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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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2013

Biomedical

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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad Dec 2013

Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Due to physical and biological constraints and requirements on the minimum resolution and SNR, the acquisition time is relatively long in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, a limited number of pulse sequences can be run in a clinical MRI session because of constraints on the total acquisition time due to patient comfort and cost considerations. Therefore, it is strongly desired to reduce the acquisition time without compromising the reconstruction quality. This thesis concerns under-sampled reconstruction techniques for acceleration of MRI acquisitions, i.e., parallel imaging and compressed sensing.

While compressed sensing MRI reconstructions are commonly regularized by penalizing the decimated ...


Reconstruction Of Patient-Specific Bone Models From X-Ray Radiography, Hatem Amin Abdel Fattah El Dakhakhni Dec 2013

Reconstruction Of Patient-Specific Bone Models From X-Ray Radiography, Hatem Amin Abdel Fattah El Dakhakhni

Doctoral Dissertations

The availability of a patient‐specific bone model has become an increasingly invaluable addition to orthopedic case evaluation and planning [1]. Utilized within a wide range of specialized visualization and analysis tools, such models provide unprecedented wealth of bone shape information previously unattainable using traditional radiographic imaging [2]. In this work, a novel bone reconstruction method from two or more x‐ray images is described. This method is superior to previous attempts in terms of accuracy and repeatability. The new technique accurately models the radiological scene in a way that eliminates the need for expensive multi‐planar radiographic imaging systems ...


Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson Dec 2013

Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the leading causes of chronic disability (along with the hip). Due to rising healthcare costs associated with OA, it is important to fully understand the disease and how it progresses in the knee. One symptom of knee OA is the degeneration of cartilage in the articulating knee. The cartilage pad plays a major role in painting the biomechanical picture of the knee. This work attempts to quantify the cartilage thickness of healthy male and female knees using statistical shape models (SSMs) for a deep knee bend activity. Additionally, novel cartilage segmentation from ...


Sparse X-Ray Ct Image Reconstruction And Blind Beam Hardening Correction Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić Dec 2013

Sparse X-Ray Ct Image Reconstruction And Blind Beam Hardening Correction Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić

Electrical and Computer Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

We develop a nonlinear sparse X-ray computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction method that accounts for beam hardening effects due to polychromatic X-ray sources. We adopt the blind scenario where the material of the inspected object and the incident polychromatic source spectrum are unknown and apply mass attenuation discretization of the underlying integral expressions that model the noiseless measurements. Our reconstruction algorithm employs constrained minimization of a penalized least-squares cost function, where nonnegativity and maximum-energy constraints are imposed on incident spectrum parameters and negative-energy and smooth ℓ1-norm penalty terms are introduced to ensure the nonnegativity and sparsity of the density map ...


An Implantable Low Pressure Biosensor Transponder, Chad Eric Seaver Dec 2013

An Implantable Low Pressure Biosensor Transponder, Chad Eric Seaver

Masters Theses

The human body’s intracranial pressure (ICP) is a critical element in sustaining healthy blood flow to the brain while allowing adequate volume for brain tissue within the relatively rigid structure of the cranium. Disruptions in the body’s maintenance of intracranial pressure are often caused by hemorrhage, tumors, edema, or excess cerebral spinal fluid resulting in treatments that are estimated to globally cost up to approximately five billion dollars annually. A critical element in the contemporary management of acute head injury, intracranial hemorrhage, stroke, or other conditions resulting in intracranial hypertension, is the real-time monitoring of ICP. Currently such ...


A Novel Signal Processing Method For Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Spinal Surgeries, Krishnatej Vedala Nov 2013

A Novel Signal Processing Method For Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Spinal Surgeries, Krishnatej Vedala

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is an integral part of spinal surgeries and involves the recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). However, clinical application of IONM still requires anywhere between 200 to 2000 trials to obtain an SSEP signal, which is excessive and introduces a significant delay during surgery to detect a possible neurological damage. The aim of this study is to develop a means to obtain the SSEP using a much less, twelve number of recordings. The preliminary step involved was to distinguish the SSEP with the ongoing brain activity. We first establish that the brain activity is indeed quasi-stationary whereas ...


