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2012

Life Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 60

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Role Of Epidermal Growth Factor-Triggered Pi3k/Akt Signaling In The Migration Of Medulloblastoma-Derived Cells, Veronica Dudu, Richard A. Able, Jr., Veronica Rotari, Qingjun Kong, Maribel Vazquez Dec 2012

Role Of Epidermal Growth Factor-Triggered Pi3k/Akt Signaling In The Migration Of Medulloblastoma-Derived Cells, Veronica Dudu, Richard A. Able, Jr., Veronica Rotari, Qingjun Kong, Maribel Vazquez

Publications and Research

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common brain cancer diagnosed among children. The cellular pathways that regulate MB invasion in response to environmental cues remain incompletely understood. Herein, we examine the migratory response of human MB-derived Daoy cells to different concentration profiles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) using a microfluidic system. Our findings provide the first quantitative evidence that EGF concentration gradients modulate the chemotaxis of MB-derived cells in a dose-dependent manner via the EGF receptor (EGF-R). Data illustrates that higher concentration gradients caused increased number of cells to migrate. In addition, our results show that EGF-induced receptor phosphorylation triggered the ...


Nanoroughened Surfaces For Efficient Capture Of Circulating Tumor Cells Without Using Capture Antibodies, Weiqiang Chen, Shinuo Weng, Feng Zhang, Steven Allen, Xiang Li, Liwei Bao, Raymond H. W. Lam, Jill A. Macoska, Sofia D. Merajver, Jianping Fu Nov 2012

Nanoroughened Surfaces For Efficient Capture Of Circulating Tumor Cells Without Using Capture Antibodies, Weiqiang Chen, Shinuo Weng, Feng Zhang, Steven Allen, Xiang Li, Liwei Bao, Raymond H. W. Lam, Jill A. Macoska, Sofia D. Merajver, Jianping Fu

Weiqiang Chen

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detached from both primary and metastatic lesions represent a potential alternative to invasive biopsies as a source of tumor tissue for the detection, characterization and monitoring of cancers. Here we report a simple yet effective strategy for capturing CTCs without using capture antibodies. Our method uniquely utilized the differential adhesion preference of cancer cells to nanorough surfaces when compared to normal blood cells and thus did not depend on their physical size or surface protein expression, a significant advantage as compared to other existing CTC capture techniques.


Genome Sequence Of The Psychrophilic Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella Marina Mp-1 (Atcc 15381), Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Laura R. Jarboe Nov 2012

Genome Sequence Of The Psychrophilic Deep-Sea Bacterium Moritella Marina Mp-1 (Atcc 15381), Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Moritella marina MP-1 is a bacterial species known for its production of docosahexaenoic acid. We present the draft genome sequence of the type strainMoritella marina MP-1 (ATCC 15381), having 4,636,778 bp with a G+C content of 40.5% and consisting of 83 contigs.


An Rna Aptamer-Based Microcantilever Sensor To Detect The Inflammatory Marker, Mouse Lipocalin-2, Lijie Zhai, Tianjiao Wang, Kyungho Kang, Yue Zhao, Pranav Shrotriya, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton Oct 2012

An Rna Aptamer-Based Microcantilever Sensor To Detect The Inflammatory Marker, Mouse Lipocalin-2, Lijie Zhai, Tianjiao Wang, Kyungho Kang, Yue Zhao, Pranav Shrotriya, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is a biomarker for many inflammatory-based diseases, including acute kidney injury, cardiovascular stress, diabetes, and various cancers. Inflammatory transitions occur rapidly in kidney and cardiovascular disease, for which an in-line monitor could be beneficial. Microcantilever devices with aptamers as recognition elements can be effective and rapidly responsive sensors. Here, we have selected and characterized an RNA aptamer that specifically binds mouse Lcn2 (mLcn2) with a dissociation constant of 340 ± 70 nM in solution and 38 ± 22 nM when immobilized on a surface. The higher apparent affinity of the immobilized aptamer may result from its effective multivalency that decreases ...


