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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Old Dominion University

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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Electrotransfer Of Single-Stranded Or Double-Stranded Dna Induces Complete Regression Of Palpable B16.F10 Mouse Melanomas, Loree Heller, Vesba Todorovic, Maja Cemazar Dec 2013

Electrotransfer Of Single-Stranded Or Double-Stranded Dna Induces Complete Regression Of Palpable B16.F10 Mouse Melanomas, Loree Heller, Vesba Todorovic, Maja Cemazar

Bioelectrics Publications

Enhanced tumor delivery of plasmid DNA with electric pulses in vivo has been confirmed in many preclinical models. Intratumor electrotransfer of plasmids encoding therapeutic molecules has reached Phase II clinical trials. In multiple preclinical studies, a reduction in tumor growth, increased survival or complete tumor regression have been observed in control groups in which vector or backbone plasmid DNA electrotransfer was performed. This study explores factors that could produce this antitumor effect. The specific electrotransfer pulse protocol employed significantly potentiated the regression. Tumor regression was observed after delivery of single-stranded or double-stranded DNA with or without CpG motifs in both ...


Subtalar Joint Instability: Diagnosis And Conservative Treatment, Julie Choisne Jul 2013

Subtalar Joint Instability: Diagnosis And Conservative Treatment, Julie Choisne

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Subtalar instability may be caused by various ligamentous injuries. Combined instability at the ankle and subtalar joint is not adequately diagnosed. Further, isolated subtalar instability is usually misdiagnosed which may lead to long term damage to the joint. Developing a non-invasive and clinically practical tool to diagnose subtalar joint instability would be an important asset. The ability of an ankle brace, a common treatment for hindfoot instability, to promote stability for the subtalar joint was not well established. The purposes of this study were to 1) assess the kinematics of the subtalar, ankle, and hindfoot in the presence of isolated ...


Protein Loop Length Estimation From Medium Resolution Cryoem Images, Andrew R. Mcknight Jul 2013

Protein Loop Length Estimation From Medium Resolution Cryoem Images, Andrew R. Mcknight

Computer Science Theses & Dissertations

In the post-genomic era, proteomics research presents a new frontier in life science. Proteins play roles in virtually every biological process, and understanding their atomic structures is the key to unraveling how they carry out their work. Compared to the over half million protein sequences in UniProt, only around 25,000 unique sequences have been atomically modeled and deposited to PDB (Protein Databank). Cryoelectron Microscopy (cryoEM) is an important biophysical technique that produces 3D subnanometer resolution images of molecules not amenable to past approaches like x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance. De novo modeling is becoming a promising approach to ...


Section Abstracts: Biomedical And General Engineering May 2013

Section Abstracts: Biomedical And General Engineering

Virginia Journal of Science

Abstracts of the Biomedical and General Engineering Section for the 91st Annual Virginia Journal of Science Meeting, May 2013


Induction Of Cell Death Mechanisms And Apoptosis By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs), Stephen J. Beebe, Nova M. Sain, Wei Ren Jan 2013

Induction Of Cell Death Mechanisms And Apoptosis By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs), Stephen J. Beebe, Nova M. Sain, Wei Ren

Bioelectrics Publications

Pulse power technology using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a new stimulus to modulate cell functions or induce cell death for cancer cell ablation. New data and a literature review demonstrate fundamental and basic cellular mechanisms when nsPEFs interact with cellular targets. NsPEFs supra-electroporate cells creating large numbers of nanopores in all cell membranes. While nsPEFs have multiple cellular targets, these studies show that nsPEF-induced dissipation of DeltaPsim closely parallels deterioration in cell viability. Increases in intracellular Ca2+ alone were not sufficient for cell death; however, cell death depended of the presence of Ca2+. When both events occur, cell ...


Atomic Force Microscopy Characterization Of Collagen ‘Nanostraws’ In Human Costal Cartilage, Michael W. Stacey, Diganta Dutta, Anthony Asmar, H. Elsayed-Ali, R. Kelly Jr., A. Beskok Jan 2013

Atomic Force Microscopy Characterization Of Collagen ‘Nanostraws’ In Human Costal Cartilage, Michael W. Stacey, Diganta Dutta, Anthony Asmar, H. Elsayed-Ali, R. Kelly Jr., A. Beskok

Bioelectrics Publications

Costal cartilage, a type of hyaline cartilage that bridges the bony ribs and sternum, is relatively understudied compared to the load bearing cartilages. Deformities of costal cartilage can result in deformation of the chest wall, where the sternum is largely pushed toward or away from the spine, pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum, respectively, with each condition having significant clinical impact. In the absence of extensive literature describing morphological features of costal cartilage, we characterized a sample from the costal margin immunohistologically and through atomic force microscopy. We had previously observed the presence of collagen ‘nanostraws’ running the length of costal ...


