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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Advancement Of Bacterial Cellulose As A Bone And Vascular Scaffolds, Ryan Lee Hammonds Dec 2013

The Advancement Of Bacterial Cellulose As A Bone And Vascular Scaffolds, Ryan Lee Hammonds

Doctoral Dissertations

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural hydrogel made of nanofibers. This material has been used in commercial products, including wound dressings. BC can be modified and optimized for improved performance in multiple applications. This work will focus on producing and characterizing resorbable cellulose, a composite for bone applications, and a composite for a synthetic venous valve leaflet.

BC can be produced and modified to perform as a degradable tissue scaffold. This is achieved by an oxidation procedure after the initial production and purification of native BC. A material characterization of oxidized BC was performed to identify the changes in properties ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Nucleic Acid-Functionalized Nanomaterials, Brianna S. Carroll, Jong Hyun Choi Oct 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nucleic Acid-Functionalized Nanomaterials, Brianna S. Carroll, Jong Hyun Choi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Motor proteins such as kinesin move along microtubules in order to transport cellular cargos throughout the cell by obtaining energy from RNA hydrolysis which allows the cell to complete the tasks needed to stay alive. In this work, we developed synthetic molecular motors using DNA enzymes (DNAzyme) and fluorescent nanomaterials which mimic the functions and structures of motor proteins. A DNAzyme-capped CdS nanoparticle and a RNA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) were used as a walker and a track in the motor platform, respectively. As a walking mechanism, the DNAzyme cleaved the RNA substrates in the presence of metal cations. The ...


Inkjet Printing Of Polarized Yeast Cells, Xiuyuan Yang, Kari Clase Oct 2013

Inkjet Printing Of Polarized Yeast Cells, Xiuyuan Yang, Kari Clase

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The motivation is to applying engineering knowledge to develop 3D bio-printing in inkjet printer (first stage--monolayer). To achieve the goal, there are three problems to solve. First, we have to figure out regulation of growth of target cells; inability to regulate the location and pattern of growing cells make us even unable to build 3D printer in the direct way. Second problem is how to protect of yeast cells from high temperature and viscous force when printing. The third issue is how to modify the inkjet printer especially the feeding system in order to implement printing on other materials rather ...


Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu Oct 2013

Adhesive Elastomeric Proteins, Haefa Mansour, Julie Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Sutures and staples commonly used to close surgical wounds tend to be much stiffer than the surrounding tissue, often resulting in external tissue damage. Surgical adhesives provide a promising alternative to these sutures and staples. Ideal surgical adhesives are biocompatible, able to set well and remain sticky in moist conditions, possess strong adhesive and cohesive properties, and exhibit mechanical properties that mimic those of the surrounding tissue. Unfortunately, the adhesives available today are unable to satisfactorily meet all of these criteria. We are utilizing protein engineering techniques to design, create, and test a new surgical adhesive that combines the adhesive ...


Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David S. Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth F. Ryder, Tanja Dominko Sep 2013

Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David S. Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth F. Ryder, Tanja Dominko

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury - by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence.

RESULTS: We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules ...


Influence Of Van Der Waals Forces On Increasing The Strength And Toughness In Dynamic Fracture Of Nanofibre Networks: A Peridynamic Approach, Florin Bobaru Ph.D. Jul 2013

Influence Of Van Der Waals Forces On Increasing The Strength And Toughness In Dynamic Fracture Of Nanofibre Networks: A Peridynamic Approach, Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

Florin Bobaru Ph.D.

The peridynamic method is used here to analyse the effect of van der Waals forces on the mechanical behaviour and strength and toughness properties of three-dimensional nanofibre networks under imposed stretch deformation. The peridynamic formulation allows for a natural inclusion of long-range forces (such as van der Waals forces) by considering all interactions as ‘long-range’. We use van der Waals interactions only between different fibres and do not need to model individual atoms. Fracture is introduced at the microstructural (peridynamic bond) level for the microelastic type bonds, while van der Waals bonds can reform at any time. We conduct statistical ...


