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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Interstitial Cell Seeding And Dynamic Conditioning Of Aortic Heart Valve Scaffolds, Allison Kennamer Dec 2013

Interstitial Cell Seeding And Dynamic Conditioning Of Aortic Heart Valve Scaffolds, Allison Kennamer

All Theses

In 2011, U.S. Markets for Heart Valve Repair and Replacement Products estimated that roughly four million people in the United States are diagnosed with a heart valve disorder annually. And in the following year, the American Heart Association reported that approximately 35,000 deaths in the US were either directly or indirectly attributed to heart valve disease. Diseases of the heart valve are degenerative in nature and therefore progressively worsen unbeknownst to the patient until symptoms become clinically relevant. By this time, the valve is in such poor condition that complete replacement is often the only effective treatment. Current ...


Functional Stroke Recovery Through Tissue Engineered Niche Neural Constructs, Natasha Topoluk Dec 2013

Functional Stroke Recovery Through Tissue Engineered Niche Neural Constructs, Natasha Topoluk

All Theses

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, stroke is statistically responsible for 1 in every 19 deaths of American citizens.5 Stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability due to the fact that it compromises both cellular and tissue components of the brain, leading to the formation of a physical void within the tissue. Current research approaches address the cellular component by injecting stem cells into this void; however, extremely low cell engraftment, high injected cell death, and overall no matrix regeneration are observed. Additionally, these stem cells do not remain committed to a neural lineage. We ...


The Effects Of Different Size Gold Nanoparticles On Mechanical Properties Of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Mechanical Stretching, Tri Kieu Dec 2013

The Effects Of Different Size Gold Nanoparticles On Mechanical Properties Of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Mechanical Stretching, Tri Kieu

All Theses

The field of nanotechnology research has seen a large growth in the past few decades due to the great potential of novel nano-size material for useful applications such as drug delivery and medical imaging. Also, they are a promising platform for the detection of terrible diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Although these materials hold great promise, there is very limited understanding about the biological effects of these nanoparticles on normal healthy cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The VSMCs are unique cells due to the two distinct phenotype characteristics it can express: a contractile and a synthetic ...


Development And Verification Of A Test System To Quantify Strain Of An Optical Displacement Indicator And The Design Of A Strain Indicating Prototype, Josh Lake Dec 2013

Development And Verification Of A Test System To Quantify Strain Of An Optical Displacement Indicator And The Design Of A Strain Indicating Prototype, Josh Lake

All Theses

The organic-rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian basin is a rapidly developing natural gas play. Stratigraphic boundaries of the Marcellus Shale in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania were identified using geophysical logs from 10 vertical gas-producing wells in a 23 sq. km area. Gamma-ray, bulk density, and resistivity well logs were examined to assess hydrocarbon potential. Values of porosity, total organic carbon (TOC), and water saturation (SW) were derived and mapped by incorporating well-log data into Marcellus-specific formulas. Gamma-ray, penetration (minutes per foot drilled), and mud-logging gas (total gas) from 12 horizontal wells from within the study area were also ...


Scratch Damage Evolution On Metals In Total Joint Replacements, Caleb Eljach Dec 2013

Scratch Damage Evolution On Metals In Total Joint Replacements, Caleb Eljach

All Theses

The goal of total joint replacement (TJR) is to replace nonfunctioning joint components and relieve pain, improve quality of life, and to improve joint function. Although TJR is a successful procedure, more than 54,000 knee revisions occur each year due to factors, such as wear, loosening, infection, fracture, instability, and patient related factors (Ranawat, 2010). TJRs consist of components typically composed of polyethylene and a metallic counterface (Navarro, 2008). The sliding contact that occurs between the metal and polyethylene components has been well studied and is shown to produce both surface damage and wear of the implant components (Barbour ...


