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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Articles 1 - 6 of 6

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Deletion Of The Cel48s Cellulase From Clostridium Thermocellum, Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, Jonathan Lo, Nicky C. Caiazza, David A. Hogsett, Robert L. Hettich, Adam M. Guss, Genia Dubrovsky, Lee R. Lynd Oct 2010

Deletion Of The Cel48s Cellulase From Clostridium Thermocellum, Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, Jonathan Lo, Nicky C. Caiazza, David A. Hogsett, Robert L. Hettich, Adam M. Guss, Genia Dubrovsky, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose with the aid of a multienzyme cellulosome complex. Creation of knockout mutants for Cel48S (also known as CelS, S(S), and S8), the most abundant cellulosome subunit, was undertaken to gain insight into its role in enzymatic and microbial cellulose solubilization. Cultures of the Cel48S deletion mutant (S mutant) were able to completely solubilize 10 g/L crystalline cellulose. The cellulose hydrolysis rate of the S mutant strain was 60% lower than the parent strain, with the S mutant strain also exhibiting a 40% reduction in cell yield. The ...


Development Of Pyrf-Based Genetic System For Targeted Gene Deletion In Clostridium Thermocellum And Creation Of A Pta Mutant, Shital A. Tripathi, Daniel G. Olson, D. Aaron Argyros, Bethany B. Miller, Trisha F. Barrett, Daniel M. Murphy, Jesse D. Mccool, Anne K. Warner, Vineet B. Rajgarhia, Lee R. Lynd, David A. Hogsett, Nicky C. Caiazza Aug 2010

Development Of Pyrf-Based Genetic System For Targeted Gene Deletion In Clostridium Thermocellum And Creation Of A Pta Mutant, Shital A. Tripathi, Daniel G. Olson, D. Aaron Argyros, Bethany B. Miller, Trisha F. Barrett, Daniel M. Murphy, Jesse D. Mccool, Anne K. Warner, Vineet B. Rajgarhia, Lee R. Lynd, David A. Hogsett, Nicky C. Caiazza

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We report development of a genetic system for making targeted gene knockouts in Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that rapidly solubilizes cellulose. A toxic uracil analog, 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), was used to select for deletion of the pyrF gene. The ΔpyrF strain is a uracil auxotroph that could be restored to a prototroph via ectopic expression of pyrF from a plasmid, providing a positive genetic selection. Furthermore, 5-FOA was used to select against plasmid-expressed pyrF, creating a negative selection for plasmid loss. This technology was used to delete a gene involved in organic acid production, namely pta, which encodes ...


The Hypericum Perforatum Herb As An Antimycobacterial Agent And Its Implications As An Additional Tuberculosis Medication, Trent W. Mortensen May 2010

The Hypericum Perforatum Herb As An Antimycobacterial Agent And Its Implications As An Additional Tuberculosis Medication, Trent W. Mortensen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An immediate demand exists for new tuberculosis (TB) antibiotics due to the ever-increasing spread of drug-resistant strains. The drug-development process goes through four phases, the first (Phase 0) of which is to demonstrate and investigate drug effectiveness and toxicity. This research investigated the effectiveness of the Hypericum perforatum herb (commonly St. John's wort (SJW)) in its growth inhibition of mycobacteria and its viability effect on human lung cells. Organic-solvent SJW extracts were effective at inhibiting every nonpathogenic genetically sequenced Mycobacterium isolate currently available (six isolates) in preliminary studies. Quantitative studies of five Mycobacterium isolates showed an order of concentration ...


Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activities Of Essential Oil And Methanol Extract Of Jasminum Sambac From Djibouti, Fatou Abdoul-Latif, Prosper Edou, François Eba, Nabil Mohamed, Adwa Ali, Samatar Djama, Louis-Clément Obame, Mamoudou Hama Dicko Mar 2010

Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activities Of Essential Oil And Methanol Extract Of Jasminum Sambac From Djibouti, Fatou Abdoul-Latif, Prosper Edou, François Eba, Nabil Mohamed, Adwa Ali, Samatar Djama, Louis-Clément Obame, Mamoudou Hama Dicko

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The essential oil of jasminum sambac from Djibouti was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as positive control in both test systems. In the DPPH test system, the IC50 value of essential oil and methanol extract were respectively 7.43 and 2.30 μg/ml. In the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system, oxidation was effectively inhibited by Jasminum sambac, the RAA value of essential oil and methanol extract were respectively 96.6 and 93.9%. When compared to BHT, the essential ...


Electrically Mediated Delivery Of Plasmid Dna To The Skin, Using A Multielectrode Array, Richard Heller, Yolmari Criz, Loree C. Heller, Richard A. Gilbert, Mark J. Jaroszeski Mar 2010

Electrically Mediated Delivery Of Plasmid Dna To The Skin, Using A Multielectrode Array, Richard Heller, Yolmari Criz, Loree C. Heller, Richard A. Gilbert, Mark J. Jaroszeski

Bioelectrics Publications

The easy accessibility of skin makes it an excellent target for gene transfer protocols. To take full advantage of skin as a target for gene transfer, it is important to establish an efficient and reproducible delivery system. Electroporation is a strong candidate to meet this delivery criterion. Electroporation of the skin is a simple, direct, in vivo method to deliver genes for therapy. Previously, delivery to the skin was performed by means of applicators with relatively large distances between electrodes, resulting in significant muscle stimulation and pain. These applicators also had limitations in controlling the directionality of the applied field ...


Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly Jan 2010

Tertiary Structure And Characterization Of A Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase From Clostridium Acetobutylicum, Christopher D. Warner, Julie A. Hoy, Taran C. Shilling, Michael J. Linnen, Nathaniel D. Ginder, Clark Ford, Richard B. Honzatko, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli.The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and β-sandwich folds, similar to other GH44 crystal structures. The enzyme hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, yielding an unbalanced product distribution, including some glucose. It attacks carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. Its activity on carboxymethylcellulose is ...