A Morphological Analysis Of A Hybrid Swarm Of Native Ulmus Rubra And Introduced U. Pumila (Ulmaceae) In Southeastern Nebraska, Christian Elowsky, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, Robert B. Kaul Jul 2013

A Morphological Analysis Of A Hybrid Swarm Of Native Ulmus Rubra And Introduced U. Pumila (Ulmaceae) In Southeastern Nebraska, Christian Elowsky, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, Robert B. Kaul

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

The parental species and hybrid swarm of native Ulmus rubra Muhl. and the introduced, naturalized and weedy U. pumila L. were investigated in a 65-km transect in Lancaster, Saunders, and Butler counties in Nebraska. Thirty-two trees of U. rubra, 32 of U. pumila, and 50 of the hybrid swarm were sampled for leaves and buds and subsampled for flowers and fruits. Leaves were measured for petiole length, blade length, width, primary and secondary teeth per cm, number of secondary teeth per primary tooth, and texture. Buds were scored for color and distribution of trichomes. Flowers were sampled for stamen counts ...


Zein: Novel Natural Polymer For Nanoparticle- And Film-Mediated Gene Delivery, Jessica D. Taylor Jul 2013

Zein: Novel Natural Polymer For Nanoparticle- And Film-Mediated Gene Delivery, Jessica D. Taylor

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Gene delivery, the introduction of DNA into cells, is applicable to gene therapy, DNA vaccination, functional genomics and diagnostics, tissue engineering, and drug-eluting medical devices. Particulates incorporating DNA are promising vehicles for gene delivery and overcome some of the barriers that hinder successful gene transfer, with the ability to protect DNA and provide for controlled, localized, and sustained release and transfection. Furthermore, innovative new gene delivery strategies that incorporate DNA particulates or complexes within films or coatings for devices and scaffolds could further provide for controlled and sustained transfection at the site of implant. Zein, a hydrophobic protein from corn ...


Shelf Life Study Of Electrospun Plga Copolymers, Sean Youra, Nick Hudson Jun 2013

Shelf Life Study Of Electrospun Plga Copolymers, Sean Youra, Nick Hudson

Biomedical Engineering

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most commonly used copolymers for electrospinning in tissue engineering applications. However, most research has not focused on the copolymer itself in regards to how long it can be used effectively and if varying the concentrations of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) affect the resulting properties. Electrospinning is the method we use to create the three-dimensional constructs, or “scaffolds”, for the blood vessel mimic (BVM) in the tissue engineering lab. The aim of our project was to investigate if the morphology and mechanical properties of the scaffolds changed over time when ...


Matrix Remodeling Accompanies In Vitro Articular Cartilage Spherical Shaping, Nathan Thomas Balcom Jun 2013

Matrix Remodeling Accompanies In Vitro Articular Cartilage Spherical Shaping, Nathan Thomas Balcom

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Introduction: Articular cartilage (AC) is a low friction load bearing material found in synovial joints. The natural repair of damaged tissue is difficult and often requires surgical intervention. With large defects it becomes necessary to match the original tissue geometry. We hypothesized that localized collagen (COL) and/or proteoglycan (PG) remodeling occurs during AC spherical reshaping. The objective of this study was to determine the presence, magnitude and depth dependence of COL and PG remodeling that accompanies AC reshaping. Methods: Full thickness AC blocks (7x7 mm2 surface area) were harvested from the ridges of the patellofemoral groove of immature ...


Delayed Thrombus Resolution And Fibroproliferative Vascular Wound Healing From Deficiency Of Type Iii Collagen: A Paradoxical Mechanism For Tissue Fragility, Amy J. Reid May 2013

Delayed Thrombus Resolution And Fibroproliferative Vascular Wound Healing From Deficiency Of Type Iii Collagen: A Paradoxical Mechanism For Tissue Fragility, Amy J. Reid

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heritable disease of connective tissue caused by mutations in COL3A1, conferring a tissue deficiency of type III collagen. Cutaneous wounds heal poorly in these patients, and they are susceptible to spontaneous and catastrophic rupture of expansible hollow organs like the gut, uterus, and medium-sized to large arteries, which leads to premature death. Although the predisposition for organ rupture is often attributed to inherent tissue fragility, investigation of arteries from a haploinsufficient Col3a1 mouse model (Col3a1+/-) demonstrates that mutant arteries withstand even supraphysiologic pressures comparably to wild-type vessels. We hypothesize that injury that elicits occlusive thrombi ...