Experimental Development And Analysis Of A Novel Setup For Insulated Dielectrophoresis, Johnie Hodge Aug 2013

Experimental Development And Analysis Of A Novel Setup For Insulated Dielectrophoresis, Johnie Hodge

All Theses

Dielectrophoresis has long been studied and utilized for the manipulation of microscale particles in solution. This phenomenon is due to the induced polarization of dielectric particles subjected to an electric field. When the field is also inhomogeneous in terms of the distribution of its strength through space, the polarized particles move and come to rest in certain areas due to the relationship between their and the solvent's relative permittivities. If the electric field is homogenous, such as within a parallel plate capacitor, the particles are polarized according to their permittivity and the field's frequency, but they will not ...


Problems In The Study And Use Of Ac Dielectrophoresis And Their Consequences: A Study Based On Comsol Multiphysics Modeling, Vandana Devi Pandian Babu Aug 2013

Problems In The Study And Use Of Ac Dielectrophoresis And Their Consequences: A Study Based On Comsol Multiphysics Modeling, Vandana Devi Pandian Babu

All Theses

Dielectrophoresis (or DEP) is an important phenomenon which is induced when a dielectric particle is placed in a non-uniform electric field. The force generated by DEP has been exploited for various micro and nano fluidics applications like positioning, sorting and separation of particles involved in medical diagnostics, drug discovery, cell therapeutics, biosensors, microfluidics, nanoassembly, particle filtration etc. The integration of DEP systems into the microfluidics enables inexpensive, fast, highly sensitive, highly selective, label-free detection and also the analysis of target bioparticles.

This work aims to provide a complete compilation of the factors affecting the DEP force. It elucidates the underlying ...


The Development Of A Rapid Fiber-Based Immunoassay As A Point-Of-Care Or In-Home Diagnostic Test, Christopher Waddell Aug 2013

The Development Of A Rapid Fiber-Based Immunoassay As A Point-Of-Care Or In-Home Diagnostic Test, Christopher Waddell

All Theses

Early diagnosis of conditions allows for physicians to treat patients earlier, and ultimately improve patient outcomes. Two conditions of particular interest for earlier and cheaper diagnosis are the influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antiviral treatment administered within the first 48 hours of influenza infection decreases symptom severity, risk of complications, and reduced healthcare costs. Early diagnosis of HIV can decrease the risk of transmission of the virus to HIV negative individuals and allow for earlier administration of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), improving patient quality of life and patient outcomes.
Currently, the 'gold standard' for detection of both ...


Extraction Of Antioxidants From Animal Blood And Its Potential Application As A Pet Food Preservative, Chengyi Tu Aug 2013

Extraction Of Antioxidants From Animal Blood And Its Potential Application As A Pet Food Preservative, Chengyi Tu

All Theses

Nowadays, more and more people are having pets as members of their family. To the year of 2012, there are 78.2 million dogs and 86.4 million cats owned in the U.S according to the report of the Humane Society of the U.S. The pet food industry as a result has been prosperous, with an estimated market size of $21 billion in the year of 2013. However, there is a common problem for the industry - fat rancidification. Pet foods usually contain relatively high levels of fat, which, if not well protected, are prone to oxidation and generate ...


Characterization Of Potential Wear Sources In Knee Arthroplasty Prostheses After In Vivo Function, Nicole Durig May 2013

Characterization Of Potential Wear Sources In Knee Arthroplasty Prostheses After In Vivo Function, Nicole Durig

All Theses

Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common procedure generally performed in patients with osteoarthritis. While TJA continues to be a successful treatment for degenerative joint disease, there are many studies that demonstrate wear and its sequelae as the major limitation of joint replacement longevity. Previous studies have shown that wear debris originates from four main locations: articulating surfaces, modular component surfaces, surfaces of fixation, and adjuvant fixation devices. Each of these possible wear sources can initiate the cascade of failure associated with wear-induced osteolysis and lead to subsequent revision surgery. The objective of this thesis is to characterize the in ...


Post-Market Surveillance Of Total Knee Replacement Combining Clinical Outcomes And Quantitative Image Processing Techniques, Leah Nunez May 2013

Post-Market Surveillance Of Total Knee Replacement Combining Clinical Outcomes And Quantitative Image Processing Techniques, Leah Nunez

All Theses

Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for the relief of pain, correction of deformity, and restoration of function in patients with knee arthritis.1-3 In the United States, the number of primary TKR surgeries performed in 2030 is projected to be between 2,938,000 to 4,136,000 and revision surgeries between 193,000 to 381,000.4 Osteolysis, pain, and aseptic loosening are the most common causes of revision TKR surgery.5 The purpose of this thesis is to complete assessments for post-market surveillance of total knee replacement (TKR) targeting areas for improving polymer bearings through ...


