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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Effect Of Implant Conformity On Muscle Force Requirements In The Implanted Knee, Grace Mcconnochie Aug 2019

The Effect Of Implant Conformity On Muscle Force Requirements In The Implanted Knee, Grace Mcconnochie

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Implant geometry is a significant factor in determining knee stability and patient satisfaction following total knee replacement (TKR). Ineffective muscle recruitment, impaired joint functionality and increased implant wear are consequences of an unstable knee replacement. Current knee laxity evaluation techniques are limited in their ability to account for the muscular response to knee instability. This study utilizes a subject specific lower-body musculoskeletal finite element (FE) model with dynamic muscle loading to evaluate implant laxity during activities of daily living. The effect of varying implant conformity on the muscle forces required to maintain a target kinematic profile during simulated laxity testing ...


The Role Of Obesity And Dietary Fatty Acid Content In Regulating Humeral Bone And Cartilage Homeostasis, Lauren Votava Apr 2018

The Role Of Obesity And Dietary Fatty Acid Content In Regulating Humeral Bone And Cartilage Homeostasis, Lauren Votava

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary fatty acids in the context of diet-induced obesity on bone and cartilage in the humerus. It is known that obesity increases the severity of injury-induced osteoarthritis in the knee, however it is not fully understood what pathological changes have occurred due to diet alone1. Additionally, while it is known that shoulder osteoarthritis has a link to obesity, the alterations in this joint are incompletely described.

Methods: In order to examine diet-induced changes in both bone and cartilage, this research utilized mice that had been previously ...


Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh Jun 2017

Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is less common in the ankle compared to other joints; however, deformation brought on by degeneration causes pain, loss of function, and overall decreased quality of life. Current surgical interventions for end-stage ankle OA are not as reliable as surgical treatments for other joints. Ankle arthroplasty currently has high failure rates, and there are lack of substantial data from long-term outcome studies. By understanding the morphometric changes that occur during the different stages of OA, we are able to identify early signs of the disease with the intention to apply treatment earlier in order to preclude ...


Dynamic Simulation And Analysis Of Gait Modification For Treating Knee Osteoarthritis, Taylor Elyse Schlotman May 2017

Dynamic Simulation And Analysis Of Gait Modification For Treating Knee Osteoarthritis, Taylor Elyse Schlotman

Doctoral Dissertations

Roughly 47.5 million people in the US have a disability, with 8.6 million reporting arthritis as their main cause of disability, making arthritis the leading cause of physical disability. With decreased mortality rates and a large, aging baby boomer generation, there will be more adults living with chronic musculoskeletal conditions causing disabilities that limit walking. Since walking ability is directly related to an individual’s independence at home and in the community, losing this ability is a major setback for patients with arthritis. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis affecting approximately 27 million adults ...


Multimodal Evaluation Of Local And Whole-Joint Cartilage Changes In An In Vivo Animal Model, David James Heckelsmiller May 2017

Multimodal Evaluation Of Local And Whole-Joint Cartilage Changes In An In Vivo Animal Model, David James Heckelsmiller

Theses and Dissertations

Osteoarthritis is a chronic, deleterious disease of the joints. It currently affects nearly 25 million Americans. Clinically, osteoarthritis presents as joint pain and verified by radiographic evidence of joint space narrowing. Unfortunately, symptomatic osteoarthritis describes the later stages of disease, at which point irreversible cartilage and bone damage has occurred. Cross-sectional imaging modalities offer the promise of visualizing early features of disease, enabling the development and evaluation of interventions to forestall or prevent degenerative change. Modalities of clinical interest include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT).

The following work describes the efficacy of MRI-derived measures for the ...


Exploring New Therapeutic Strategies For Osteoarthritis: From Genetic Manipulation Of Skeletal Tissues To Chemically-Modified Synthetic Hydrogels, Henry Huang Mar 2017

Exploring New Therapeutic Strategies For Osteoarthritis: From Genetic Manipulation Of Skeletal Tissues To Chemically-Modified Synthetic Hydrogels, Henry Huang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative disease of articular joints, is the leading cause of chronic disability in the US and affects more than a third of adults over 65 years old. Due to the obesity epidemic and an aging population, the prevalence of OA is expected to rise in both young and old adults. There are no disease modifying OA drugs. Therefore, providing any treatment options that delay the onset or progression of OA is highly desirable. The scope of this dissertation examines two different strategies to promote translational therapies for OA. The first approach investigated whether Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor ...


