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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Biotechnology

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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Electrotransfer Of Single-Stranded Or Double-Stranded Dna Induces Complete Regression Of Palpable B16.F10 Mouse Melanomas, Loree Heller, Vesba Todorovic, Maja Cemazar Dec 2013

Electrotransfer Of Single-Stranded Or Double-Stranded Dna Induces Complete Regression Of Palpable B16.F10 Mouse Melanomas, Loree Heller, Vesba Todorovic, Maja Cemazar

Bioelectrics Publications

Enhanced tumor delivery of plasmid DNA with electric pulses in vivo has been confirmed in many preclinical models. Intratumor electrotransfer of plasmids encoding therapeutic molecules has reached Phase II clinical trials. In multiple preclinical studies, a reduction in tumor growth, increased survival or complete tumor regression have been observed in control groups in which vector or backbone plasmid DNA electrotransfer was performed. This study explores factors that could produce this antitumor effect. The specific electrotransfer pulse protocol employed significantly potentiated the regression. Tumor regression was observed after delivery of single-stranded or double-stranded DNA with or without CpG motifs in both ...


Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw Dec 2013

Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Fluorescence spectroscopy is a widely used detection technology in many research and clinical assays. Further improvement to assay sensitivity may enable earlier diagnosis of disease, novel biomarker discovery, and ultimately, improved outcomes of clinical care along with reduction in costs. Near-infrared, surface-enhanced fluorescence (NIR-SEF) is a promising approach to improve assay sensitivity via simultaneous increase in signal with a reduction in background. This dissertation describes research conducted with the overall goal to determine the extent to which fluorescence in solution may be enhanced by altering specific variables involved in the formation of plasmonactive nanostructures of dye-labeled protein and silver nanoparticles ...


Bicistronic Design For Precise And Reliable Gene Expression, Nidhi N. Menon, Jenna Rickus Oct 2013

Bicistronic Design For Precise And Reliable Gene Expression, Nidhi N. Menon, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Despite having progressed extensively in the field of synthetic biology in terms of DNA synthesis, analysis and transplanting, we still cannot reliably, quantitatively measure expression of new genetic constructs. We engineered a biobrick compatible expression cassette to control transcription and translation initiation which can be reused in new genetic contexts. Previous research has shown that the Bicistronic design have much lesser variations in expression with varying genes of interest as compared to the regular monocistronic design.(Mutalik, Endy, Guimaraes, Cambray, Lam, Juul, Tran & Paull, 2013) The Bicistronic design(BCD) consists of two Shine-Dalgarno sequences in its translation element which when ...


Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao Oct 2013

Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Engineering synthetic multicellular systems will lead to new synthetic biology technological platforms, inform developmental biology through recapitulation of natural systems and possibly unveil novel morphologies with practical applications not before reached throughout natural history (Maharbiz, 2012). Creating an exogenous molecular circuit that will polarize unicellular cells into “apical” and “basal” domains relative to a substrate plane would fulfill a missing component towards fully multicellular synthetic cellular communities (Maharbiz, 2012). To this end, a PIP3 polarization network previously designed by Chau and associates (Chau, Walter, Gerardin, Tang, Lim 2012) was coupled to the specific activation by niacin of a recombinant ...


Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf Aug 2013

Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Limited fossil fuel reserves, increasing demand for energy in all parts of the world are some driving forces to look for new sources of transportation fuels. Among different options available, microalgae are currently attracting wide interests as an alternative and renewable fuel source.

Microalgae are single cell photosynthetic organisms that are known for rapid growth and high energy content and as a part of photosynthesis; they produce oil that can be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Some algae strains could contain lipid up to 80% of the dry biomass. The amount of lipid production is in direct relation ...