A Regenerative Medicine Approach To Improved Tendon Healing And Repair, Grace Margaret Dion May 2013

A Regenerative Medicine Approach To Improved Tendon Healing And Repair, Grace Margaret Dion

All Theses

Surgical repair of torn tendons is a common orthopaedic procedure in the United States, with nearly 400,000 repairs occurring annually. Despite improvements in surgical techniques used to re-attach the tendon to its boney insertion, clinically successful outcomes amongst patients are variable and re-tear rates can be exceedingly high. The use of stem cells as an adjunct to surgical repair to aid in improving tendon healing and repair strength has gained much interest amongst the clinical community. Accordingly, many investigators have begun examining the ability of stem cells to differentiate into tenocytes using various methodologies including the application of growth ...


Evaluating Mechanical Performance Of Hydrogel-Based Adhesives For Soft Tissue Applications, Nitin Balakrishnan May 2013

Evaluating Mechanical Performance Of Hydrogel-Based Adhesives For Soft Tissue Applications, Nitin Balakrishnan

All Theses

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, an estimated 22 million women have undergone a hysterectomy procedure in the United States. The most common complication during hysterectomies is accidental laceration of the urinary bladder during the surgery with incidence between 0.2-8.3% with the current gold standard wound repair method being sutures. Yet, sutures come with their own limitations in that they necessitate use of a catheter and collection bag during healing due to preventing proper distention of the bladder tissue at normal pressures. The long-term goal of our study is to eliminate the need for suturing by ...


Development Of An Ex Vivo Tissue Testing System For Three Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Bradley Johns May 2013

Development Of An Ex Vivo Tissue Testing System For Three Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Bradley Johns

All Theses

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are localized, progressive dilations of the aortic wall and are the 13th most common cause of death in the United States (~15,000 per year) and surgery is usually recommended when the aneurysm is 5 cm or larger in diameter. Because of this clinical parameter, previous studies of AAA biomechanics have utilized a one-dimensional analysis that focuses solely on changes in wall diameter and have attempted to model geometric changes with mathematical formulas, generally based on the LaPlace equation. This is not sufficient however, as the mechanical behavior of the tissue at sites of aneurysm have ...


Dynamic Transcriptional Response Of Escherichia Coli To Inclusion Body Formation, Faraz Baig May 2013

Dynamic Transcriptional Response Of Escherichia Coli To Inclusion Body Formation, Faraz Baig

All Theses

Escherichia coli is used intensively for recombinant protein production due to its many unique advantages, but one key challenge with the use of E. coli is the tendency of recombinant proteins to misfold and aggregate into insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). The presence of IBs stresses cells and can hinder overall growth. Additionally, IBs contain high concentrations of recombinant protein in an inactive form and thus require recovery steps to salvage functional recombinant protein. Currently, no universally effective method exists to prevent IB formation in recombinant E. coli. Further research into the gene expression response to insoluble recombinant protein may provide ...


Evaluation Of Angular Velocity Data From Inertial Measurement Units For Use In Clinical Settings, Chelsea Ex-Lubeskie May 2013

Evaluation Of Angular Velocity Data From Inertial Measurement Units For Use In Clinical Settings, Chelsea Ex-Lubeskie

All Theses

Evaluating the human gait cycle with inertial measurement units (IMU) may prove beneficial for applications such as diagnoses of musculoskeletal diseases and assessment of rehabilitation regimes. An IMU system is potentially applicable for diagnosing and assessing rehabilitation outcomes for a variety of neuromuscular diseases since it is small, portable, and less expensive than a camera system. IMUs directly measure angular velocity, whereas position data from a camera system must be processed twice to obtain this information. The purpose of this research is to determine repeatability of IMU angular velocity data, and agreement between angular velocity data from an IMU system ...