Enhanced Phagocytic Capacity Endows Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells With A Novel Scavenger Function Within Injured Cartilage, Cheng Zhou Dec 2016

Enhanced Phagocytic Capacity Endows Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells With A Novel Scavenger Function Within Injured Cartilage, Cheng Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Articular cartilage underwent serious joint injuries seldom repair spontaneously and might progress to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. This is majorly because articular cartilage’s unique properties that lack blood and nerve supply intrinsically. This peculiar structure, in addition, generates an unfavorable environment for certain phagocytes (macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, etc) to infiltrate to cartilage to scavenge debris from cartilage matrix and cell caused from joint injuries. Therefore, physiological and functional regeneration of damaged cartilage is urgently needed and several clinical techniques have been developed, including microfracture, autograft transplantation, autologous chondrocytes implantation.

We previously identified highly migratory cells emerged and repopulated in cartilage damaged ...


Feasibility Of Intra-Articular Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Proteoglycan-4 Gene Therapy To Prevent Osteoarthritis, Hyeong Hun Choe Jul 2015

Feasibility Of Intra-Articular Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Proteoglycan-4 Gene Therapy To Prevent Osteoarthritis, Hyeong Hun Choe

Theses and Dissertations

Lubricin, or proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), is a secreted, glycosylated protein that binds to cartilage surfaces, which functions as a boundary lubricant. The loss of lubricin from cartilage is identified as a major pathogenic factor in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) that has now been the aim of therapeutic intervention. Intra-articular injection of PRG4 protein provides short-term benefits that might be extended using sustained delivery methods such as in gene therapy.

Here we describe the development and testing of such therapy using adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a vector for the transfer of PRG4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion gene. Our recombinant PRG4 gene produces ...


Development And Validation Of A Tibiofemoral Joint Finite Element Model And Subsequent Gait Analysis Of Intact Acl And Acl Deficient Individuals, Nicholas Czapla Jun 2015

Development And Validation Of A Tibiofemoral Joint Finite Element Model And Subsequent Gait Analysis Of Intact Acl And Acl Deficient Individuals, Nicholas Czapla

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition of articular cartilage that affects more than 25 million people in the US. Joint injuries, like anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, can lead to OA due to a change in articular cartilage loading. Gait analysis combined with knee joint finite element modeling (FEM) has been used to predict the articular cartilage loading. To predict the change of articular cartilage loading during gait due to various ACL injuries, a tibiofemoral FEM was developed from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a 33 year male, with no prior history of knee injuries. The FEM was validated for ...


Biophysical Effects Of Ultrasound Therapy For Cartilage Regeneration And Microbubble Mediated Shock Waves And Drug Release Control For Cancer Treatment, Kee Woong Jang May 2015

Biophysical Effects Of Ultrasound Therapy For Cartilage Regeneration And Microbubble Mediated Shock Waves And Drug Release Control For Cancer Treatment, Kee Woong Jang

Theses and Dissertations

Articular cartilage is a complex soft tissue covering the end of moving bones in joints which provide pressure load distribution over the joint surface and smooth lubrication with little friction for establishing movement. Articular cartilage has an intrinsically limited capacity for self-repair when injured due to the lack of nerve and blood supply. Considered that injured cartilage is left untreated, it is likely to undergo progressive cartilage degeneration without pain which may lead to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Therefore functional and physiologic restoration of injured cartilage back to a normal condition has long been in demand, yet current available repairing methods in ...


Validation And Applications Of Discrete Element Analysis In The Hip Joint, Kevin Charles Townsend May 2015

Validation And Applications Of Discrete Element Analysis In The Hip Joint, Kevin Charles Townsend

Theses and Dissertations

Osteoarthritis is a progressive degenerative joint disease which causes pain, inflammation, and eventual loss of joint function. This debilitating disease affects approximately 3% of U.S. adults over 30 years old, with direct medical costs of over $100 billion each year. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a sub-set of osteoarthritis initiated by injuries such as a fracture of the joint surface. When a surgeon reconstructs a fractured joint, there are often residual incongruities on the surface, which can lead to elevated contact stresses. Increased cartilage contact stress has been shown to be a major risk factor for developing post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Computational modeling ...


Osteoarthritis Induced Glenoid Morphology And Bone Quality: An Evaluation Of Augmented Glenoid Components, Nikolas K. Knowles Apr 2015

Osteoarthritis Induced Glenoid Morphology And Bone Quality: An Evaluation Of Augmented Glenoid Components, Nikolas K. Knowles

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Osteoarthritis of the glenoid results in regional bone density variations and bone loss that may compromise early component fixation and support. The two common morphologies, symmetric and asymmetric erosion, were characterized by bone density and morphology, and assessed on the basis of bone removal and bone quality in the context of augmented glenoid components. The bone strain field was also compared when different augmented glenoid components underwent simulated joint loading using finite element analysis.