Network Construction And Graph Theoretical Analysis Of Functional Language Networks In Pediatric Epilepsy, Anas Salah Eddin Nov 2013

Network Construction And Graph Theoretical Analysis Of Functional Language Networks In Pediatric Epilepsy, Anas Salah Eddin

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation introduces a new approach for assessing the effects of pediatric epilepsy on the language connectome. Two novel data-driven network construction approaches are presented. These methods rely on connecting different brain regions using either extent or intensity of language related activations as identified by independent component analysis of fMRI data. An auditory description decision task (ADDT) paradigm was used to activate the language network for 29 patients and 30 controls recruited from three major pediatric hospitals. Empirical evaluations illustrated that pediatric epilepsy can cause, or is associated with, a network efficiency reduction. Patients showed a propensity to inefficiently employ ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of A Paper-Based, Laser-Defined, Oxygen-Generating Platform For Chronic Wounds, Tiffany L. Huang, Babak Ziaie Oct 2013

A Quantitative Analysis Of A Paper-Based, Laser-Defined, Oxygen-Generating Platform For Chronic Wounds, Tiffany L. Huang, Babak Ziaie

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients a year while consuming US$25 billion in health care costs (Sen 2009 Wound Repair Regen.). Despite advances in wound management therapies, modern treatment for chronic wounds still requires continual professional attention and expensive equipment, posing serious practical and financial burdens for the regular patient. To provide an alternative solution, we are developing a low-cost smart bandage platform that integrates actuators and sensors to monitor and treat chronic wounds. One component of the integrated platform is an oxygen-generating module. It is a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device fabricated on a parchment paper substrate ...


Bionano Electronics: Magneto-Electric Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery, Brain Stimulation And Imaging Applications, Rakesh Guduru Sep 2013

Bionano Electronics: Magneto-Electric Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery, Brain Stimulation And Imaging Applications, Rakesh Guduru

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nanoparticles are often considered as efficient drug delivery vehicles for precisely dispensing the therapeutic payloads specifically to the diseased sites in the patient’s body, thereby minimizing the toxic side effects of the payloads on the healthy tissue. However, the fundamental physics that underlies the nanoparticles’ intrinsic interaction with the surrounding cells is inadequately elucidated. The ability of the nanoparticles to precisely control the release of its payloads externally (on-demand) without depending on the physiological conditions of the target sites has the potential to enable patient- and disease-specific nanomedicine, also known as Personalized NanoMedicine (PNM). In this dissertation, magneto-electric nanoparticles ...


Development Of A Novel Handheld Device For Active Compensation Of Physiological Tremor, Abhijit Saxena Jul 2013

Development Of A Novel Handheld Device For Active Compensation Of Physiological Tremor, Abhijit Saxena

Abhijit Saxena

In microsurgery, the human hand imposes certain limitations in accurately positioning the tip of a device such as scalpel. Any errors in the motion of the hand make microsurgical procedures difficult and involuntary motions such as hand tremors can make some procedures significantly difficult to perform. This is particularly true in the case of vitreoretinal microsurgery. The most familiar source of involuntary motion is physiological tremor. Real-time compensation of tremor is, therefore, necessary to assist surgeons to precisely position and manipulate the tool-tip to accurately perform a microsurgery. In this thesis, a novel handheld device (AID) is described for compensation ...


Computational Modeling To Evaluate Helical Electrode Designs For Use In Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Anthony W. Cowley Jun 2013

Computational Modeling To Evaluate Helical Electrode Designs For Use In Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Anthony W. Cowley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

An estimated 0.5% of world’s population has been diagnosed with epilepsy. Of these patients 20-30% will be unable to achieve seizure control with anti-epileptic drugs. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may be an appropriate treatment option for some patients with pharmaceutically refractory, partial-onset seizures.

VNS therapy uses a helical electrode to interface between the implantable pulse generator and the vagus nerve. While there have been several studies related to the mechanical and electrical safety of such electrodes, little work has been done toward understanding the effectiveness of the helical electrode in nerve stimulation. A better understanding of the voltage ...


