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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2013

Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Functional 3-D Cellulose & Nitrocellulose Paper-Based, Mulitplex Diagnostic Platforms Without Coupling Agents, Mackenzie Elizabeth Tageson Dec 2013

Functional 3-D Cellulose & Nitrocellulose Paper-Based, Mulitplex Diagnostic Platforms Without Coupling Agents, Mackenzie Elizabeth Tageson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of this thesis was to demonstrate device functionality of 3-D paper-based, multiplex platforms, µPADs, without the use of coupling agents between layers. Previously, these platforms were fabricated with double-sided tape and cellulose powder to try to augment proper fluid routing, but difficulties with this method occurred. An acrylic housing unit with strategically placed pressure tabs was designed to aid horizontal and vertical fluid routing through the platform, thus eliminating the inconsistencies associated with coupling agents. Channel characterization studies, a COMSOLTM simulation, and development time studies were performed to aid device design and demonstrate device functionality.

The implementation ...


A Novel Signal Processing Method For Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Spinal Surgeries, Krishnatej Vedala Nov 2013

A Novel Signal Processing Method For Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring In Spinal Surgeries, Krishnatej Vedala

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is an integral part of spinal surgeries and involves the recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). However, clinical application of IONM still requires anywhere between 200 to 2000 trials to obtain an SSEP signal, which is excessive and introduces a significant delay during surgery to detect a possible neurological damage. The aim of this study is to develop a means to obtain the SSEP using a much less, twelve number of recordings. The preliminary step involved was to distinguish the SSEP with the ongoing brain activity. We first establish that the brain activity is indeed quasi-stationary whereas ...


Direct Quantitative Analysis Of Biomarkers Using Mass Spectrometry, Morgan N. Mcluckey, Zheng Ouyang Oct 2013

Direct Quantitative Analysis Of Biomarkers Using Mass Spectrometry, Morgan N. Mcluckey, Zheng Ouyang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics describes a step in the medical treatment process where drugs can be monitored in a patient’s body on-site and in a timely fashion. Mass spectrometry (MS) can provide a quick, efficient, and highly accurate method of analysis of patient biofluids and tissues. Developing methods to bring this diagnostic mechanism to hospitals and clinics has the potential to improve patient care through, for example, personalized medicine. Our goal was to develop a way to effectively introduce internal standard (IS), a necessary chemical for the analytical process, to low-volume biofluid samples. Additionally, the effective direct quantitation of biomarkers ...


Spectral Discrimination Of Breast Pathologies In Situ Using Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging, Ashley M. Laughney, Venkataramanan Krishnaswamy, Elizabeth J. Rizzo, Mary C. Schwab, Richard J. Barth, David J. Cuccia, Bruce J. Tromberg, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue, Wendy A. Wells Aug 2013

Spectral Discrimination Of Breast Pathologies In Situ Using Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging, Ashley M. Laughney, Venkataramanan Krishnaswamy, Elizabeth J. Rizzo, Mary C. Schwab, Richard J. Barth, David J. Cuccia, Bruce J. Tromberg, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue, Wendy A. Wells

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Introduction: Nationally, 25% to 50% of patients undergoing lumpectomy for local management of breast cancer require a secondary excision because of the persistence of residual tumor. Intraoperative assessment of specimen margins by frozen-section analysis is not widely adopted in breast-conserving surgery. Here, a new approach to wide-field optical imaging of breast pathology in situ was tested to determine whether the system could accurately discriminate cancer from benign tissues before routine pathological processing.


An Assessment Of Novel Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys For Endovascular Biomaterial Applications, Dharam Persaud-Sharma Jun 2013

An Assessment Of Novel Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys For Endovascular Biomaterial Applications, Dharam Persaud-Sharma

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Magnesium alloys have been widely explored as potential biomaterials, but several limitations to using these materials have prevented their widespread use, such as uncontrollable degradation kinetics which alter their mechanical properties. In an attempt to further the applicability of magnesium and its alloys for biomedical purposes, two novel magnesium alloys Mg-Zn-Cu and Mg-Zn-Se were developed with the expectation of improving upon the unfavorable qualities shown by similar magnesium based materials that have previously been explored. The overall performance of these novel magnesium alloys has been assessesed in three distinct phases of research: 1) analysing the mechanical properties of the as-cast ...