Computational Model Of Neuron-Astrocyte Interputational Model Of Neuron-Astrocyte Interactions During Focal Seizure Generationactions During Focal Seizure Generation, Davide Reato, Mario Cammarota, Lucas C. Parra, Giorgio Carmignoto Oct 2012

Computational Model Of Neuron-Astrocyte Interputational Model Of Neuron-Astrocyte Interactions During Focal Seizure Generationactions During Focal Seizure Generation, Davide Reato, Mario Cammarota, Lucas C. Parra, Giorgio Carmignoto

Publications and Research

Empirical research in the last decade revealed that astrocytes can respond to neurotransmitters with Ca2+ elevations and generate feedback signals to neurons which modulate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. This discovery changed our basic understanding of brain function and provided new perspectives for how astrocytes can participate not only to information processing, but also to the genesis of brain disorders, such as epilepsy. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that can arise focally at restricted areas and propagate throughout the brain. Studies in brain slice models suggest that astrocytes contribute to epileptiform activity by increasing neuronal excitability ...


Comparison Of Phenolic Compounds And Antioxidant Capacities Of Traditional Sorghum Beers With Other Alcoholic Beverages, Fatouma Abdoul-Latif, Romaric G. Bayili, Louis C. Obame, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof. Oct 2012

Comparison Of Phenolic Compounds And Antioxidant Capacities Of Traditional Sorghum Beers With Other Alcoholic Beverages, Fatouma Abdoul-Latif, Romaric G. Bayili, Louis C. Obame, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof.

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Thirty samples of sorghum beers “dolo” were selected from traditionally fermented household manufacturers from Burkina Faso. Dolo samples were screened for their total phenolic content, proanthocyanidins and putative antioxidant capacities, and were compared with industrial beers and wines. Total phenols were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Proanthocyanidins content were determined by the method of HCl-butanol hydrolysis. Antioxidant activities were evaluated both with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) using 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical) (ABTS•+). The average contents of total phenols and proanthocyanidins were 506 μg GAE/ml of dolo and 45 μg ...


Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram Oct 2012

Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Microbial biocatalysts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively subjected to Metabolic Engineering for the fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. This often entails the introduction of new enzymes, deletion of unwanted enzymes and efforts to fine-tune enzyme abundance in order to attain the desired strain performance. Enzyme performance can be quantitatively described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten type parameters Km, turnover number kcat and Ki, which roughly describe the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, the speed of a reaction and the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by regulatory molecules. Here we describe examples of ...


Rapid Temporal Changes In The Expression Of A Set Of Neuromodulatory Genes During Alcohol Withdrawal In The Dorsal Vagal Complex: Molecular Evidence Of Homeostatic Disturbance., Kate Freeman, Mary M. Staehle, Zeynep H Gümüş, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Gregory E Gonye, Carmen N Nichols, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, Jan B Hoek, James S Schwaber Oct 2012

Rapid Temporal Changes In The Expression Of A Set Of Neuromodulatory Genes During Alcohol Withdrawal In The Dorsal Vagal Complex: Molecular Evidence Of Homeostatic Disturbance., Kate Freeman, Mary M. Staehle, Zeynep H Gümüş, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Gregory E Gonye, Carmen N Nichols, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, Jan B Hoek, James S Schwaber

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol exposure produces neuroadaptation, which increases the risk of cellular excitotoxicity and autonomic dysfunction during withdrawal. The temporal progression and regulation of the gene expression that contributes to this physiologic and behavioral phenotype is poorly understood early in the withdrawal period. Further, it is unexplored in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), a brainstem autonomic regulatory structure.

METHODS: We use a quantitative polymerase chain reaction platform to precisely and simultaneously measure the expression of 145 neuromodulatory genes in more than 100 rat DVC samples from control, chronically alcohol-exposed, and withdrawn rats. To gain insight into the dynamic progression and ...


Real-Time Analysis Of Brain Tumor Cell Dynamics: Novel Thermoelectric Detection Of L-Glutamate And Cell Metabolism Using Microfluidics, Siva Mahesh Tangutooru Oct 2012

Real-Time Analysis Of Brain Tumor Cell Dynamics: Novel Thermoelectric Detection Of L-Glutamate And Cell Metabolism Using Microfluidics, Siva Mahesh Tangutooru

Doctoral Dissertations

This study describes the design, fabrication and applications of a novel thermoelectric microfluidic bio-sensor. The bio-sensor is used for real time detection of the L-glutamate (L-glu) dynamics and metabolism for brain tumor cells immobilized in a microfluidic device. The microfluidic device is fabricated using a polymer/glass laminating technique (Xurography). An antimony-bismuth thin-film thermopile (primary sensing element) is integrated to the microfluidic device. The brain tumor cells are immobilized over the thermopile covering measuring and reference junctions of the thermopile using a poly-l-lysine coating layer. L-glutamate oxidase (L-GLOD) is immobilized over the measuring junctions of the thermopile prior to the ...


A Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Based On Motor Intention And Visual Working Memory, Ching-Chang Kuo Oct 2012

A Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Based On Motor Intention And Visual Working Memory, Ching-Chang Kuo

Doctoral Dissertations

Non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) is able to provide alternative means for people with disabilities to communicate with and control over external assistive devices. A hybrid BCI is designed and developed for following two types of system (control and monitor).

Our first goal is to create a signal decoding strategy that allows people with limited motor control to have more command over potential prosthetic devices. Eight healthy subjects were recruited to perform visual cues directed reaching tasks. Eye and motion artifacts were identified and removed to ensure that the subjects' visual fixation to the target locations would have ...


The Contribution Of Oxidative Stress In The Protein Damage And Dna Lesion In Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology, Cheng Zhang Oct 2012

The Contribution Of Oxidative Stress In The Protein Damage And Dna Lesion In Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology, Cheng Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

Glutathione (GSH) plays an essential role in the intracellular antioxidant defense against the oxidant radicals, especially the ·OH radical. To understand the early and progressive cellular changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) development, we investigated reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) status in a double mutated AD transgenic mouse model (B6.Cg-Tg), which carries Swedish amyloid precursor protein mutation (APPswe) and exon 9 deletion of the PSEN1 gene. Likewise, S-glutathionylation (Pr-SSG) is a specific post-translational modification (PTM) of cysteine residues by the addition of glutathione. S-glutathionylated proteins induced by oxidative stress play an essential role in understanding the ...


Characterization Of Xylan Utilization And Discovery Of A New Endoxylanase In Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum Through Targeted Gene Deletions, Kara K. Podkaminer, Adam M. Guss, Heather L. Trajano, David A. Hogsett, Lee R. Lynd Sep 2012

Characterization Of Xylan Utilization And Discovery Of A New Endoxylanase In Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum Through Targeted Gene Deletions, Kara K. Podkaminer, Adam M. Guss, Heather L. Trajano, David A. Hogsett, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The economical production of fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulose requires the utilization of both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. Xylanase enzymes allow greater utilization of hemicellulose while also increasing cellulose hydrolysis. Recent metabolic engineering efforts have resulted in a strain of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum that can convert C5 and C6 sugars, as well as insoluble xylan, into ethanol at high yield. To better understand the process of xylan solubilization in this organism, a series of targeted deletions were constructed in the homoethanologenic T. saccharolyticum strain M0355 to characterize xylan hydrolysis and xylose utilization in this organism. While the deletion of ...


Toxicity Assessment And Analgesic Activity Investigation Of Aqueous Acetone Extracts Of Sida Acuta Burn F. And Sida Cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), Medicinal Plants Of Burkina Faso, Kiessoum Konate, Adama Hilou, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Alain Souza, Nicolas Barro, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Jacques Datté, Bertrand M’Batchi Aug 2012

Toxicity Assessment And Analgesic Activity Investigation Of Aqueous Acetone Extracts Of Sida Acuta Burn F. And Sida Cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), Medicinal Plants Of Burkina Faso, Kiessoum Konate, Adama Hilou, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Alain Souza, Nicolas Barro, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Jacques Datté, Bertrand M’Batchi

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity ...


Changes In In Vivo Knee Contact Forces Through Gait Modification, Allison Kinney, Thor F. Besier, Amy Slider, Scott L. Delp, Darryl D. D'Lima, Benjamin J. Fregly Aug 2012

Changes In In Vivo Knee Contact Forces Through Gait Modification, Allison Kinney, Thor F. Besier, Amy Slider, Scott L. Delp, Darryl D. D'Lima, Benjamin J. Fregly

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Gait modification represents a non-invasive method for reducing knee joint loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that a variety of gait modifications are effective in reducing the external knee adduction moment. The external knee adduction moment is often used as a surrogate measure of medial compartment force. However, a recent study showed that reductions in the external knee adduction moment do not guarantee reductions in medial compartment loads. Therefore, direct measurement of changes in knee contact force is important for determining the effectiveness of gait modifications. A previous study found that medial thrust gait and walking ...