Electrochemical Immunosensing Of Cortisol In An Automated Microfluidic System Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Abhay Vasudev May 2013

Electrochemical Immunosensing Of Cortisol In An Automated Microfluidic System Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Abhay Vasudev

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the development of a label-free, electrochemical immunosensing platform integrated into a low-cost microfluidic system for the sensitive, selective and accurate detection of cortisol, a steroid hormone co-related with many physiological disorders. Abnormal levels of cortisol is indicative of conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome, Addison’s disease, adrenal insufficiencies and more recently post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Electrochemical detection of immuno-complex formation is utilized for the sensitive detection of Cortisol using Anti-Cortisol antibodies immobilized on sensing electrodes. Electrochemical detection techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been utilized for the characterization and sensing ...


Detection Of Cocaine Use With Wireless Electrocardiogram Sensors, Annamalai Natarajan, Abhinav Parate, Edward C. Gaiser, Gustavo A. Angarita, Robert T. Malison, Deepak Ganesan, Benjamin M. Marlin May 2013

Detection Of Cocaine Use With Wireless Electrocardiogram Sensors, Annamalai Natarajan, Abhinav Parate, Edward C. Gaiser, Gustavo A. Angarita, Robert T. Malison, Deepak Ganesan, Benjamin M. Marlin

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

In recent years, the ability to continuously monitor activities, health, and lifestyles of individuals using sensor technologies has reached unprecedented levels. Such ubiquitous physiological sensing has the potential to profoundly improve our understanding of human behavior, leading to more targeted treatments for a variety of disorders. The long terms goal of this work is development of novel computational tools to support the study of addiction in the context of cocaine use. The current paper takes the first step in this important direction by posing a simple, but crucial question: Can cocaine use be reliably detected using wearable on-body sensors and ...


Design And Testing Of Novel Mouthguard With Intermediate Nitinol And Foam Layers, Adam Kessler May 2013

Design And Testing Of Novel Mouthguard With Intermediate Nitinol And Foam Layers, Adam Kessler

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

It is the aim of this study to investigate a novel mouthguard design that incorporates the use of a nickel-titanium (Nitinol) layer and thin foam layer in addition to EVA layers. It is thought that the Nitinol layer can distribute the force of an impact and that the thin foam layer may absorb this distributed force better than a solid EVA mouthguard of the same thickness. Rectangular, flat coupons representative of several mouthguard configurations were constructed for testing using an instrumented drop-weight impact tower. The coupon configurations include a control made of laminated EVA, a group of laminated EVA and ...


Closed Loop Control Of A Cylindrical Tube Type Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (Ipmc), Benjamin Mead May 2013

Closed Loop Control Of A Cylindrical Tube Type Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (Ipmc), Benjamin Mead

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The goal of this research is to provide a framework for the integration of tube type, cylindrical Ionic Polymer Metal-Composite (IPMC) into conventional devices. IPMCs are one of the most widely used types of electro-active polymer actuator, due to their low electric driving potential and large deformation range. For this research a tube type IPMC was investigated. This IPMC has a circular cross section with four separate electrodes on its surface and a hole through the middle. The four electrodes allow for biaxial bending and accurate control of the tip location. One of the main advantages of using this type ...


Activity Intent Recognition Of The Torso Based On Surface Electromyography And Inertial Measurement Units, Zhe Zhang Jan 2013

Activity Intent Recognition Of The Torso Based On Surface Electromyography And Inertial Measurement Units, Zhe Zhang

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

This thesis presents an activity mode intent recognition approach for safe, robust and reliable control of powered backbone exoskeleton. The thesis presents the background and a concept for a powered backbone exoskeleton that would work in parallel with a user. The necessary prerequisites for the thesis are presented, including the collection and processing of surface electromyography signals and inertial sensor data to recognize the user’s activity. The development of activity mode intent recognizer was described based on decision tree classification in order to leverage its computational efficiency. The intent recognizer is a high-level supervisory controller that belongs to a ...