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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Western University

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad Dec 2013

Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Due to physical and biological constraints and requirements on the minimum resolution and SNR, the acquisition time is relatively long in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, a limited number of pulse sequences can be run in a clinical MRI session because of constraints on the total acquisition time due to patient comfort and cost considerations. Therefore, it is strongly desired to reduce the acquisition time without compromising the reconstruction quality. This thesis concerns under-sampled reconstruction techniques for acceleration of MRI acquisitions, i.e., parallel imaging and compressed sensing.

While compressed sensing MRI reconstructions are commonly regularized by penalizing the decimated ...


The Development Of A New Dry Powder Inhaler, Xi Zhang Dec 2013

The Development Of A New Dry Powder Inhaler, Xi Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A new dry powder inhaler (DPI) for respiratory drug delivery was developed. This novel device is characterized by a micro-dose, passive delivery and multiple doses individually sealed in one replaceable disk. The micro-dose delivery system uses only a small amount of excipient, such as 2-3mg lactose, thereby improving the drug delivery efficiency. The passive delivery method eliminates the need for coordination between breath and device actuation such as the pressure metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Finally, 14 doses on a disk reduce the need to frequently change dosage disks. In addition, each dose is effectively protected by a blister package to ...


Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui Dec 2013

Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared to conventional phenolic resins. Lignin depolymerization can increase the reactivity of lignin; however, the effect of lignin molecular weight on curing performance of LPF resins has yet to be investigated. This research work examined the optimization of synthesis parameters including percent substitution of phenol with lignin, formaldehyde- to-phenol ratio (F/P), and Mw of lignin to reduce the curing temperature and increase the adhesive strength of LPF. DSC analysis indicated that lignin with Mw ~1200g ...


New Technology And Techniques For Needle-Based Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Prostate Focal Therapy, Jeremy Cepek Dec 2013

New Technology And Techniques For Needle-Based Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Prostate Focal Therapy, Jeremy Cepek

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The most common diagnosis of prostate cancer is that of localized disease, and unfortunately the optimal type of treatment for these men is not yet certain. Magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is a promising potential treatment option for select men with localized prostate cancer, and may result in fewer side effects than whole-gland therapies, while still achieving oncologic control. The objective of this thesis was to develop methods of accurately guiding needles to the prostate within the bore of a clinical MRI scanner for MRI-guided FLA therapy.

To achieve this goal, a mechatronic needle guidance ...


Biomimetic Poly(Ester Amide) Biomaterials For Vascular Tissue Engineering, Darryl K. Knight Dec 2013

Biomimetic Poly(Ester Amide) Biomaterials For Vascular Tissue Engineering, Darryl K. Knight

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The focus of this research was to develop a biomimetic, degradable vascular scaffold that could be considered as part of a tissue-engineered vascular graft strategy. A family of degradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) derived from naturally occurring α-amino acids, aliphatic diols and diacids were synthesized to yield PEAs with glass transition temperatures below physiologic temperature ensuring their pliability. Tri-functional amino acids l-lysine or l-aspartic acid were incorporated into the polymer backbone yielding complementary functional handles for subsequent conjugation of growth factors. Higher molecular weight PEAs were obtained using an interfacial polycondensation technique compared with a solution polymerization approach.

Human ...


Image Registration Of Ex-Vivo Mri To Sparsely Sectioned Histology Of Hippocampal And Neocortical Temporal Lobe Specimens., Maged Goubran, Cathie Crukley, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Terence M Peters, Ali R Khan Dec 2013

Image Registration Of Ex-Vivo Mri To Sparsely Sectioned Histology Of Hippocampal And Neocortical Temporal Lobe Specimens., Maged Goubran, Cathie Crukley, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Terence M Peters, Ali R Khan

Robarts Imaging Publications

Intractable or drug-resistant epilepsy occurs in up to 30% of epilepsy patients, with many of these patients undergoing surgical excision of the affected brain region to achieve seizure control. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and analysis techniques have the potential to detect abnormalities not identified with diagnostic MRI protocols. Prospective studies involving pre-operative imaging and collection of surgically-resected tissue provide a unique opportunity for verification and tuning of these image analysis techniques, since direct comparison can be made against histopathology, and can lead to better prediction of surgical outcomes and potentially less invasive procedures. To carry out MRI and ...