Fluorescence Characterization Of Quantum Dots For Use As Biomarkers, Logan M. Grimes Jun 2013

Fluorescence Characterization Of Quantum Dots For Use As Biomarkers, Logan M. Grimes

Materials Engineering

Fluorescence profiles of quantum dots (QDs) were characterized to select the ideal QDs for encapsulation in phospholipids for use as biomarkers to selectively adhere to cancer cells. QDs were synthesized and extracted 0, 30, 60, and 90 seconds after precursor compounds were mixed. These extractions were isolated by extraction time. Portions from each vial were coated in a zinc sulfide shelling procedure, leaving at least half of the QD solution unshelled. These samples were characterized over four days to monitor fluctuations in fluorescence. This was done utilizing an Ocean Optics spectrometer in conjunction with Spectra Suite software. The central wavelength ...


Evaluation Of The Anterior Talofibular And Calcaneofibular Ligament In Relation To Supination Ankle Sprains, Peter Tran Jun 2013

Evaluation Of The Anterior Talofibular And Calcaneofibular Ligament In Relation To Supination Ankle Sprains, Peter Tran

Biomedical Engineering

Ankle injuries have always posed an issue to a number of athletes. Sports that involve running and jumping accumulate about 25% of injuries correlating to ankle sprains. In most ankle sprains the inversion (supination) of the ankle cause damage to lateral ligaments. The two most common lateral ligaments to experience damage are the anterior talofibular (ATFL) and calcaneofibular (CFL) ligaments. The methods of taping and ankle braces have allowed athletes to prevent recurring sprains from occurring. However, sprains can still occur even when one or both methods are applied. The purpose of each method is to restrict the range of ...


Beach Wheelchair Project, Rory Aronson, Joshua Marcum, Samuel Coyne, Alex Hayes, Alexa Colburn, Max Hessel, Benedikt Strauss, Marvin Rimmele, Marco Pietsch Jun 2013

Beach Wheelchair Project, Rory Aronson, Joshua Marcum, Samuel Coyne, Alex Hayes, Alexa Colburn, Max Hessel, Benedikt Strauss, Marvin Rimmele, Marco Pietsch

Mechanical Engineering

The Beach Wheelchair, Sandcrawler, is a machine intended to help give people with disabilities the full beach experience. The non-profit organization Bridge II Sports sponsored this project, and tasked us with developing the design and fabricating a prototype. This chair has several features including a linkage mechanism that raises and lowers a chair relative to an external frame, hand crank drive with Gates Carbondrive belt and sprockets, buoyant Wheeleez balloon tires, and much more.


Dynamic Dual-Tracer Mri-Guided Fluorescence Tomography To Quantify Receptor Density In Vivo, Scott C. Davis, Kimberley S. Samkoe, Kenneth M. Tichauer, Kristian J. Sexton, Jason R. Gunn, Sophie J. Deharvengt, Tayyaba Hasan, Brian W. Pogue May 2013

Dynamic Dual-Tracer Mri-Guided Fluorescence Tomography To Quantify Receptor Density In Vivo, Scott C. Davis, Kimberley S. Samkoe, Kenneth M. Tichauer, Kristian J. Sexton, Jason R. Gunn, Sophie J. Deharvengt, Tayyaba Hasan, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The up-regulation of cell surface receptors has become a central focus in personalized cancer treatment; however, because of the complex nature of contrast agent pharmacokinetics in tumor tissue, methods to quantify receptor binding in vivo remain elusive. Here, we present a dual-tracer optical technique for noninvasive estimation of specific receptor binding in cancer. A multispectral MRI-coupled fluorescence molecular tomography system was used to image the uptake kinetics of two fluorescent tracers injected simultaneously, one tracer targeted to the receptor of interest and the other tracer a nontargeted reference. These dynamic tracer data were then fit to a dual-tracer compartmental model ...