Efferent Copy And Corollary Discharge Motor Control Behavior Associated With A Hopping Activity, Wangdo Kim, António P. Veloso, Filipa João, Sean S. Kohles Jul 2013

Efferent Copy And Corollary Discharge Motor Control Behavior Associated With A Hopping Activity, Wangdo Kim, António P. Veloso, Filipa João, Sean S. Kohles

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Hoppers respond not only to stimuli from the ground surfaces but also to cues generated by their own behaviors. This leads to desensitization because although the afferent and reafferent signals have distinct causes, they are carried by the same sensory channels. From a behavioral viewpoint, it may be necessary to distinguish between signals from the two causes especially when monitoring changes in the external environment separate from those due to self-movement. We were able to separate afferent sensory stimuli from self-generated, reafferent signals using an action oriented perception system and dynamic programming approach. This effort addressed the question of how ...


A Morphological Analysis Of A Hybrid Swarm Of Native Ulmus Rubra And Introduced U. Pumila (Ulmaceae) In Southeastern Nebraska, Christian Elowsky, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, Robert B. Kaul Jul 2013

A Morphological Analysis Of A Hybrid Swarm Of Native Ulmus Rubra And Introduced U. Pumila (Ulmaceae) In Southeastern Nebraska, Christian Elowsky, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, Robert B. Kaul

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

The parental species and hybrid swarm of native Ulmus rubra Muhl. and the introduced, naturalized and weedy U. pumila L. were investigated in a 65-km transect in Lancaster, Saunders, and Butler counties in Nebraska. Thirty-two trees of U. rubra, 32 of U. pumila, and 50 of the hybrid swarm were sampled for leaves and buds and subsampled for flowers and fruits. Leaves were measured for petiole length, blade length, width, primary and secondary teeth per cm, number of secondary teeth per primary tooth, and texture. Buds were scored for color and distribution of trichomes. Flowers were sampled for stamen counts ...


Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput May 2013

Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput

Doctoral Dissertations

Femtosecond laser machining is a direct-write lithography technique by which user-defined patterns are efficiently and rapidly generated at the surface or within the bulk of transparent materials. When femtosecond laser machining is performed with tightly focused amplified pulses in single-pulse mode, transparent substrates like fused silica can be surface patterned with high aspect ratio (>10:1) and deep (>10 μm) nanoholes. The main objective behind this dissertation is to develop single-pulse amplified femtosecond laser machining into a novel technique for the production of fused silica templates with user-defined patterns made of high aspect ratio nanoholes. The size of the nanoholes ...


Multifunctional Nanoparticles In Cancer: In Vitro Characterization, In Vivo Distribution, Tingjun Lei Mar 2013

Multifunctional Nanoparticles In Cancer: In Vitro Characterization, In Vivo Distribution, Tingjun Lei

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A novel biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, termed poly(Glycerol malate co-dodecanedioate) (PGMD), was prepared by thermal condensation method and used for fabrication of nanoparticles (NPs). PGMD NPs were prepared using the single oil emulsion technique and loaded with an imaging/hyperthermia agent (IR820) and a chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin, DOX). The size of the void PGMD NPs, IR820-PGMD NPs and DOX-IR820-PGMD NPs were approximately 90 nm, 110 nm, and 125 nm respectively. An acidic environment (pH=5.0) induced higher DOX and IR820 release compared to pH=7.4. DOX release was also enhanced by exposure to laser, which increased the ...


A Thousand Tiny Pieces: The Federal Circuit’S Fractured Myriad Ruling, Lessons To Be Learned, And The Way Forward, Jonathan R. K. Stroud Jan 2013

A Thousand Tiny Pieces: The Federal Circuit’S Fractured Myriad Ruling, Lessons To Be Learned, And The Way Forward, Jonathan R. K. Stroud

Jonathan R. K. Stroud

No abstract provided.


Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces For Study Of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity, Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun, Jianping Fu Jan 2013

Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces For Study Of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity, Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun, Jianping Fu

Weiqiang Chen

Cells exhibit high sensitivity and diverse responses to the intrinsic nanotopography of the extracellular matrix through their nanoscale cellular sensing machinery. A simple microfabrication method for precise control and spatial patterning of the local nanoroughness on glass surfaces by using photolithography and reactive ion etching is reported. It is demonstrated that local nanoroughness as a biophysical cue could regulate a diverse array of NIH/3T3 fi broblast behaviors, including cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and cytoskeleton contractility. The capability to control and further predict cellular responses to nanoroughness might suggest novel methods for developing biomaterials mimicking nanotopographic structures in vivo ...


