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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Quantification Of Local Hemodynamic Alterations Caused By Virtual Implantation Of Three Commercially-Available Stents For The Treatment Of Aortic Coarctation, Sung Kwon Oct 2013

Quantification Of Local Hemodynamic Alterations Caused By Virtual Implantation Of Three Commercially-Available Stents For The Treatment Of Aortic Coarctation, Sung Kwon

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are prone to morbidity including atherosclerotic plaque that has been shown to correlate with altered wall shear stress (WSS) in the descending thoracic aorta (dAo). We created the first patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a CoA patient treated by Palmaz stenting, and compared resulting WSS distributions to those from virtual implantation of the NumedCP and GenesisXD stents also commonly used for CoA. CFD models were created from magnetic resonance, fluoroscopy and blood pressure (BP) data. Simulations incorporated vessel deformation, downstream vascular resistance and compliance to match measured data and generate blood ...


Dynamic Balance Control During Treadmill Walking In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Eric Richard Walker Oct 2013

Dynamic Balance Control During Treadmill Walking In Chronic Stroke Survivors, Eric Richard Walker

Dissertations (1934 -)

Maintaining dynamic balance is an important component of walking function that is likely impaired in chronic stroke survivors, evidenced by an increased prevalence of falls. Dynamic balance control requires maintaining the center of mass (COM) within the base of support during movement. During walking, dynamic balance control is achieved largely by modifying foot placement to adjust the base of support. However, chronic stroke survivors have difficulty with both precision control of foot placement, as well as reduced control of COM movement. The objective of this dissertation was to characterize dynamic balance control strategies during walking in chronic stroke survivors. Additionally ...


Slow Potentials Of The Sensorimotor Cortex During Rhythmic Movements Of The Ankle, Ryan J. Mckindles Oct 2013

Slow Potentials Of The Sensorimotor Cortex During Rhythmic Movements Of The Ankle, Ryan J. Mckindles

Dissertations (1934 -)

The objective of this dissertation was to more fully understand the role of the human brain in the production of lower extremity rhythmic movements. Throughout the last century, evidence from animal models has demonstrated that spinal reflexes and networks alone are sufficient to propagate ambulation. However, observations after neural trauma, such as a spinal cord injury, demonstrate that humans require supraspinal drive to facilitate locomotion. To investigate the unique nature of lower extremity rhythmic movements, electroencephalography was used to record neural signals from the sensorimotor cortex during three cyclic ankle movement experiments. First, we characterized the differences in slow movement-related ...


Supraspinal Control Of Unilateral Locomotor Performance: An Fmri Study Using A Custom Pedaling Device, Brett Arand Oct 2013

Supraspinal Control Of Unilateral Locomotor Performance: An Fmri Study Using A Custom Pedaling Device, Brett Arand

Master's Theses (2009 -)

This study aimed to develop a novel unilateral pedaling device, validate its function, and use it in an fMRI study of bilateral vs. unilateral locomotor control. The new device is MRI compatible and allows for conventional coupled bilateral pedaling, along with decoupled unilateral pedaling. It was designed with an assistance mechanism to simulate the presence of the non-contributing leg while pedaling unilaterally. During coupled bilateral pedaling, the two legs work in unison: while one leg is extending in the downstroke, it provides support to lift the other leg back up as it is flexing in the upstroke. The device uses ...


Characterization Of Two-Dimensional Oculomotor Control During Goal-Directed Eye Movements In Humans, Vincent Dang Oct 2013

Characterization Of Two-Dimensional Oculomotor Control During Goal-Directed Eye Movements In Humans, Vincent Dang

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Oculomotor control is a subset of sensorimotor control that allows humans to make extremely accurate eye movements for ADL. Impairments to oculomotor control can increase the impact of sensorimotor control deficits, especially in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. Here, a two-dimensional computational control system of saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements was compiled from literature to systematically characterize oculomotor control in eight visually-healthy humans as a precursor to studying the relationship between oculomotor and sensorimotor control in patient populations. Subjects visually tracked a single dot on a 41 x 30.5 cm monitor in a dark room while eye positions were ...


Novel Paradigms For Visual Field Mapping With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Yan Ma Sep 2013

Novel Paradigms For Visual Field Mapping With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Yan Ma

Dissertations (1934 -)

The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the existing, and develop new visual field mapping paradigms, which consist of visual stimulation scheme, post-processing and displaying tools using fMRI for both research and clinical applications.

We first directly compared phase mapping and random multifocal mapping paradigms with respect to clinically relevant factors. Multifocal mapping was superior in immunity to noise and was able to accurately decompose the response of single voxels to multiple stimulus locations. In contrast, phase mapping activated more extrastriate visual areas and was more efficient per run in achieving a statistically efficient response in a minimum ...