Improvements In Microdialysis Sampling Extraction Efficiency Using Recycled Flow, Justin Cole Deaton May 2013

Improvements In Microdialysis Sampling Extraction Efficiency Using Recycled Flow, Justin Cole Deaton

Theses and Dissertations

Incomplete recovery during microdialysis sampling is hindering important research in neurology, proteomics, and immunology. Although the current generalized solution, decreasing volumetric flow rates (Q), has been and will remain to be a useful strategy it has reached it's a physical limitation due to evaporation at the collection site. Consequently, many important signaling molecules, such as signaling proteins, remain difficult to study. It is more fundamental to consider relative recovery as a function of the interaction time between the perfusate and the environment surrounding the probe.

In this work an increase in relative recovery was predicted by a mathematical model ...


Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo Apr 2013

Sol-Gel Derived Biodegradable And Bioactive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Bedilu A. Allo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Treatments of bone injuries and defects have been largely centered on replacing the lost bone with tissues of allogeneic or xenogeneic sources as well as synthetic bone substitutes, which in all lead to limited degree of structural and functional recovery. As a result, tissue engineering has emerged as a viable technology to regenerate the structures and therefore recover the functions of bone tissue rather than replacement alone. Hence, the current strategies of bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function.

In this ...


Multifunctional Nanoparticles In Cancer: In Vitro Characterization, In Vivo Distribution, Tingjun Lei Mar 2013

Multifunctional Nanoparticles In Cancer: In Vitro Characterization, In Vivo Distribution, Tingjun Lei

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A novel biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, termed poly(Glycerol malate co-dodecanedioate) (PGMD), was prepared by thermal condensation method and used for fabrication of nanoparticles (NPs). PGMD NPs were prepared using the single oil emulsion technique and loaded with an imaging/hyperthermia agent (IR820) and a chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin, DOX). The size of the void PGMD NPs, IR820-PGMD NPs and DOX-IR820-PGMD NPs were approximately 90 nm, 110 nm, and 125 nm respectively. An acidic environment (pH=5.0) induced higher DOX and IR820 release compared to pH=7.4. DOX release was also enhanced by exposure to laser, which increased the ...


Elucidating Role Of Heart Valve Cells In The Aortic Valve Calcification, Mary Katherine Bailey, Adithi Amarnath Mar 2013

Elucidating Role Of Heart Valve Cells In The Aortic Valve Calcification, Mary Katherine Bailey, Adithi Amarnath

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Reproducibility Of The Current Bvm Protocol, Corey Gross Mar 2013

Investigating The Reproducibility Of The Current Bvm Protocol, Corey Gross

Biomedical Engineering

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is responsible for 1 death every minute in the US. Angioplasty with the implantation of stents is a common treatment method for CAD. Although there is a variety of stents currently on the market, there is still a need to develop new types for different pathologic conditions. Preliminary assessment of the physiological response to new stents is needed as they are being developed. The FDA approval process implemented today is a long, tedious path with a range of testing methods that include static in vitro testing and high-cost animal testing. Tissue engineered blood vessels have been ...


A Thousand Tiny Pieces: The Federal Circuit’S Fractured Myriad Ruling, Lessons To Be Learned, And The Way Forward, Jonathan R. K. Stroud Jan 2013

A Thousand Tiny Pieces: The Federal Circuit’S Fractured Myriad Ruling, Lessons To Be Learned, And The Way Forward, Jonathan R. K. Stroud

Jonathan R. K. Stroud

No abstract provided.


Bile-Acid-Mediated Decrease In Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: A Potential Contributor To The Metabolic Benefits Of Ileal Interposition Surgery In Ucd-T2dm Rats, Bethany P. Cummings, Ahmed Bettaieb, James L. Graham, Jaehyoung Kim, Fangrui Ma, Noreene Shibata, Kimber L. Stanhope, Cecilia Giulivi, Frederik Hansen, Jacob Jelsing, Niels Vrang, Mark Kowala, Michael L. Chouinard, Fawaz G. Haj, Peter J. Havel Jan 2013

Bile-Acid-Mediated Decrease In Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: A Potential Contributor To The Metabolic Benefits Of Ileal Interposition Surgery In Ucd-T2dm Rats, Bethany P. Cummings, Ahmed Bettaieb, James L. Graham, Jaehyoung Kim, Fangrui Ma, Noreene Shibata, Kimber L. Stanhope, Cecilia Giulivi, Frederik Hansen, Jacob Jelsing, Niels Vrang, Mark Kowala, Michael L. Chouinard, Fawaz G. Haj, Peter J. Havel

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and serial oral ...