Web-Based Simulation And Training Environment For Laparoscopic Camera Calibration, Kartik Thakore Oct 2013

Web-Based Simulation And Training Environment For Laparoscopic Camera Calibration, Kartik Thakore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Endoscopic cameras are increasingly employed in image-guidance procedures, where the video images must be registered to data from other modalities. However, such cameras are susceptible to distortions, requiring calibration before images can be used for registration, tracking and 3D reconstruction. Camera calibration is learned in a laboratory setting, where configuring and adjusting the physical setup is tedious and not necessarily conducive to learning. A centralized resource that utilizes 3D interactive components needs to be available for training on camera calibration. In this project, a web-based training environment for camera calibration is implemented called SimCAM. SimCAM was developed using the Web ...


Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer Sep 2013

Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis we described inexpensive alternatives to fabricate nanostructures on planar substrates and provided example applications to discuss the efficiency of fabricated nanostructures.

The first method we described is forming large area systematically changing multi-shape nanoscale structures on a chip by laser interference lithography. We analyzed the fabricated structures at different substrate positions with respect to exposure time, exposure angle and associated light intensity profile. We presented experimental details related to the fabrication of symmetric and biaxial periodic nanostructures on photoresist, silicon surfaces, and ion-milled glass substrates. Behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the nanostructures was investigated. These results ...


Investigating Conducted Microvascular Response To Localized Oxygen Delivery In Vivo Using A Novel Micro-Delivery Approach, Nour W. Ghonaim Sep 2013

Investigating Conducted Microvascular Response To Localized Oxygen Delivery In Vivo Using A Novel Micro-Delivery Approach, Nour W. Ghonaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Since erythrocytes release the vasodilator adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in an oxygen (O2) dependent manner, erythrocytes are proposed to play a central role in O2 regulation. This ATP signaling mechanism is proposed to be most efficient in the capillaries due to the short diffusion distance to the electrically coupled endothelium which communicates directly with arterioles. We hypothesize that capillaries are able to signal upstream arterioles for changes in erythrocyte supply rate in response to changes in capillary erythrocyte O2 saturation (SO2)through SO2-dependent ATP signaling. To test this hypothesis, we have developed a micro-delivery system ...


Automated Segmentation Of Left And Right Ventricles In Mri And Classification Of The Myocarfium Abnormalities, Cyrus (Mohammad Saleh) Nambakhsh Sep 2013

Automated Segmentation Of Left And Right Ventricles In Mri And Classification Of The Myocarfium Abnormalities, Cyrus (Mohammad Saleh) Nambakhsh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A fundamental step in diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, automated left and right ventricle (LV and RV) segmentation in cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) is still acknowledged to be a difficult problem. Although algorithms for LV segmentation do exist, they require either extensive training or intensive user inputs. RV segmentation in MRI has yet to be solved and is still acknowledged a completely unsolved problem because its shape is not symmetric and circular, its deformations are complex and varies extensively over the cardiac phases, and it includes papillary muscles. In this thesis, I investigate fast detection of the LV endo- and ...


Vascular Segmentation Algorithms For Generating 3d Atherosclerotic Measurements, Eranga Ukwatta Aug 2013

Vascular Segmentation Algorithms For Generating 3d Atherosclerotic Measurements, Eranga Ukwatta

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Atherosclerosis manifests as plaques within large arteries of the body and remains as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Major cardiovascular events may occur in patients without known preexisting symptoms, thus it is important to monitor progression and regression of the plaque burden in the arteries for evaluating patient's response to therapy. In this dissertation, our main focus is quantification of plaque burden from the carotid and femoral arteries, which are major sites for plaque formation, and are straight forward to image noninvasively due to their superficial location. Recently, 3D measurements of plaque burden have ...