Cpg And Interleukin-15 Synergize To Enhance Ifn-Gamma Production By Activated Cd8(+) T Cells, Dustin Cobb, Sigi Guo, Ronald B. Smeltz Jan 2013

Cpg And Interleukin-15 Synergize To Enhance Ifn-Gamma Production By Activated Cd8(+) T Cells, Dustin Cobb, Sigi Guo, Ronald B. Smeltz

Bioelectrics Publications

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) regulates the development and maintenance of memory CD8(+) T cells. Paradoxically, we previously reported that IL-15 could enhance CD8(+) T-cell responses to IL-12, a proinflammatory cytokine required for optimal priming of effector CD8(+) T cells. To expand the physiological relevance of these findings, we tested IL-15 for its ability to enhance T-cell responses to bacterial CpG. Expectedly, CpG enhanced the production of IFN-gamma by CD8(+) T cells polyclonally activated with anti-CD3. However, addition of IL-15 to CpG-stimulated cultures led to a striking increase in IFN-gamma production. The effect of CpG and IL-15 was also evident with CD8(+) T ...


Response To "Sodium Current Inhibition By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) - Fact Or Artifact?" By Verkerk Et Al, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2013

Response To "Sodium Current Inhibition By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) - Fact Or Artifact?" By Verkerk Et Al, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

It was nice to learn that our studies of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) effects on membrane currents [Nesin et al., 2012; Nesin and Pakhomov, 2012] gained the attention of scientists outside the immediate field of bioelectromagnetics.


Primary Pathways Of Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2013

Primary Pathways Of Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Permeabilization of cell membranous structures by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) triggers transient rise of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which determines multifarious downstream effects. By using fast ratiometric Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2, we quantified the external Ca2+ uptake, compared it with Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and analyzed the interplay of these processes. We utilized CHO cells which lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, so that the nsPEF-induced [Ca2+]i changes could be attributed primarily to electroporation. We found that a single 60-ns pulse caused fast [Ca2+]i increase by Ca2 ...


Distal Placement Of An End-To-Side Bypass Graft Anastomosis: A 3d Computational Study, John Di Cicco, Ayodeji Demuren Jan 2013

Distal Placement Of An End-To-Side Bypass Graft Anastomosis: A 3d Computational Study, John Di Cicco, Ayodeji Demuren

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics study of shear rates around distal end-to-side anastomoses has been conducted. Three 51% and three 75% cross-sectional area-reduced 6 mm cylinders were modeled each with a bypass cylinder attached at a 30-degree angle at different placements distal to the constriction. Steady, incompressible, Newtonian blood flow was assumed, and the full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, turbulent kinetic energy, and specific dissipation rate equations were solved on a locally structured multiblock mesh with hexahedral elements. Consequently, distal placement of an end-to-side bypass graft anastomosis was found to have an influence on the shear rate magnitudes. For the ...


An Empirical Muscle Intracellular Action Potential Model With Multiple Erlang Probability Density Functions Based On A Modified Newton Method, Gyutae Kim, Mohammed M. Ferdjallah, Frederic D. Mckenzie Jan 2013

An Empirical Muscle Intracellular Action Potential Model With Multiple Erlang Probability Density Functions Based On A Modified Newton Method, Gyutae Kim, Mohammed M. Ferdjallah, Frederic D. Mckenzie

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Faculty Publications

The convolution of the transmembrane current of an excitable cell and a weighting function generates a single fiber action potential (SFAP) model by using the volume conductor theory. Here, we propose an empirical muscle IAP model with multiple Erlang probability density functions (PDFs) based on a modified Newton method. In addition, we generate SFAPs based on our IAP model and referent sources, and use the peak-to-peak ratios (PPRs) of SFAPs for model verification. Through this verification, we find that the relation between an IAP profile and the PPR of its SFAP is consistent with some previous studies, and our IAP ...


Functional Near Infrared Detection Of Real And Imagined Finger Taps Using Support Vector Machine, Linear Discriminant Analysis, And Decision Tree Classification Methods, Eugene A. Stoudenmire Jan 2013

Functional Near Infrared Detection Of Real And Imagined Finger Taps Using Support Vector Machine, Linear Discriminant Analysis, And Decision Tree Classification Methods, Eugene A. Stoudenmire

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This study investigates the thesis that given cerebral response samples of an individual's left, right, both, and imagined finger tapping, continuous wave (CW) functional Near Infrared (fNIR), unregistered with fMRI, can differentiate between any two of the four categories.

Fifty subjects were outfitted with a single source/detector attached to a single, square pad, affixed to their heads using devices such as elastic bands and caps for light shielding. Slides depicting arrows pointing left, right, both directions, or made of dashed lines were presented to each subject, with a slide of text interspersed between each. Subjects tapped with their ...