A Dna Computer For Glioblastoma Multiforme Diagnosis And Drug Delivery, Sumaiya F. Hashmi Jan 2013

A Dna Computer For Glioblastoma Multiforme Diagnosis And Drug Delivery, Sumaiya F. Hashmi

CMC Senior Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a debilitating malignant brain tumor with expected patient survival of less than a year and limited responsiveness to most treatments, often requiring biopsy for diagnosis and invasive surgery for treatment. We propose a DNA computer system, consisting of input, computation, and output components, for diagnosis and treatment. The input component will detect the presence of three GBM biomarkers: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), caveolin-1α (CAV), and B2 receptors. The computation component will include indicator segments for each of these genes, and ensure that output is only released if all the biomarkers are present. The output component ...


Growth Plate Regeneration Using Polymer-Based Scaffolds Releasing Growth Factor, Amanda Clark Jan 2013

Growth Plate Regeneration Using Polymer-Based Scaffolds Releasing Growth Factor, Amanda Clark

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Currently growth plate fractures account for nearly 18.5% of fractures in children and can lead to stunted bone growth or angular deformation. If the body is unable to heal itself a bony bar forms, preventing normal bone growth. Clinical treatment involves removing the bony bar and replacing it with a filler substance, which causes poor results 60% of the time.

Using primarily poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as the scaffold material, the goal was to develop an implant that would support to the implant site, allow for cell ingrowth, and degrade away over time. Porous scaffolds were fabricated from PLGA ...


The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood Jan 2013

The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The effects of mechanical forces on endothelial cell function and behavior are well documented, but have not been fully characterized. Specifically, fluid pressure has been shown to elicit physical and chemical responses known to be involved in the initiation and progression of endothelial cell-mediated vascularization. Central to the process of vascularization is the formation of tube-like structures. This process—tubulogenesis—is essential to both the physiological and pathological growth of tissues. Given the known effects of pressure on endothelial cells and its ubiquitous presence in the vasculature, we investigated pressure as a magnitude-dependent parameter for the regulation of endothelial tubulogenic ...


Integrated Self-Assembly Of The Mms6 Magnetosome Protein To Form An Iron-Responsive Structure, Shuren Feng, Lijun Wang, Pierre Palo, Xunpei Liu, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton Jan 2013

Integrated Self-Assembly Of The Mms6 Magnetosome Protein To Form An Iron-Responsive Structure, Shuren Feng, Lijun Wang, Pierre Palo, Xunpei Liu, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A common feature of biomineralization proteins is their self-assembly to produce a surface consistent in size with the inorganic crystals that they produce. Mms6, a small protein of 60 amino acids from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 that promotes the in vitro growth of superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals, assembles in aqueous solution to form spherical micelles that could be visualized by TEM and AFM. The results reported here are consistent with the view that the N and C-terminal domains interact with each other within one polypeptide chain and across protein units in the assembly. From studies to determine the amino acid residues ...


Surface- And Hydrogel-Mediated Delivery Of Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles, Angela K. Pannier, Tatiana Segura Jan 2013

Surface- And Hydrogel-Mediated Delivery Of Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles, Angela K. Pannier, Tatiana Segura

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Gene expression within a cell population can be directly altered through gene delivery approaches. Traditionally for nonviral delivery, plasmids or siRNA molecules, encoding or targeting the gene of interest, are packaged within nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are then delivered to the media surrounding cells seeded onto tissue culture plastic; this technique is termed bolus delivery. Although bolus delivery is widely utilized to screen for efficient delivery vehicles and to study gene function in vitro, this delivery strategy may not result in efficient gene transfer for all cell types or may not identify those delivery vehicles that will be efficient in vivo ...