Development And Assessment Of An Impact Apparatus And High-Speed Camera Motion Tracking System To Quantify The Effect Of Static Muscle Loads On Fracture Threshold Measures In The Distal Radius, Jacob M. Reeves Aug 2013

Development And Assessment Of An Impact Apparatus And High-Speed Camera Motion Tracking System To Quantify The Effect Of Static Muscle Loads On Fracture Threshold Measures In The Distal Radius, Jacob M. Reeves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Distal radius fractures are prevalent, debilitating, and costly. This thesis conducts an in vitro investigation of these injuries, examining the role of static muscle loading on fracture threshold measures (i.e., force, impulse, energy). Initially, an impact apparatus and custom LabVIEW colour-thresholding program were designed and assessed for repeatability and accuracy in quantifying fracture measures and impact kinematics. These tools were then used to test six pairs of cadaveric forearms, with static muscle loads simulated in one specimen from each pair. Distal radius fractures were achieved in 5 pairs, with perilunate dislocations in the remaining pair. None of the fracture ...


Piv-Based Investigation Of Hemodynamic Factors In Diseased Carotid Artery Bifurcations With Varying Plaque Geometries, Sarah Kefayati Aug 2013

Piv-Based Investigation Of Hemodynamic Factors In Diseased Carotid Artery Bifurcations With Varying Plaque Geometries, Sarah Kefayati

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ischemic stroke is often a consequence of complications due to clot formation (i.e. thrombosis) at the site of an atherosclerotic plaque developed in the internal carotid artery. Hemodynamic factors, such as shear-stress forces and flow disturbances, can facilitate the key mechanisms of thrombosis. Atherosclerotic plaques can differ in the severity of stenosis (narrowing), in eccentricity (symmetry), as well as inclusion of ulceration (wall roughness). Therefore, in terms of clinical significance, it is important to investigate how the local hemodynamics of the carotid artery is mediated by the geometry of plaque. Knowledge of thrombosis-associated hemodynamics may provide a basis to ...


Numerical Investigation Of The Interdependence Between Humeral Implant Position And Bone Removal Amount For Total Elbow Arthroplasty, Alexander J. Heroux Aug 2013

Numerical Investigation Of The Interdependence Between Humeral Implant Position And Bone Removal Amount For Total Elbow Arthroplasty, Alexander J. Heroux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total elbow arthroplasty is a surgical procedure used to replace an afflicted articulation with prosthetic joint components. A good alignment between the native and prosthetic flexion-extension axes of the elbow is required to preserve its functionality. However, this is often unobtainable because of the mismatch between humeral canal and implant stem geometries. To correct this, surgeons are often required to intraoperatively make error-prone decisions when determining an appropriate implant posture that minimizes the amount of cortical bone to be removed while maintaining the alignment between the two flexion-extension axes. To address this issue, the present study has developed computational tools ...


Design And Development Of A Novel Expanding Pedicle Screw For Use In The Osteoporotic Lumbar Spine, Parham Rasoulinejad Aug 2013

Design And Development Of A Novel Expanding Pedicle Screw For Use In The Osteoporotic Lumbar Spine, Parham Rasoulinejad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pedicle screws are commonly utilized in spinal surgery; however, traditional designs often do not provide adequate fixation in osteoporotic spines. The objective of this thesis was to develop a novel expanding screw for use in osteoporotic lumbar pedicles. Helical screws capable of expanding post insertion were built on a rapid prototype machine. A materials testing machine performed axial load to failure tests in both Sawbones and cadaveric specimens comparing the new design to traditional screws (rate = 10mm/min to 20 mm). Output parameters included yield load, ultimate load, stiffness, energy to failure and total energy. The expanding screw showed a ...


Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf Aug 2013

Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Limited fossil fuel reserves, increasing demand for energy in all parts of the world are some driving forces to look for new sources of transportation fuels. Among different options available, microalgae are currently attracting wide interests as an alternative and renewable fuel source.

Microalgae are single cell photosynthetic organisms that are known for rapid growth and high energy content and as a part of photosynthesis; they produce oil that can be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Some algae strains could contain lipid up to 80% of the dry biomass. The amount of lipid production is in direct relation ...