Biomedical Photoacoustic Imaging Using Gas-Coupled Laser Acoustic Detection, Jami Johnson May 2013

Biomedical Photoacoustic Imaging Using Gas-Coupled Laser Acoustic Detection, Jami Johnson

Student Research Initiative

Several detection methods have been explored for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of biological tissues. Piezoelectric transducers are commonly used, which require contact with the sample to be imaged and have limiting bandwidth characteristics. Interferometry detection exhibits improved bandwidth characteristics and resolution, yet generally require complicated optics and the incorporation of a contacting reflective medium. In this paper, we report the use of a noncontact photoacoustic imaging system that does not require the use of a reflective layer. A simple, robust technique known as gas-coupled laser acoustic detection is used, which has previously been applied to evaluation of composite materials. This ...


Use Of Novel Microfluidic Devices To Detect Biomarkers In Blood, Nese Orby, Carol Barry May 2013

Use Of Novel Microfluidic Devices To Detect Biomarkers In Blood, Nese Orby, Carol Barry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Blood analysis is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally, blood analysis requires a vial of blood and several processing steps resulting in a time consuming and difficult process. The aim of this research is to find a portable and inexpensive device to carry out fast blood cells separation, count and analysis. Previous work show the capability to analyze and separate blood cells using microfluidic devices resulting in less sample volume and shorter analysis time. Most microfluidic devices share similar fabrication process and materials (soft lithography process in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)). ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is the most common ...


High Frequency, All-Optical Ultrasound Transducer For Biomedical Applications, Nan Wu, Ye Tian, Xiaotian Zou, Xingwei Wang May 2013

High Frequency, All-Optical Ultrasound Transducer For Biomedical Applications, Nan Wu, Ye Tian, Xiaotian Zou, Xingwei Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

High-frequency (> 30 MHz), high-resolution (<100 >μm) ultrasonic imaging has been increasingly demanded in applications that include dermatology, ophthalmology, intravascular imaging, and small animal imaging. It is also a valuable imaging tool for non-invasive studies of disease progression and regression. The conventional approach that relies on piezoelectric transducers is difficult to design at high frequencies. An all-optical photoacoustic transducer, which can operate above 50 MHz, can circumvent this problem. It converts pulsed laser energy exerted onto a thin photoabsorptive film into thermoelastic waves. The center frequency and bandwidth of the generated ultrasound are determined by the incident laser pulse. In addition, the ...


Automated Home Apnea System, Collin G. Howser, Trevor Grieco May 2013

Automated Home Apnea System, Collin G. Howser, Trevor Grieco

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Tracking Knee Joint Functional Axes Through Tikhonov Filtering And Plűcker Coordinates, Wangdo Kim, Yoon-Hyuk Kim, António P. Veloso, Sean S. Kohles Mar 2013

Tracking Knee Joint Functional Axes Through Tikhonov Filtering And Plűcker Coordinates, Wangdo Kim, Yoon-Hyuk Kim, António P. Veloso, Sean S. Kohles

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Researchers have reported several compensation methods to estimate bone and joint position from a cluster of skin-mounted markers as influenced by Soft Tissue Artifacts (STA). Tikhonov Regularization Filtering (TRF) as a means to estimate Instantaneous Screw Axes (ISA) was introduced here as a means to reduce the displacement of a rigid body to its simplest geometric form. Recent studies have suggested that the ISA of the knee, i.e., Knee Functional Axes (KFA), might be closely connected to the estimation of constraint forces such as those due to medial and lateral connective tissues. The estimations of ISAs were known to ...