Mechanical Activation Of Valvular Interstitial Cell Phenotype: A Dissertation, Angela M. Throm Quinlan Aug 2012

Mechanical Activation Of Valvular Interstitial Cell Phenotype: A Dissertation, Angela M. Throm Quinlan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During heart valve remodeling, and in many disease states, valvular interstitial cells (VICs) shift to an activated myofibroblast phenotype which is characterized by enhanced synthetic and contractile activity. Pronounced alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-containing stress fibers, the hallmark of activated myofibroblasts, are also observed when VICs are placed under tension due to altered mechanical loading in vivo or during in vitro culture on stiff substrates or under high mechanical loads and in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1). The work presented herein describes three distinct model systems for application of controlled mechanical environment to VICs cultured in vitro ...


Antibacterial Activity Against Beta- Lactamase Producing Methicillin And Ampicillin-Resistants Staphylococcus Aureus: Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (Fici) Determination, Kiessoun K Onate, Jacques François Mavoungou, Alexis Nicaise Lepengué, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Adama Hilou, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Bertrand M’Batchi Jun 2012

Antibacterial Activity Against Beta- Lactamase Producing Methicillin And Ampicillin-Resistants Staphylococcus Aureus: Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (Fici) Determination, Kiessoun K Onate, Jacques François Mavoungou, Alexis Nicaise Lepengué, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Adama Hilou, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Bertrand M’Batchi

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The present study reports the antibacterial capacity of alkaloid compounds in combination with Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants bacteria isolated from clinical samples. The resistance of different bacteria strains to the current antibacterial agents, their toxicity and the cost of the treatment have led to the development of natural products against the bacteria resistant infections when applied in combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs. The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC, MBC methods, the time-kill assay and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. On the whole, fifteen Gram-positive bacterial strains (MRSA/ARSA) were used. Negative ...


Ethanol And Anaerobic Conditions Reversibly Inhibit Commercial Cellulase Activity In Thermophilic Simultaneous Saccharification And Fermentation (Tssf), Kara K. Podkaminer, William R. Kenealy, Christopher D. Herring, David A. Hogsett, Lee R. Lynd Jun 2012

Ethanol And Anaerobic Conditions Reversibly Inhibit Commercial Cellulase Activity In Thermophilic Simultaneous Saccharification And Fermentation (Tssf), Kara K. Podkaminer, William R. Kenealy, Christopher D. Herring, David A. Hogsett, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A previously developed mathematical model of low solids thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF) with Avicel was unable to predict performance at high solids using a commercial cellulase preparation (Spezyme CP) and the high ethanol yield Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain ALK2. The observed hydrolysis proceeded more slowly than predicted at solids concentrations greater than 50 g/L Avicel. Factors responsible for this inaccuracy were investigated in this study.


Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover Jun 2012

Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover

Biomedical Engineering

Numerous molecular factors active in bone tissue direct fracture repair and remodeling which can be altered by disease conditions such as Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Osteoporosis. Methods of molecular biology are commonly applied to investigate the expression and role of these molecular factors. This project presents a robust three-step protocol for examining gene expression in the mouse tibia. The protocol begins with isolating RNA from a flash frozen tibia sample. The isolated RNA is reverse transcribed into cDNA. Finally, PCR is performed to indentify expressed genes. Establishing this protocol will allow further research into the mechanisms of bone remodeling ...


Mixed-Surface, Lipid-Tethered Quantum Dots For Targeting Cells And Tissues, Yanjie Zhang, Amanda Haage, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ian C. Schneider, Aaron R. Clapp Jun 2012

Mixed-Surface, Lipid-Tethered Quantum Dots For Targeting Cells And Tissues, Yanjie Zhang, Amanda Haage, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ian C. Schneider, Aaron R. Clapp

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Quantum dots (QDs), with their variable luminescent properties, are rapidly transcending traditional labeling techniques in biological imaging and hold vast potential for biosensing applications. An obstacle in any biosensor development is targeted specificity. Here we report a facile procedure for creating QDs targeted to the cell membrane with the goal of cell-surface protease biosensing. This procedure generates water-soluble QDs with variable coverage of lipid functional groups. The resulting hydrophobicity is quantitatively controlled by the molar ratio of lipids per QD. Appropriate tuning of the hydrophobicity ensures solubility in common aqueous cell culture media and while providing affinity to the lipid ...


