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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Mobile Computing For Trauma And Surgical Care Continuous Education, Muhammad Y. Alamoud Jan 2013

Mobile Computing For Trauma And Surgical Care Continuous Education, Muhammad Y. Alamoud

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In medical domain, mobile computing has proven to be convenient, effective, and productive. With varying screen sizes, there is a challenge to present the right information in the right format such that medical practitioners can access information quickly. In this thesis, we discuss how mobile computing can be used as a way of continuous education for medical practitioners in the field of trauma and surgical care, and provide design guidelines on how to effectively present information on different mobile form factors. The focus is on three screen sizes- 4.7, 7 and 10.1 in., and three interaction methods - dropdown ...


An Investigation Of Thermal Imaging To Detect Physiological Indicators Of Stress In Humans, Carl Brady Cross Jan 2013

An Investigation Of Thermal Imaging To Detect Physiological Indicators Of Stress In Humans, Carl Brady Cross

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Real-time, stand-off sensing of humans to detect emotional state would be valuable in many defense, security and medical scenarios. Using a multimodal sensor platform that incorporates high-resolution visible-wavelength and mid-wave infrared cameras and a millimeter-wave (mmW) radar system, the detection of physiological indicators of psychological stress is tested through laboratory experiments. Our approach focuses on thermal imaging to measure temperature patterns in distinct facial regions representative of underlying hemodynamic patterns. Experiments were designed to: 1) determine the ability of thermal imaging to detect high levels of psychological stress and assess responses to physical versus psychological stressors; 2) evaluate the fidelity ...


Investigation Of The Utility Of Center Frequency In Electroencephalographic Classification Of Cognitive Workload Transitions, Jones Melissa Jan 2013

Investigation Of The Utility Of Center Frequency In Electroencephalographic Classification Of Cognitive Workload Transitions, Jones Melissa

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Successful classification of human cognitive workload is a vital component in identifying and avoiding potential performance deficits resulting from operator work overload. Previous research suggests that electroencephalogram (EEG) derived features, including center frequency, provide a robust signal which may be used to obtain highly accurate workload classification. The purpose of this work is to investigate evidence of physiological hysteresis and determine if center frequency improves a classifier's ability to correctly identify workload level. Results confirmed that including spectral data creates the most robust feature sets, while center frequency across all bands is equally reliable for classifying workload in the ...


A Comprehensive Tool And Analytical Pathway For Differential Molecular Profiling And Biomarker Discovery, Claude Curtis Grigsby Jan 2013

A Comprehensive Tool And Analytical Pathway For Differential Molecular Profiling And Biomarker Discovery, Claude Curtis Grigsby

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The key requirements to any empirically based study are to: (1) accurately measure and then compare the collected results in determining the result of the hypothesis being tested; and (2) collect a sample representative of the entities being studied. To demonstrate that an informatics tool can be designed that provides spectral registration, spectral and chromatographic alignment, visualization, and comparative analysis for data generated from multiple analytical platforms, e.g., LC-MS and GC-MS, the results and data analysis of five unique sets of experiments using a suite of novel informatics tools are presented. Comprehensive and reproducible sample collection techniques were developed ...


Simulating Hemodynamics In In Vitro Culture Models: Implications On Nano-Biointeractions, Monita Sharma Jan 2013

Simulating Hemodynamics In In Vitro Culture Models: Implications On Nano-Biointeractions, Monita Sharma

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Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have demonstrated great potential in the development of a variety of tools with applications ranging from biomedical to military fields. Consequently, there is increasing concern regarding the toxic potential of these nanomaterials. Biodistribution studies demonstrate clearance of Au-NPs from peripheral circulation and bulk localization primarily in the liver and spleen post- intravenous administration. Deposition of Au-NPs in spleen suggests the potential for direct exposure of immune cells to these foreign materials under relatively static conditions. Although much less, due to the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), Au-NPs appear to also deposit in the brain, suggesting that the resident ...


Reactive Oxygen Modulates B Lymphocyte Function Via The Nfκb/Rel Pathway, Eric J. Romer Jan 2013

Reactive Oxygen Modulates B Lymphocyte Function Via The Nfκb/Rel Pathway, Eric J. Romer

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Reactive Oxygen Intermediates (ROI) can significantly affect B Lymphocyte function, but the effects on key signaling pathways and gene expression in activated and non-activated B lymphocytes are largely undefined. This study demonstrates a concentration dependent effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on the transcriptional regulation of a 3' regulatory region of the Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (3'IghRR). Specifically, low μM hydrogen peroxide induces an enhancing effect while higher μM hydrogen peroxide (greater than or equal to 100 μM) is suppressive. The enhancing effects of hydrogen peroxide on 3'IghRR activity are dependent on the NFκB/Rel pathway, and appear to ...


