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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

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Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Development Of A Multilayered Association Polymer System For Sequential Drug Delivery, Sharath Kumar Chinnakavanam Sundararaj Jan 2013

Development Of A Multilayered Association Polymer System For Sequential Drug Delivery, Sharath Kumar Chinnakavanam Sundararaj

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

As all the physiological processes in our body are controlled by multiple biomolecules, comprehensive treatment of certain disease conditions may be more effectively achieved by administration of more than one type of drug. Thus, the primary objective of this research was to develop a multilayered, polymer-based system for sequential delivery of multiple drugs. This particular device was designed aimed at the treatment of periodontitis, a highly prevalent oral inflammatory disease that affects 90% of the world population. This condition is caused by bacterial biofilm on the teeth, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone ...


Development Of An Eeg Brain-Machine Interface To Aid In Recovery Of Motor Function After Neurological Injury, Elizabeth Salmon Jan 2013

Development Of An Eeg Brain-Machine Interface To Aid In Recovery Of Motor Function After Neurological Injury, Elizabeth Salmon

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Impaired motor function following neurological injury may be overcome through therapies that induce neuroplastic changes in the brain. Therapeutic methods include repetitive exercises that promote use-dependent plasticity (UDP), the benefit of which may be increased by first administering peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) to activate afferent fibers, resulting in increased cortical excitability. We speculate that PNS delivered only in response to attempted movement would induce timing-dependent plasticity (TDP), a mechanism essential to normal motor learning. Here we develop a brain-machine interface (BMI) to detect movement intent and effort in healthy volunteers (n=5) from their electroencephalogram (EEG). This could be used ...


Growth Plate Regeneration Using Polymer-Based Scaffolds Releasing Growth Factor, Amanda Clark Jan 2013

Growth Plate Regeneration Using Polymer-Based Scaffolds Releasing Growth Factor, Amanda Clark

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Currently growth plate fractures account for nearly 18.5% of fractures in children and can lead to stunted bone growth or angular deformation. If the body is unable to heal itself a bony bar forms, preventing normal bone growth. Clinical treatment involves removing the bony bar and replacing it with a filler substance, which causes poor results 60% of the time.

Using primarily poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as the scaffold material, the goal was to develop an implant that would support to the implant site, allow for cell ingrowth, and degrade away over time. Porous scaffolds were fabricated from PLGA ...


Hysteresis In Repolarization Of Cardiac Action Potentials: Effects Of Spatial Heterogeneity And Slow Repolarization Currents, Linyuan Jing Jan 2013

Hysteresis In Repolarization Of Cardiac Action Potentials: Effects Of Spatial Heterogeneity And Slow Repolarization Currents, Linyuan Jing

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Repolarization alternans, i.e. beat-to-beat variation of repolarization of action potential, is proposed as a predictor of life-threatening arrhythmias. Restitution relates repolarization duration with its previous relaxation time, i.e. diatstolic interval (DI), and is considered a dominant mechanism for alternans. Previously, we observed that different repolarization durations at the same DI during decelerating and accelerating pacing, i.e. restitution displays hysteresis, which is a measure of “cardiac memory”.

Objective of the current study was to investigate in the pig 1) the mechanism for a previously observed hysteresis type phenomenon, where alternans, once started at higher heart rate, persists even ...


Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng Jan 2013

Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Many cerebral diseases are associated with abnormal cerebral hemodynamics and impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA). CA is a mechanism to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) stable when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates. Evaluating these abnormalities requires direct measurements of cerebral hemodynamics and MAP. Several near-infrared diffuse optical instruments have been developed in our laboratory for hemodynamic measurements including near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), hybrid NIRS/DCS, and dual-wavelength DCS flow-oximeter. We utilized these noninvasive technologies to quantify CBF and cerebral oxygenation in different populations under different physiological conditions/manipulations. A commercial finger plethysmograph was used to continuously monitor MAP ...


The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood Jan 2013

The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The effects of mechanical forces on endothelial cell function and behavior are well documented, but have not been fully characterized. Specifically, fluid pressure has been shown to elicit physical and chemical responses known to be involved in the initiation and progression of endothelial cell-mediated vascularization. Central to the process of vascularization is the formation of tube-like structures. This process—tubulogenesis—is essential to both the physiological and pathological growth of tissues. Given the known effects of pressure on endothelial cells and its ubiquitous presence in the vasculature, we investigated pressure as a magnitude-dependent parameter for the regulation of endothelial tubulogenic ...


Effects Of Acute Stretch On Cardiac Electrical Properties In Swine, Anuj Agarwal Jan 2013

Effects Of Acute Stretch On Cardiac Electrical Properties In Swine, Anuj Agarwal

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Stretch is known to result in an electrically less stable ventricular substrate, yet the reported effects of stretch on measured electrophysiological parameters have been inconsistent and even contradictory. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute mechanical stretch on cardiac electrical features thought to be key in generation of arrhythmia, namely restitution of action potential duration (APD), electrical memory, and onset of alternans.

Microelectrodes were used to record intracellular potentials pre, during, and post-stretch from isolated right ventricular tissues from swine. In separate experiments, the effects of two levels of stretch were quantified. Pacing protocols employing ...