Stats), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Survey Stats), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Sheet), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Education And Research In Art And Design: A New Role For Libraries (Program Sheet), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

No abstract provided.


Materials Collection Creation And Administration: A New Role For Libraries (White Paper), Mark Pompelia Jun 2013

Materials Collection Creation And Administration: A New Role For Libraries (White Paper), Mark Pompelia

Materials Education and Research in Art and Design: A New Role for Libraries

The Problem/Opportunity: To define, identify, and guide design-based materials collections in academic settings and foster community among those with existing collections and/or those considering creating and supporting one.

Contents and topics:

  1. What is a materials collection?
  2. Why have a materials collection?
  3. Acquisition strategies
  4. Organizational approaches
  5. Programming possibilities
  6. Symposium summary
  7. Resources


Use Of Novel Microfluidic Devices To Detect Biomarkers In Blood, Nese Orby, Carol Barry May 2013

Use Of Novel Microfluidic Devices To Detect Biomarkers In Blood, Nese Orby, Carol Barry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Blood analysis is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally, blood analysis requires a vial of blood and several processing steps resulting in a time consuming and difficult process. The aim of this research is to find a portable and inexpensive device to carry out fast blood cells separation, count and analysis. Previous work show the capability to analyze and separate blood cells using microfluidic devices resulting in less sample volume and shorter analysis time. Most microfluidic devices share similar fabrication process and materials (soft lithography process in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)). ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is the most common ...


Detection Of Cocaine Use With Wireless Electrocardiogram Sensors, Annamalai Natarajan, Abhinav Parate, Edward C. Gaiser, Gustavo A. Angarita, Robert T. Malison, Deepak Ganesan, Benjamin M. Marlin May 2013

Detection Of Cocaine Use With Wireless Electrocardiogram Sensors, Annamalai Natarajan, Abhinav Parate, Edward C. Gaiser, Gustavo A. Angarita, Robert T. Malison, Deepak Ganesan, Benjamin M. Marlin

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

In recent years, the ability to continuously monitor activities, health, and lifestyles of individuals using sensor technologies has reached unprecedented levels. Such ubiquitous physiological sensing has the potential to profoundly improve our understanding of human behavior, leading to more targeted treatments for a variety of disorders. The long terms goal of this work is development of novel computational tools to support the study of addiction in the context of cocaine use. The current paper takes the first step in this important direction by posing a simple, but crucial question: Can cocaine use be reliably detected using wearable on-body sensors and ...


High Frequency, All-Optical Ultrasound Transducer For Biomedical Applications, Nan Wu, Ye Tian, Xiaotian Zou, Xingwei Wang May 2013

High Frequency, All-Optical Ultrasound Transducer For Biomedical Applications, Nan Wu, Ye Tian, Xiaotian Zou, Xingwei Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

High-frequency (> 30 MHz), high-resolution (<100 >μm) ultrasonic imaging has been increasingly demanded in applications that include dermatology, ophthalmology, intravascular imaging, and small animal imaging. It is also a valuable imaging tool for non-invasive studies of disease progression and regression. The conventional approach that relies on piezoelectric transducers is difficult to design at high frequencies. An all-optical photoacoustic transducer, which can operate above 50 MHz, can circumvent this problem. It converts pulsed laser energy exerted onto a thin photoabsorptive film into thermoelastic waves. The center frequency and bandwidth of the generated ultrasound are determined by the incident laser pulse. In addition, the ...


Computational Capabilities Of Leaky Integrate-And-Fire Neural Networks For Liquid State Machines, Amin Almassian, Christof Teuscher May 2013

Computational Capabilities Of Leaky Integrate-And-Fire Neural Networks For Liquid State Machines, Amin Almassian, Christof Teuscher

Student Research Symposium

We analyze the computational capability of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) Neural Networks used as a reservoir (liquid) in the framework of Liquid State Machines (LSM). Maass et. al. investigated LIF neurons in LSM and their results showed that they are capable of noise-robust, parallel, and real-time computation. However, it still remains an open question how the network topology affects the computational capability of a reservoir. To address that question, we investigate the performance of the reservoir as a function of the average reservoir connectivity. We also show that the dynamics of the LIF reservoir is sensitive to changes in the average ...


Elucidating Role Of Heart Valve Cells In The Aortic Valve Calcification, Mary Katherine Bailey, Adithi Amarnath Mar 2013

Elucidating Role Of Heart Valve Cells In The Aortic Valve Calcification, Mary Katherine Bailey, Adithi Amarnath

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

No abstract provided.