Differential Regulation Of The Hippocampal Taurine Transporter Protein In Rat Brain: Mechanisms Contributing To Neuronal Volume Regulation, Amanda Noelle Freeman Jan 2013

Differential Regulation Of The Hippocampal Taurine Transporter Protein In Rat Brain: Mechanisms Contributing To Neuronal Volume Regulation, Amanda Noelle Freeman

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Background. In osmotic edema, net efflux of taurine from neurons and accumulation by astrocytes contributes to neuronal volume regulation and astrocytic swelling. Taurine is accumulated in both cell types by a sodium- and chloride-dependent 72-75 kDa protein transporter, TauT. TauT functional activity decreases in osmotically swollen neurons but is unaltered in swollen astrocytes, in vitro. This swelling-induced downregulation of neuronal TauT activity is blocked with the tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor, genistein. In contrast, PKC activation has no effect on neuronal TauT, but inhibits astrocytic TauT. Thus, we hypothesize that during osmotic swelling, neuronal TauT activity is regulated by a TK ...


Utility Of A Volume-Regulated Drive System For Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation, Benjamin A. Schmitt Jan 2013

Utility Of A Volume-Regulated Drive System For Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation, Benjamin A. Schmitt

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Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation (DMVA) is a non-blood contacting cardiac assist device that augments ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to determine if a volume-regulated "hand pump" drive system and a pressure-regulated "switch tank" drive system provide equivalent levels of cardiac support. Canine (n=2) and swine (n=4) were instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and intravascular echocardiography. DMVA support was assessed during both severe heart failure and fibrillation. Pump function was evaluated using hemodynamic measures to calculate stroke work. Myocardial function was assessed using echocardiographic speckle tracking to quantify strain rate. Results were compared between groups using paired ...


New Insights Into The Spinal Recurrent Inhibitory Pathway Normally And After Motoneuron Regeneration, Ahmed Zayed Obeidat Jan 2013

New Insights Into The Spinal Recurrent Inhibitory Pathway Normally And After Motoneuron Regeneration, Ahmed Zayed Obeidat

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Despite more than seven decades of intensive research, uncertainty is the hallmark of spinal recurrent inhibition. The simplest possible structure that is formed between the a-motoneuron and its inhibitory interneurons has been the subject of long lasting scientific debate. To date, there is no consensus on the functional significance of this circuit. Even the simplest assumption of a negative feedback loop does not hold true. The current work used the technique of in vivo intracellular recording from the adult rat a-motoneurons to study the normal function and the plasticity after nerve injury and regeneration of this simple, yet intricate spinal ...


Elucidating A Role Of Btf And Trap150 In Pre-Mrna Processing And Cell Cycle Progression, Sapna N. Varia Jan 2013

Elucidating A Role Of Btf And Trap150 In Pre-Mrna Processing And Cell Cycle Progression, Sapna N. Varia

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Transcription of protein-coding genes is coordinated with pre-mRNA processing as well as mRNP assembly and nuclear export in mammalian cells. In this dissertation, I examined the functions of two homologous non-classical serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins, Btf (BCLAF1) and TRAP150 in these steps of gene regulation. Since Btf and TRAP150 share 39% sequence identity and 66% sequence similarity, I also examined whether Btf and TRAP150 have overlapping or distinct functions in pre-mRNA processing. Using two different reporter loci, I showed in-situ recruitment of Btf and TRAP150 at reporter transcription sites, and I identified both Btf and TRAP150 being associated with a core ...


Evaluation Of Interpolation Effects On Upsampling And Accuracy Of Cost Functions-Based Optimized Automatic Image Registration, Amir Pasha Mahmoudzadeh, Nasser H. Kashou Jan 2013

Evaluation Of Interpolation Effects On Upsampling And Accuracy Of Cost Functions-Based Optimized Automatic Image Registration, Amir Pasha Mahmoudzadeh, Nasser H. Kashou

Biomedical, Industrial & Human Factors Engineering Faculty Publications

Interpolation has become a default operation in image processing and medical imaging and is one of the important factors in the success of an intensity-based registration method. Interpolation is needed if the fractional unit of motion is not matched and located on the high resolution (HR) grid. The purpose of this work is to present a systematic evaluation of eight standard interpolation techniques (trilinear, nearest neighbor, cubic Lagrangian, quintic Lagrangian, hepatic Lagrangian, windowed Sinc, B-spline 3rd order, and B-spline 4th order) and to compare the effect of cost functions (least squares (LS), normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross correlation (NCC ...


The Molecular Genetics Learning Progressions: Revisions And Refinements Based On Empirical Testing In Three 10th Grade Classrooms, Amber Nicole Todd Jan 2013

The Molecular Genetics Learning Progressions: Revisions And Refinements Based On Empirical Testing In Three 10th Grade Classrooms, Amber Nicole Todd

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In the past few decades, there has been a large push for increasing scientific literacy (AAAS, 1989; AAAS, 1993; Achieve, 2013; NRC, 1996; NRC, 2012), especially in areas that are rapidly advancing, like molecular genetics. Much research has been done on student understandings of molecular genetics and the consensus is that the concepts are difficult both to learn and teach (Fisher, 1992; Horwitz, 1996; Kindfield, 1992; Lewis & Kattmann, 2004; Marbach-Ad & Stavy, 2000; Stewart et al., 2005; Venville & Treagust, 1998; etc.). Two learning progressions in molecular genetics have been produced (Duncan et al., 2009; Roseman et al. 2006), but both progressions are hypothetical as neither have been ...