Design Of A Minimally Invasive Single Port Hdr Brachytherapy Applicator For The Treatment Of Lung Cancer, Mauricio Nahum Leroy Aug 2013

Design Of A Minimally Invasive Single Port Hdr Brachytherapy Applicator For The Treatment Of Lung Cancer, Mauricio Nahum Leroy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cancer has become the number one cause of death in Canada and lung cancer is its deadliest form. Surgical resection remains as the treatment of choice for most patients; however, in many cases a less aggressive alternative such as brachytherapy may be preferable. Today, HDR brachytherapy is a relatively common procedure but with current techniques and equipment only tumours close to the main bronchi can be reached.

This project describes the design, development and validation of a first prototype of an ultrasound-guided needle guidance system that would enable physicians to perform HDR brachytherapy for the treatment of lung cancer in ...


The Effect Of Stem Surface Treatment And Substrate Material On Joint Replacement Stability: An In-Vitro Investigation Into The Stem-Cement Interface Mechanics Under Various Loading Modes, Yara K. Hosein Aug 2013

The Effect Of Stem Surface Treatment And Substrate Material On Joint Replacement Stability: An In-Vitro Investigation Into The Stem-Cement Interface Mechanics Under Various Loading Modes, Yara K. Hosein

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mechanical loosening is a common mode of joint replacement failure. For cemented implants, loosening at the implant-cement interface may be affected by stem surface design. Altering the surface topography facilitates the infiltration of bone cement onto the stem, creating a mechanical interlock, improving interface stability. However, few in-vitro studies have investigated this. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to investigate the effect of stem surface treatments and substrate materials on stem-cement interface stability in-vitro.

Four separate studies were performed to assess the stability of various stem surface treatments, with two substrate materials, under three loading modes. Titanium and cobalt ...


Electrospinning Of Core-Shell Collagen Nanofibers, Ying Li Aug 2013

Electrospinning Of Core-Shell Collagen Nanofibers, Ying Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In tissue engineering, the scaffold plays a critical role in guiding and supporting cells to function and grow optimally. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffold can serve as a near ideal substrate for tissue engineering because it has high surface area and the three-dimensional interconnected porous network can enhance cell attachment and proliferation. Core-shell nanofibrous scaffolds produced with coaxial electrospinning allow bioactive molecule encapsulation to improve cell adhesion, mediate and promote the proper signaling among the cells for their functioning and growth. In the current study, core-shell collagen nanofibers were fabricated via coaxial electrospinning with horizontal and vertical configurations. Core-shell nanofibers with ...


Amine Functionalization Of Bacterial Cellulose For Targeted Delivery Applications, Justin Cook Aug 2013

Amine Functionalization Of Bacterial Cellulose For Targeted Delivery Applications, Justin Cook

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bacterial cellulose (BC), produced by acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter xylinus, is ideal for delivery and related biomedical functions. It is FDA approved for wound dressings and internal applications, non-toxic to endothelial cells and has little effect on blood profiles. Conjugation of therapeutics to BC can be accomplished through the available alcohol groups of the anhydroglucose units (AGU), making targeted delivery possible. Amine was introduced to BC through a reaction involving epichlorohydrin and ammonium hydroxide. The chemical structure was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy and quantified through pH titration. Conjugation of amine to BC was demonstrated through fluorescein-5’-isothiocyanate (FITC) and bromocresol ...


Reproducibility Of Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nikhil Kanhere Jul 2013

Reproducibility Of Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nikhil Kanhere

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spirometry and plethysmography provide gold standard measurements of obstructive lung disease, although these are global measurements of lung function made at the mouth, of a highly regionally heterogeneous disease. Hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive, non-radiation-based imaging tool for visualizing regional lung structure and function. However, the reproducibility of 129Xe MRI measurements has not yet been studied or determined. Hence, in this thesis, we evaluated the reproducibility of 129Xe MRI using quantitative measurements such as ventilation defect percent (VDP). We showed that 129Xe VDP had high intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility for repeated scans ...


Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec Jun 2013

Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biomaterials can be used in a wide variety of medical applications owing to their breadth of characteristics that can be imparted by varying their chemical structures. Butyl rubber (IIR), which is a copolymer of isobutylene (IB) and small percentages of isoprene (IP), is particularly attractive as a biomaterial because of its elastomeric mechanical properties, biocompatibility, impermeability and high damping characteristics. IIR is typically vulcanized through chemical-based crosslinking mechanisms. However, these methods are not acceptable for biological applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of IIR-polyester graft copolymers by grafting biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters including poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d ...


On The Development Of A Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Near-Infrared Technique To Measure Cerebral Blood Flow In The Neurocritical Care Unit, Jonathan T. Elliott May 2013

On The Development Of A Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Near-Infrared Technique To Measure Cerebral Blood Flow In The Neurocritical Care Unit, Jonathan T. Elliott

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) near-infrared (NIR) method to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the neurocritical care unit (NCU) is described. A primary concern in managing patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) is onset of delayed ischemic injury (DII) caused by complications during the days to weeks following the initial insult, resulting in reduced CBF and impaired oxygen delivery.

The development of a safe, portable, and quantitative DCE-NIR method for measuring CBF in NCU patients is addressed by focusing on four main areas: designing a clinically compatible instrument, developing an appropriate analytical framework, creating a relevant ABI animal model, and ...


An Investigation Of Subaxial Cervical Spine Trauma And Surgical Treatment Through Biomechanical Simulation And Kinematic Analysis, Stewart D. Mclachlin Apr 2013

An Investigation Of Subaxial Cervical Spine Trauma And Surgical Treatment Through Biomechanical Simulation And Kinematic Analysis, Stewart D. Mclachlin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In vitro biomechanical investigations can help to identify changes in subaxial cervical spine (C3-C7) stability following injury, and determine the efficacy of surgical treatments through controlled joint simulation experiments and kinematic analyses. However, with the large spectrum of cervical spine trauma, a large fraction of the potential injuries have not been examined biomechanically. This includes a lack of studies investigating prevalent flexion-distraction injuries. Therefore, the overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the changes in subaxial cervical spine kinematic stability with simulated flexion-distraction injuries and current surgical instrumentation approaches using both established and novel biomechanical techniques.

Three in vitro ...


Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo Apr 2013

Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Treatments of bone injuries and defects have been largely centered on replacing the lost bone with tissues of allogeneic or xenogeneic sources as well as synthetic bone substitutes, which in all lead to limited degree of structural and functional recovery. As a result, tissue engineering has emerged as a viable technology to regenerate the structures and therefore recover the functions of bone tissue rather than replacement alone. Hence, the current strategies of bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function.

In this ...


Engineering Nanocomposites For Antimicrobial Application, Binyu Yu Jan 2013

Engineering Nanocomposites For Antimicrobial Application, Binyu Yu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, active and passive antimicrobial methods have been applied to fabricate antifouling surfaces. In the first study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of neat TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 composite nanofilms prepared on silicon wafer by sol-gel method. The synthesized Ag-TiO2 thin films showed enhanced bactericidal activities compared to the neat TiO2 nanofilm both in the dark and under UV illumination. The advantage of Ag-TiO2 nano-composites is to expand the nanomaterial’s antibacterial function to a broader range of working conditions. In the second study, we reported the synthesis, characterization and environmental application of ...


Developing Electrochemical Biosensors For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Cardiovascular Biomarkers, Yang Cheng Jan 2013

Developing Electrochemical Biosensors For Point-Of-Care Diagnostics Of Cardiovascular Biomarkers, Yang Cheng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Troponin is known as a type of reliable biomarker for the detection of cardiac disorders. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), as a subunit of troponin, is highly sensitive to cardiac injury; therefore, the cTnI level is used as an index to diagnose myocardial damage, particularly acute myocardial infarction. It can be also used in cardiospecific diagnosis, risk stratification therapeutic treatment and post risk management. In this research, an amperometric immunosensor was developed based on planar electrode and sandwich ELISA format. The electrical response corresponding to biological information was obtained via four main procedures, including electrode modification, immunoreaction, signal amplifications and amperometric ...