Enhanced Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Using Bioaugmentation With Biowishtm-Aqua Fog, Michael Robert Lehrer Jun 2012

Enhanced Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Using Bioaugmentation With Biowishtm-Aqua Fog, Michael Robert Lehrer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study was done to determine the effectiveness of a commercially available bioaugmentation product, BiOWiSHTM-Aqua FOG, for remediating petroleum-contaminated sandy soil. Biodegradation enhancement by BiOWiSHTM-Aqua FOG was evaluated in laboratory microcosms by directly measuring total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and indirectly using respirometry. Attempts were made to enrich hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in BiOWiSHTM-Aqua FOG, and the resulting enrichment cultures were screened using respirometry as well. Potential hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in BiOWiSHTM-Aqua FOG were isolated. Experiments were performed at bench-scale using microcosm bottles containing sand contaminated with either motor oil or No. 2 diesel fuel. The ...


Novel Paths To Antifungal Therapeutics, Ahmed Fazly, Charu Jain, Reeta Prusty Rao, Paul D. Kaufman May 2012

Novel Paths To Antifungal Therapeutics, Ahmed Fazly, Charu Jain, Reeta Prusty Rao, Paul D. Kaufman

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Adhesion to medical device and host cell surfaces are crucial steps during pathogenesis by fungi such as Candida albicans, which is especially dangerous to immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. We have identified a small molecule that inhibits adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene and to cultured human epithelial cells. Moreover, this compound is able to coat plastic surfaces and make them resistant to colonization by fungal biofilms. Therefore, this compound has the potential to be widely useful as a novel therapeutic and/or as a coating on medical devices.

Rationale: C. albicans is the most widespread fungal pathogen of ...


Rho Kinase Signaling Pathways During Stretch In Primary Alveolar Epithelia, Brian Christopher Dipaolo, Susan S. Margulies May 2012

Rho Kinase Signaling Pathways During Stretch In Primary Alveolar Epithelia, Brian Christopher Dipaolo, Susan S. Margulies

Departmental Papers (BE)

Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) maintain integrity of the blood-gas barrier with actin-anchored intercellular tight junctions. Stretched type I-like AECs undergo magnitude- and frequency-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling into perijunctional actin rings. On the basis of published studies in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs), we hypothesize that RhoA activity, Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain II (MLC2) increase in stretched type I-like AECs in a manner that is dependent on stretch magnitude, and that RhoA, ROCK, or MLC2 activity inhibition will attenuate stretch-induced actin remodeling and preserve barrier properties. Primary type I-like AEC monolayers were stretched biaxially ...


Proteomic Analysis Of 17Β-Estradiol Degradation By Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia, Zhongtian Li May 2012

Proteomic Analysis Of 17Β-Estradiol Degradation By Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia, Zhongtian Li

Z Li

Microbial degradation plays a critical role in determining the environmental fate of steroid hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2). The molecular mechanisms governing the microbial transformation of E2 and its primary degradation intermediate, estrone (E1), are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to identify metabolism pathways that might be involved in microbial estrogen degradation. To achieve the objective, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ZL1 was used as a model estrogen degrading bacterium and its protein expression level during E2/E1 degradation was studied using quantitative proteomics. During an E2 degradation experiment, strain ZL1 first converted E2 to E1 stoichiometrically. At 16 ...


Computational Design And Characterization Of A Temperature-Sensitive Plasmid Replicon For Gram Positive Thermophiles, Daniel G. Olson, Lee R. Lynd May 2012

Computational Design And Characterization Of A Temperature-Sensitive Plasmid Replicon For Gram Positive Thermophiles, Daniel G. Olson, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Temperature-sensitive (Ts) plasmids are useful tools for genetic engineering, but there are currently none compatible with the gram positive, thermophilic, obligate anaerobe, Clostridium thermocellum. Traditional mutagenesis techniques yield Ts mutants at a low frequency, and therefore requires the development of high-throughput screening protocols, which are also not available for this organism. Recently there has been progress in the development of computer algorithms which can predict Ts mutations. Most plasmids currently used for genetic modification of C. thermocellum are based on the replicon of plasmid pNW33N, which replicates using the RepB replication protein. To address this problem, we set out to ...