Scanning In Situ Spectroscopy Pplatform For Imaging Surgical Breast Tissue Specimens, Venkataramanan Krishnaswamy, Ashley M. Laughney, Wendy A. Wells, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue Jan 2013

Scanning In Situ Spectroscopy Pplatform For Imaging Surgical Breast Tissue Specimens, Venkataramanan Krishnaswamy, Ashley M. Laughney, Wendy A. Wells, Keith D. Paulsen, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A non-contact localized spectroscopic imaging platform has been developed and optimized to scan 1 x 1 cm² square regions of surgically resected breast tissue specimens with ~150-micron resolution. A color corrected, image-space telecentric scanning design maintained a consistent sampling geometry and uniform spot size across the entire imaging field. Theoretical modeling in ZEMAX allowed estimation of the spot size, which is equal at both the center and extreme positions of the field with ~5% variation across the designed waveband, indicating excellent color correction. The spot sizes at the center and an extreme field position were also measured experimentally using the ...


Automated Point-Of-Care Image Processing Methodology For The Diagnosis Of Malaria, Michael B. Jorgensen Jan 2013

Automated Point-Of-Care Image Processing Methodology For The Diagnosis Of Malaria, Michael B. Jorgensen

Master's Theses

Malaria has profoundly influenced human history for over four thousand years and despite numerous attempts at eradication, the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of malaria have been largely ineffective. More than five hundred million people are affected by malaria every year resulting in over one million deaths. Drug resistance development by the parasite has diminished the effectiveness of numerous treatment options due, in part, to overtreatment of negative patients based on insufficient clinical algorithms and diagnostic methods. The goal of this research was to develop an image analysis algorithm to diagnose malaria with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in ...


A Dna Computer For Glioblastoma Multiforme Diagnosis And Drug Delivery, Sumaiya F. Hashmi Jan 2013

A Dna Computer For Glioblastoma Multiforme Diagnosis And Drug Delivery, Sumaiya F. Hashmi

CMC Senior Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a debilitating malignant brain tumor with expected patient survival of less than a year and limited responsiveness to most treatments, often requiring biopsy for diagnosis and invasive surgery for treatment. We propose a DNA computer system, consisting of input, computation, and output components, for diagnosis and treatment. The input component will detect the presence of three GBM biomarkers: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), caveolin-1α (CAV), and B2 receptors. The computation component will include indicator segments for each of these genes, and ensure that output is only released if all the biomarkers are present. The output component ...


Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng Jan 2013

Noninvasive Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Monitoring Of Cerebral Hemodynamics And Autoregulation, Ran Cheng

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Many cerebral diseases are associated with abnormal cerebral hemodynamics and impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA). CA is a mechanism to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) stable when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates. Evaluating these abnormalities requires direct measurements of cerebral hemodynamics and MAP. Several near-infrared diffuse optical instruments have been developed in our laboratory for hemodynamic measurements including near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), hybrid NIRS/DCS, and dual-wavelength DCS flow-oximeter. We utilized these noninvasive technologies to quantify CBF and cerebral oxygenation in different populations under different physiological conditions/manipulations. A commercial finger plethysmograph was used to continuously monitor MAP ...


Micromechanical Analysis Of Nanoparticle-Reinforced Dental Composites, Yi Hua, Linxia Gu, Hidehiko Watanabe Jan 2013

Micromechanical Analysis Of Nanoparticle-Reinforced Dental Composites, Yi Hua, Linxia Gu, Hidehiko Watanabe

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The mechanical behavior of TiO2 nanoparticle-reinforced resin-based dental composites was characterized in this work using a three-dimensional nanoscale representative volume element. The impacts of nanoparticle volume fraction, aspect ratio, stiffness, and interphase zone between the resin matrix and nanoparticle on the bulk properties of the composite were characterized. Results clearly demonstrated the mechanical advantage of nanocomposites in comparison to microfiber-reinforced composites. The bulk response of the nanocomposite could be further enhanced with the increased nanoparticle volume fraction, or aspect ratio, while the influence of nanoparticle stiffness was minimal. The effective Young’s modulus and yield strength of the composite ...