An Fmri Study On Supra-Spinal Contributions To Upper And Lower Limb Motor Control, Shancheng Bao Jul 2013

An Fmri Study On Supra-Spinal Contributions To Upper And Lower Limb Motor Control, Shancheng Bao

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The differences in the neural mechanisms contributing to upper and lower extremity movement have not been fully elucidated, and this might be a factor that leads to the ineffectiveness of rehabilitation techniques for most stroke survivors. It is unclear whether therapies designed for upper extremities should also be used for the lower extremities, and vice versa. In this study, fMRI was used to examine the supraspinal control of UE and LE movement in both neurologically intact individuals and people with post-stroke hemiparesis. We compared the location, volume, and intensity of brain activity associated with upper and lower extremity pedaling and ...


The Effects Of Separating Visual And Motor Workspaces On The Generalization Of Visuomotor Adaptation Across Movement Conditions, Yuming Lei Jul 2013

The Effects Of Separating Visual And Motor Workspaces On The Generalization Of Visuomotor Adaptation Across Movement Conditions, Yuming Lei

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Separating visual and proprioceptive information in terms of workspace locations during reaching movement has been shown to disturb transfer of visuomotor adaptation across the arms. Here, we investigated whether separating visual and motor workspaces would also disturb generalization of visuomotor adaptation across movement conditions within the same arm. In our behavioral study, subjects were divided into four experimental groups (plus three control groups). The first two groups adapted to a visual rotation under a "dissociation" condition in which the targets for reaching movement were presented in midline while their arm performed reaching movement laterally. Following that, they were tested in ...


Mechanisms Of Sensorimotor Impairment In Multiple Sclerosis, Matthew Cheeming Chua Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Sensorimotor Impairment In Multiple Sclerosis, Matthew Cheeming Chua

Dissertations (1934 -)

Sensorimotor impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) might alter coordination and balance strategy during functional movements. People with MS often have symptoms such as weakness and discoordination in the lower limbs, resulting in poor walking and balance function. This decrease in function can result in falls, decreased community activity, unemployment, and reduced quality of life. As MS is a progressive disease resulting in a range of dysfunction, the amount of lower limb impairment can cause changes to walking and balance strategies to maintain functional performance. The overall objective of this dissertation was to quantify the impairment at the hip ...


Reducing Radiation Dose To The Female Breast During Conventional And Dedicated Breast Computed Tomography, Franco Rupcich Jan 2013

Reducing Radiation Dose To The Female Breast During Conventional And Dedicated Breast Computed Tomography, Franco Rupcich

Dissertations (1934 -)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of techniques intended to reduce dose to the breast during CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scans with respect to task-based image quality, and to evaluate the effectiveness of optimal energy weighting in improving contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and thus the potential for reducing breast dose, during energy-resolved dedicated breast CT.

A database quantifying organ dose for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during CTCA, including the breast, was generated using Monte Carlo simulations. This database facilitates estimation of organ-specific dose deposited during CTCA protocols using arbitrary x-ray spectra or tube-current modulation schemes without the ...


Vascular Changes In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Application To Restenosis After Stenting, Hongfeng Wang Jan 2013

Vascular Changes In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Application To Restenosis After Stenting, Hongfeng Wang

Dissertations (1934 -)

Stents used to decrease cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prone to increased rates of restenosis. The mechanisms are incompletely elucidated, but low wall shear stress (WSS) and altered intracellular signaling likely contribute. We tested the hypothesis that neointimal hyperplasia (NH) after bare-metal stenting is due to vascular remodeling (enhanced formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), increased downstream vascular resistance (DVR), and decreased WSS), and that decreasing AGEs with ALT-711 (Alagebrium) mitigates this response.

Stents were implanted into the abdominal aorta of Zucker lean (ZL), obese (ZO), and diabetic (ZD) rats. After 21 days, the ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of The Central Nervous System Following An Injury To The Spinal Cord And Cell Transplant, Michael Jirjis Jan 2013

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of The Central Nervous System Following An Injury To The Spinal Cord And Cell Transplant, Michael Jirjis

Dissertations (1934 -)

The purpose of this dissertation research was to characterize the use of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in understanding the changes that occur throughout the spinal cord and brain following a spinal cord injury (SCI) and following stem cell transplant. The diffusion of water inside the nervous system is dramatically altered around the lesion site following a traumatic SCI. However, following damage to the spinal cord, little is known about the diffusion characteristics away from an injury and even less is understood about DTI's sensitivity to structural changes that occur following regenerative ...


Foot And Ankle Motion Analysis Using Dynamic Radiographic Imaging, Benjamin Donald Mchenry Jan 2013

Foot And Ankle Motion Analysis Using Dynamic Radiographic Imaging, Benjamin Donald Mchenry

Dissertations (1934 -)

Lower extremity motion analysis has become a powerful tool used to assess the dynamics of both normal and pathologic gait in a variety of clinical and research settings. Early rigid representations of the foot have recently been replaced with multi-segmental models capable of estimating intra-foot motion. Current models using externally placed markers on the surface of the skin are easily implemented, but suffer from errors associated with soft tissue artifact, marker placement repeatability, and rigid segment assumptions. Models using intra-cortical bone pins circumvent these errors, but their invasive nature has limited their application to research only. Radiographic models reporting gait ...