Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Extracting The Structure And Conformations Of Biological Entities From Large Datasets, Ali Dashti Dec 2013

Extracting The Structure And Conformations Of Biological Entities From Large Datasets, Ali Dashti

Theses and Dissertations

In biology, structure determines function, which often proceeds via changes in conformation. Efficient means for determining structure exist, but mapping conformations continue to present a serious challenge. Single-particles approaches, such as cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and emerging "diffract & destroy" X-ray techniques are, in principle, ideally positioned to overcome these challenges. But the algorithmic ability to extract information from large heterogeneous datasets consisting of "unsorted" snapshots - each emanating from an unknown orientation of an object in an unknown conformation - remains elusive.

It is the objective of this thesis to describe and validate a powerful suite of manifold-based algorithms able to extract ...


Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw Dec 2013

Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Fluorescence spectroscopy is a widely used detection technology in many research and clinical assays. Further improvement to assay sensitivity may enable earlier diagnosis of disease, novel biomarker discovery, and ultimately, improved outcomes of clinical care along with reduction in costs. Near-infrared, surface-enhanced fluorescence (NIR-SEF) is a promising approach to improve assay sensitivity via simultaneous increase in signal with a reduction in background. This dissertation describes research conducted with the overall goal to determine the extent to which fluorescence in solution may be enhanced by altering specific variables involved in the formation of plasmonactive nanostructures of dye-labeled protein and silver nanoparticles ...


Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer Sep 2013

Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis we described inexpensive alternatives to fabricate nanostructures on planar substrates and provided example applications to discuss the efficiency of fabricated nanostructures.

The first method we described is forming large area systematically changing multi-shape nanoscale structures on a chip by laser interference lithography. We analyzed the fabricated structures at different substrate positions with respect to exposure time, exposure angle and associated light intensity profile. We presented experimental details related to the fabrication of symmetric and biaxial periodic nanostructures on photoresist, silicon surfaces, and ion-milled glass substrates. Behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the nanostructures was investigated. These results ...


Piv-Based Investigation Of Hemodynamic Factors In Diseased Carotid Artery Bifurcations With Varying Plaque Geometries, Sarah Kefayati Aug 2013

Piv-Based Investigation Of Hemodynamic Factors In Diseased Carotid Artery Bifurcations With Varying Plaque Geometries, Sarah Kefayati

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ischemic stroke is often a consequence of complications due to clot formation (i.e. thrombosis) at the site of an atherosclerotic plaque developed in the internal carotid artery. Hemodynamic factors, such as shear-stress forces and flow disturbances, can facilitate the key mechanisms of thrombosis. Atherosclerotic plaques can differ in the severity of stenosis (narrowing), in eccentricity (symmetry), as well as inclusion of ulceration (wall roughness). Therefore, in terms of clinical significance, it is important to investigate how the local hemodynamics of the carotid artery is mediated by the geometry of plaque. Knowledge of thrombosis-associated hemodynamics may provide a basis to ...


Computational Design Optimization For Microfluidic Magnetophoresis, Brian Dennis Plouffe, Laura H. Lewis, Shashi Krishna Murthy Aug 2013

Computational Design Optimization For Microfluidic Magnetophoresis, Brian Dennis Plouffe, Laura H. Lewis, Shashi Krishna Murthy

Laura H. Lewis

Current macro- and microfluidic approaches for the isolation of mammalian cells are limited in both efficiency and purity. In order to design a robust platform for the enumeration of a target cell population, high collection efficiencies are required. Additionally, the ability to isolate pure populations with minimal biological perturbation and efficient off-chip recovery will enable subcellular analyses of these cells for applications in personalized medicine. Here, a rational design approach for a simple and efficient device that isolates target cell populations via magnetic tagging is presented. In this work, two magnetophoretic microfluidic device designs are described, with optimized dimensions and ...


Computational Design Optimization For Microfluidic Magnetophoresis, Brian Plouffe, Laura Lewis, Shashi Murthy Jul 2013

Computational Design Optimization For Microfluidic Magnetophoresis, Brian Plouffe, Laura Lewis, Shashi Murthy

Shashi K. Murthy

Current macro- and microfluidic approaches for the isolation of mammalian cells are limited in both efficiency and purity. In order to design a robust platform for the enumeration of a target cell population, high collection efficiencies are required. Additionally, the ability to isolate pure populations with minimal biological perturbation and efficient off-chip recovery will enable subcellular analyses of these cells for applications in personalized medicine. Here, a rational design approach for a simple and efficient device that isolates target cell populations via magnetic tagging is presented. In this work, two magnetophoretic microfluidic device designs are described, with optimized dimensions and ...


Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput May 2013

Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput

Doctoral Dissertations

Femtosecond laser machining is a direct-write lithography technique by which user-defined patterns are efficiently and rapidly generated at the surface or within the bulk of transparent materials. When femtosecond laser machining is performed with tightly focused amplified pulses in single-pulse mode, transparent substrates like fused silica can be surface patterned with high aspect ratio (>10:1) and deep (>10 μm) nanoholes. The main objective behind this dissertation is to develop single-pulse amplified femtosecond laser machining into a novel technique for the production of fused silica templates with user-defined patterns made of high aspect ratio nanoholes. The size of the nanoholes ...


A Gamos Plug-In For Geant4 Based Monte Carlo Simulation Of Radiation-Induced Light Transport In Biological Media, Adam K. Glaser, Stephen C. Kanick, Rongxiao Zhang, Pedro Arce, Brian W. Pogue May 2013

A Gamos Plug-In For Geant4 Based Monte Carlo Simulation Of Radiation-Induced Light Transport In Biological Media, Adam K. Glaser, Stephen C. Kanick, Rongxiao Zhang, Pedro Arce, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We describe a tissue optics plug-in that interfaces with the GEANT4/GAMOS Monte Carlo (MC) architecture, providing a means of simulating radiation-induced light transport in biological media for the first time. Specifically, we focus on the simulation of light transport due to the Čerenkov effect (light emission from charged particle's traveling faster than the local speed of light in a given medium), a phenomenon which requires accurate modeling of both the high energy particle and subsequent optical photon transport, a dynamic coupled process that is not well-described by any current MC framework. The results of validation simulations show excellent ...


Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces For Study Of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity, Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun, Jianping Fu Jan 2013

Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces For Study Of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity, Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun, Jianping Fu

Weiqiang Chen

Cells exhibit high sensitivity and diverse responses to the intrinsic nanotopography of the extracellular matrix through their nanoscale cellular sensing machinery. A simple microfabrication method for precise control and spatial patterning of the local nanoroughness on glass surfaces by using photolithography and reactive ion etching is reported. It is demonstrated that local nanoroughness as a biophysical cue could regulate a diverse array of NIH/3T3 fi broblast behaviors, including cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and cytoskeleton contractility. The capability to control and further predict cellular responses to nanoroughness might suggest novel methods for developing biomaterials mimicking nanotopographic structures in vivo ...


Surface-Micromachined Microfiltration Membranes For Efficient Isolation And Functional Immunophenotyping Of Subpopulations Of Immune Cells, Weiqiang Chen, Nien-Tsu Huang, Boram Oh, Raymond H. W. Lam, Rong Fan, Timothy T. Cornell, Thomas P. Shanley, Katsuo Kurabayashi, Jianping Fu Jan 2013

Surface-Micromachined Microfiltration Membranes For Efficient Isolation And Functional Immunophenotyping Of Subpopulations Of Immune Cells, Weiqiang Chen, Nien-Tsu Huang, Boram Oh, Raymond H. W. Lam, Rong Fan, Timothy T. Cornell, Thomas P. Shanley, Katsuo Kurabayashi, Jianping Fu

Weiqiang Chen

An accurate measurement of the immune status in patients with immune system disorders is critical in evaluating the stage of diseases and tailoring drug treatments. The functional cellular immunity test is a promising method to establish the diagnosis of immune dysfunctions. The conventional functional cellular immunity test involves measurements of the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines when stimulated ex vivo. However, this “bulk” assay measures the overall reactivity of a population of lymphocytes and monocytes, making it difficult to pinpoint the phenotype or real identity of the reactive immune cells involved. In this research, we ...


Distal Placement Of An End-To-Side Bypass Graft Anastomosis: A 3d Computational Study, John Di Cicco, Ayodeji Demuren Jan 2013

Distal Placement Of An End-To-Side Bypass Graft Anastomosis: A 3d Computational Study, John Di Cicco, Ayodeji Demuren

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics study of shear rates around distal end-to-side anastomoses has been conducted. Three 51% and three 75% cross-sectional area-reduced 6 mm cylinders were modeled each with a bypass cylinder attached at a 30-degree angle at different placements distal to the constriction. Steady, incompressible, Newtonian blood flow was assumed, and the full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, turbulent kinetic energy, and specific dissipation rate equations were solved on a locally structured multiblock mesh with hexahedral elements. Consequently, distal placement of an end-to-side bypass graft anastomosis was found to have an influence on the shear rate magnitudes. For the ...