Surface-Micromachined Microfiltration Membranes For Efficient Isolation And Functional Immunophenotyping Of Subpopulations Of Immune Cells, Weiqiang Chen, Nien-Tsu Huang, Boram Oh, Raymond H. W. Lam, Rong Fan, Timothy T. Cornell, Thomas P. Shanley, Katsuo Kurabayashi, Jianping Fu Jan 2013

Surface-Micromachined Microfiltration Membranes For Efficient Isolation And Functional Immunophenotyping Of Subpopulations Of Immune Cells, Weiqiang Chen, Nien-Tsu Huang, Boram Oh, Raymond H. W. Lam, Rong Fan, Timothy T. Cornell, Thomas P. Shanley, Katsuo Kurabayashi, Jianping Fu

Weiqiang Chen

An accurate measurement of the immune status in patients with immune system disorders is critical in evaluating the stage of diseases and tailoring drug treatments. The functional cellular immunity test is a promising method to establish the diagnosis of immune dysfunctions. The conventional functional cellular immunity test involves measurements of the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines when stimulated ex vivo. However, this “bulk” assay measures the overall reactivity of a population of lymphocytes and monocytes, making it difficult to pinpoint the phenotype or real identity of the reactive immune cells involved. In this research, we ...


Bile-Acid-Mediated Decrease In Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: A Potential Contributor To The Metabolic Benefits Of Ileal Interposition Surgery In Ucd-T2dm Rats, Bethany P. Cummings, Ahmed Bettaieb, James L. Graham, Jaehyoung Kim, Fangrui Ma, Noreene Shibata, Kimber L. Stanhope, Cecilia Giulivi, Frederik Hansen, Jacob Jelsing, Niels Vrang, Mark Kowala, Michael L. Chouinard, Fawaz G. Haj, Peter J. Havel Jan 2013

Bile-Acid-Mediated Decrease In Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: A Potential Contributor To The Metabolic Benefits Of Ileal Interposition Surgery In Ucd-T2dm Rats, Bethany P. Cummings, Ahmed Bettaieb, James L. Graham, Jaehyoung Kim, Fangrui Ma, Noreene Shibata, Kimber L. Stanhope, Cecilia Giulivi, Frederik Hansen, Jacob Jelsing, Niels Vrang, Mark Kowala, Michael L. Chouinard, Fawaz G. Haj, Peter J. Havel

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and serial oral ...


Response To "Sodium Current Inhibition By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) - Fact Or Artifact?" By Verkerk Et Al, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2013

Response To "Sodium Current Inhibition By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) - Fact Or Artifact?" By Verkerk Et Al, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

It was nice to learn that our studies of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) effects on membrane currents [Nesin et al., 2012; Nesin and Pakhomov, 2012] gained the attention of scientists outside the immediate field of bioelectromagnetics.


The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood Jan 2013

The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The effects of mechanical forces on endothelial cell function and behavior are well documented, but have not been fully characterized. Specifically, fluid pressure has been shown to elicit physical and chemical responses known to be involved in the initiation and progression of endothelial cell-mediated vascularization. Central to the process of vascularization is the formation of tube-like structures. This process—tubulogenesis—is essential to both the physiological and pathological growth of tissues. Given the known effects of pressure on endothelial cells and its ubiquitous presence in the vasculature, we investigated pressure as a magnitude-dependent parameter for the regulation of endothelial tubulogenic ...


High-Throughput Secondary Screening At The Single-Cell Level, Joseph Robinson Dec 2012

High-Throughput Secondary Screening At The Single-Cell Level, Joseph Robinson

Joseph P Robinson

No abstract provided.