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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Chemistry

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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Formulation Development Of A Polymer-Drug Matrix With A Controlled Release Profile For The Treatment Of Glaucoma, Eric W. Tsoi Dec 2013

Formulation Development Of A Polymer-Drug Matrix With A Controlled Release Profile For The Treatment Of Glaucoma, Eric W. Tsoi

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in the United States accounting for 9-12% of all cases of blindness. Currently, the front line treatment for glaucoma are prostaglandins that may have to be taken up to several times a day. Even with proper treatment, roughly 11% of the patients using the treatment are non-compliant and lose their vision. In this project, ForSight Laboratories has developed a pharmaceutical drug delivering implant with the capability of sustaining long-term release of a prostaglandin as a new way to treat the condition. This project reports the product development of a polymer drug matrix with ...


Polysaccharide-Based Nanocarriers For Improved Drug Delivery, Nan Zhang Aug 2013

Polysaccharide-Based Nanocarriers For Improved Drug Delivery, Nan Zhang

Dissertations - ALL

The field of drug delivery has provided a solution to the limited efficacy and high toxicity of many drugs. Nano-sized drug carriers are popular because their size allows for selective accumulation in the diseased area. Polysaccharides are non-toxic and biodegradable natural polymers that can serve as the basis for these nano-sized carriers. Polysialic acid (PSA) is such a polysaccharide with strong hydrophilicity that may reduce uptake by the reticuloendothelial system and prolong drug circulation. In this study, we developed PSA-based nanocarriers, specifically micelles and nanoparticles, for improved drug delivery with improved efficacy and minimized toxicity. PSA-based micelle systems were developed ...


Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec Jun 2013

Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biomaterials can be used in a wide variety of medical applications owing to their breadth of characteristics that can be imparted by varying their chemical structures. Butyl rubber (IIR), which is a copolymer of isobutylene (IB) and small percentages of isoprene (IP), is particularly attractive as a biomaterial because of its elastomeric mechanical properties, biocompatibility, impermeability and high damping characteristics. IIR is typically vulcanized through chemical-based crosslinking mechanisms. However, these methods are not acceptable for biological applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of IIR-polyester graft copolymers by grafting biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters including poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d ...


Use Of Novel Microfluidic Devices To Detect Biomarkers In Blood, Nese Orby, Carol Barry May 2013

Use Of Novel Microfluidic Devices To Detect Biomarkers In Blood, Nese Orby, Carol Barry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Blood analysis is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally, blood analysis requires a vial of blood and several processing steps resulting in a time consuming and difficult process. The aim of this research is to find a portable and inexpensive device to carry out fast blood cells separation, count and analysis. Previous work show the capability to analyze and separate blood cells using microfluidic devices resulting in less sample volume and shorter analysis time. Most microfluidic devices share similar fabrication process and materials (soft lithography process in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)). ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is the most common ...


Study Of Immobilizing Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots In Selected Polymers For Application In Peroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence Flow Injection Analysis, Christopher S. Moore May 2013

Study Of Immobilizing Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots In Selected Polymers For Application In Peroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence Flow Injection Analysis, Christopher S. Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two batches of CdSe QDs with different sizes were synthesized for immobilizing in polyisoprene (PI), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The combinations of QDs and polymer substrates were evaluated for their analytical fit-for-use in applicable immunoassays. Hydrogen peroxide standards were injected into the flow injection analyzer (FIA) constructed to simulate enzyme-generated hydrogen peroxide reacting with bis-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate.

Linear correlations between hydrogen peroxide and chemilumenscent intensities yielded regression values greater than 0.9750 for hydrogen peroxide concentrations between 1.0 x 10-4 M and 1.0 x 10-1 M. The developed technique’s LOD was ...


Picture Of A Chelate In Exchange: The Crystal Structure Of Nahodotma, A 'Semi'-Hydrated Chelate, Katherine M. Payne, Edward J. Valente, Silvio Aime, Mauro Botta, Mark Woods Feb 2013

Picture Of A Chelate In Exchange: The Crystal Structure Of Nahodotma, A 'Semi'-Hydrated Chelate, Katherine M. Payne, Edward J. Valente, Silvio Aime, Mauro Botta, Mark Woods

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Crystallography generally only provides static structural information. This can render it an ineffective technique for probing dynamic solution state processes. A crystal of HoDOTMA affords unique structures that effectively represent that of a lanthanide tetra-acetate chelate mid-way through the water exchange process.


Inhibition Of Bacillus Cereus Growth By Bacteriocin Producing Bacillus Subtilis Isolated From Fermented Baobab Seeds (Maari) Is Substrate Dependent, Donatien Kaboré, Dennis S. Nielsen, Hagrétoui Sawadogo-Lingan, Bréhima Diawara, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jakobsen, Line Thorsen Jan 2013

Inhibition Of Bacillus Cereus Growth By Bacteriocin Producing Bacillus Subtilis Isolated From Fermented Baobab Seeds (Maari) Is Substrate Dependent, Donatien Kaboré, Dennis S. Nielsen, Hagrétoui Sawadogo-Lingan, Bréhima Diawara, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jakobsen, Line Thorsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Maari is a spontaneously alkaline fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds. Due to the spontaneous nature of maari fermentations growth of the opportunistic human pathogen Bacillus cereus is occasionally observed. Bacillus subtilis strains are important for alkaline seed fermentations because of their enzymatic activities contributing to desirable texture, flavor and pH development. Some B. subtilis strains have antimicrobial properties against B. cereus. In the present work, three bacteriocin producing B. subtilis strains (B3, B122 and B222) isolated from maari were tested. The production of antimicrobial activity by the three strains was found to be greatly influenced by the ...


Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding Jan 2013

Studies Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Smart Self-Assembly And As Controlled Drug Delivery, Xiaochu Ding

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

This dissertation is related to the studies of functionalized nanoparticles for self-assembly and as controlled drug delivery system. The whole topic is composed of two parts. In the first part, the research was conducted to design and synthesize a new type of ionic peptide-functionalized copolymer conjugates for self-assembly into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with the ability of multi-drug loading and governing the release rate of each drug for tissue engineering. The self-assembly study confirmed that such peptide-functionalized amphiphilic copolymers underwent different self-assembly behavior. The bigger nanoparticles were more easily assembled into nanoparticle fibers and 3D scaffolds with larger pore ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Biodegradable Poly(Vinyl Esters) With Hdac Inhibitory Activity, Kyle Lawrence Horton Jan 2013

Synthesis And Characterization Of Biodegradable Poly(Vinyl Esters) With Hdac Inhibitory Activity, Kyle Lawrence Horton

Wayne State University Theses

HDAC inhibitors are known to have anti-inflammatory properties. HDAC inhibitors are used in combination with Oct4 to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. I hypothesized that polyesters based on simple aliphatic HDAC inhibitors like valproic acid (VPA) and phenylbutyric acid (PBA) can serve as alternatives to existing polyester biomaterials with improved anti-inflammatory properties and as scaffolds for generation of iPSCs when used in combination with layer-by-layer thin films delivering reprogramming transcription factors. Vinyl ester of phenylbutyric acid (VEPA) and vinyl ester of valproic acid (VEVA) were synthesized from their carboxylic acid precursors using an iridium complex catalyst at yields as high ...


Tin Dioxide-Carbon Heterostructures Applied To Gas Sensing: Structure-Dependent Properties And General Sensing Mechanism, Catherine Marichy, Patricia A. Russo, Mariangela Latino, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Marc-Georg Wilinger, Nicola Donato, Giovanni Neri, Nicola Pinna Jan 2013

Tin Dioxide-Carbon Heterostructures Applied To Gas Sensing: Structure-Dependent Properties And General Sensing Mechanism, Catherine Marichy, Patricia A. Russo, Mariangela Latino, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Marc-Georg Wilinger, Nicola Donato, Giovanni Neri, Nicola Pinna

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) exhibit unique electrical properties, which are also influenced by the surrounding atmosphere. They are therefore promising sensing materials. Despite the existence of studies reporting the gas-sensing properties of metal oxide (MOx) coated nanostructured carbon, an incomplete understanding of their sensing mechanism remains. Here we report a systematic study on the preparation, characterization, and sensing properties of CNT and RGO composites with SnO2 coating. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was applied to the conformal coating of the inner and outer walls of CNTs with thin films of SnO2 of ...


High Rate Detection Of Volatile Products Using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry: Combining An Electrode-Coated Membrane With Hydrodynamic Flow In A Wall-Tube Configuration, Subramanian Venkatachalam, Robert J. Angelici, L. Keith Woo, Andrew C. Hillier Jan 2013

High Rate Detection Of Volatile Products Using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry: Combining An Electrode-Coated Membrane With Hydrodynamic Flow In A Wall-Tube Configuration, Subramanian Venkatachalam, Robert J. Angelici, L. Keith Woo, Andrew C. Hillier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

We present an experimental system that combines differential electrochemical mass spectrometry with hydrodynamic flow consisting of an impinging jet in a wall-tube configuration. This assembly allows simultaneous detection of electrochemical signals along with monitoring of dissolved gas species using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry under well-defined hydrodynamic conditions and over a wide range of mass transfer rates. The working electrode is deposited directly onto a thin, hydrophobic membrane, which also serves as the inlet to the mass spectrometer. This inlet provides extremely rapid mass detection as well as a high flux of products from the electrode surface into the mass spectrometer ...


Evaluation Of Coarse-Grained Mapping Schemes For Polysaccharide Chains In Cellulose, Sergiy Markutsya, Ajitha Devarajan, John Ysrael Baluyut, Theresa Lynn Windus, Mark S. Gordon, Monica H. Lamm Jan 2013

Evaluation Of Coarse-Grained Mapping Schemes For Polysaccharide Chains In Cellulose, Sergiy Markutsya, Ajitha Devarajan, John Ysrael Baluyut, Theresa Lynn Windus, Mark S. Gordon, Monica H. Lamm

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A fundamental understanding of the intermolecular forces that bind polysaccharide chains together in cellulose is crucial for designing efficient methods to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrolysis. Because the characteristic time and length scales for the degradation of cellulose by enzymatic hydrolysis or chemical pretreatment span orders of magnitude, it is important to closely integrate the molecular models used at each scale so that, ultimately, one may switch seamlessly between quantum, atomistic, and coarse-grained descriptions of the system. As a step towards that goal, four multiscale coarse-grained models for polysaccharide chains in a cellulose-Iα microfiber are considered. Using ...