Robust Dynamic Balance Of Ap-1 Transcription Factors In A Neuronal Gene Regulatory Network., Gregory M Miller, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli May 2012

Robust Dynamic Balance Of Ap-1 Transcription Factors In A Neuronal Gene Regulatory Network., Gregory M Miller, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S Schwaber, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

BACKGROUND: The octapeptide Angiotensin II is a key hormone that acts via its receptor AT1R in the brainstem to modulate the blood pressure control circuits and thus plays a central role in the cardiac and respiratory homeostasis. This modulation occurs via activation of a complex network of signaling proteins and transcription factors, leading to changes in levels of key genes and proteins. AT1R initiated activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which regulates blood pressure, has been the subject of extensive molecular analysis. But the adaptive network interactions in the NTS response to AT1R, plausibly related to the development of ...


Design And Implementation Of A Shoulder Simulator, Chelsea Lynn Kowal May 2012

Design And Implementation Of A Shoulder Simulator, Chelsea Lynn Kowal

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The main objective of this thesis project is to build a shoulder simulator to be able to understand the mechanics of the shoulder, specifically the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles. The shoulder simulator should be able to mimic the important motions of the human shoulder by pulling on tendons of cadaver shoulders and moving the shoulder in various specified motions. In my thesis project, I worked on creating a shoulder simulator that would control the rotator cuff muscles along with the three deltoid muscles. In order to do this, I needed to design and test the shoulder simulator using cadaver ...


Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Andreas Haukas May 2012

Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Andreas Haukas

Theses and Dissertations

Stem cell and tissue engineering offer us with a unique opportunity to research and develop new therapies for treating various diseases that are otherwise incurable using traditional medicines. However, development of these new therapies replies upon the establishment of in vitro cell culture and differentiation systems that mimic in vivo microenvironments required for cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction. The development of these cell culture systems depends upon the identification of appropriate biomaterials and cell sources. Biomaterials should be carefully selected and fabricated into scaffolds for supporting cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we explored the fabrication of 3D electrospun nanofiber ...


A Method To Measure The Detective Quantum Efficiency Of Radiographic Systems In Clinical Setting, Michael C. Mcdonald Apr 2012

A Method To Measure The Detective Quantum Efficiency Of Radiographic Systems In Clinical Setting, Michael C. Mcdonald

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The risks associated with exposure to radiation make it critical that digital imaging systems give the best possible images for a given dose to the patient. The DQE is the most widely accepted measure of performance and dose efficiency for digital radiography systems, however it is not commonly measured in a clinical environment as part of routine quality assurance. The primary reason for this is that the data provided to the user by clinical systems has typically undergone image processing and therefore may have a non-linear characteristic response. This is a problem because the Fourier metrics of the DQE require ...


Detection Of Sk2 Channels On Hippocampal Neurons, Jamie L. Maciaszek Apr 2012

Detection Of Sk2 Channels On Hippocampal Neurons, Jamie L. Maciaszek

Master's Theses

Calcium-activated small conductance potassium channels (SK) are crucial for synaptic plasticity, sleep, and learning and memory (Hammond, Bond et al. 2006; Cueni, Canepari et al. 2008; Lin, Lujan et al. 2008). Despite the recent progress on SK channel physiology, the precise spatial organization of SK channels in neurons has remained unknown. Such knowledge is critical as the subcellular distribution of SK channels is an important determinant of neuronal excitability. Currently, there are no techniques to image ion channel distribution quantitatively at the nanometer scale in living cells. Here, it is demonstrated that integration of natural toxins with single molecule atomic ...


Self-Assembling Short Oligopeptides And The Promotion Of Angiogenesis, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Daria Narmoneva, Olumuyiwa Oni, Shugang Zhang, Jonathan Gertler, Roger Kamm, Richard Lee Apr 2012

Self-Assembling Short Oligopeptides And The Promotion Of Angiogenesis, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Daria Narmoneva, Olumuyiwa Oni, Shugang Zhang, Jonathan Gertler, Roger Kamm, Richard Lee

Alisha L. Sarang-Sieminski

Because an adequate blood supply to and within tissues is an essential factor for successful tissue regeneration, promoting a functional microvasculature is a crucial factor for biomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that short self-assembling peptides form scaffolds that provide an angiogenic environment promoting long-term cell survival and capillary-like network formation in three-dimensional cultures of human microvascular endothelial cells. Our data show that, in contrast to collagen type I, the peptide scaffold inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis in the absence of added angiogenic factors, accompanied by enhanced gene expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF. In addition, our results suggest that the ...