Asymmetrically eroded glenoids were found to have denser bone (p


Osteochondral Tissue Modeling Of Damage, Poroelastcity, And Remodeling In Osteoarthritis, Michael Eric Stender Jan 2015

Osteochondral Tissue Modeling Of Damage, Poroelastcity, And Remodeling In Osteoarthritis, Michael Eric Stender

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Arthritis is the most costly disability in the United States annually incurring billions of dollars in treatment costs and lost wages. Osteoarthritis, a classification of arthritis, affects articulating synovial joints (e.g., hip, knee, shoulder) and results in moderate to severe pain. In extreme cases, osteoarthritis causes loss of joint mobility. Presently, there is not a clear understanding of how osteoarthritis initiates, propagates, and ultimately degrades the mechanics of healthy synovial joints. This doctoral work uses computational modeling techniques and finite element analysis to elucidate the initiation and evolution of osteoarthritis with the ultimate goal of contributing to improved clinical ...


Biomechanical And Biological Evaluation Of A Model Of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Following Noninvasive, Traumatic Rupture Of The Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Tristan Maerz Jan 2015

Biomechanical And Biological Evaluation Of A Model Of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Following Noninvasive, Traumatic Rupture Of The Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Tristan Maerz

Wayne State University Dissertations

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a prevalent condition following rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). While numerous animal models of PTOA exist, most are based on surgical disruption of a stabilizing structure. In the rat, surgical ACL transection is the most commonly employed model, but it may introduce confounding biological factors due to surgery. The purpose of this dissertation was to utilize the tibial compression model of ACL injury to induce a noninvasive ACL rupture in the rat. First, a biomechanical characterization of four different loading protocols was undertaken, and a high-speed, high-displacement protocol was deemed optimal for inducing a ...


Early Targeting Of Knee Osteoarthritis : Validation Of Computational Methods, Tyler Joseph Stockman Aug 2014

Early Targeting Of Knee Osteoarthritis : Validation Of Computational Methods, Tyler Joseph Stockman

Theses and Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis, a disease in which inflammation and stiffness of the joints occur. This debilitating disease of the joints currently reigns as the most prevalent among the world's populations. Of particular interest to our group is the study of the biomechanical factors relating to knee OA. Studies have shown that knee OA is related to multiple biomechanical factors, all of which are complexly interrelated. These factors have been seen to produce varied effects on the structures of the knee. This work examines validation of a computational model implementing discrete element analysis, and ...


Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson Dec 2013

Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the leading causes of chronic disability (along with the hip). Due to rising healthcare costs associated with OA, it is important to fully understand the disease and how it progresses in the knee. One symptom of knee OA is the degeneration of cartilage in the articulating knee. The cartilage pad plays a major role in painting the biomechanical picture of the knee. This work attempts to quantify the cartilage thickness of healthy male and female knees using statistical shape models (SSMs) for a deep knee bend activity. Additionally, novel cartilage segmentation from ...


Finite Element Analysis And Validation Of Hip Joints With The Main Types Of Femoroacetabular Impingement, Kevin Lucas Mitchell Aug 2013

Finite Element Analysis And Validation Of Hip Joints With The Main Types Of Femoroacetabular Impingement, Kevin Lucas Mitchell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Current research suggests that femoroacetabular impingement can be a cause of osteoarthritis. Femoroacetabular impingement is a condition that can affect both the femur and the pelvis of an individual. Femoroacetabular impingement can cause damage to the hip joint and its surrounding tissues. The articular cartilage and the labrum are both affected by this condition. A cam impingement is where a bony protrusion develops at the femoral head/neck junction. A pincer impingement is where a bony protrusion develops at the acetabular rim. Often, patients are seen with a combination of both impingements. The main goal of this study was to ...


Design And Application Of An Instrumented Pendulum Device For Measuring Energy Absorption During Fracture Insult In Large Animal Joints In Vivo, Bryce Diestelmeier Jul 2012

Design And Application Of An Instrumented Pendulum Device For Measuring Energy Absorption During Fracture Insult In Large Animal Joints In Vivo, Bryce Diestelmeier

Theses and Dissertations

Intraarticular fractures (IAFs) are a leading cause of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite the latest orthopaedic treatment techniques, the risk of PTOA after IAFs has remained unacceptably high. In order to progress in this field, a new mechanical insult technique to create a large animal survival model of human IAF was developed. Current IAF models report the initial gravitational potential energy as the fracture energy value. However, this model included a pendulum device that was instrumented to accurately measure the amount of energy absorbed during fracture insult.

After validating the energy absorption measurement with a mechanical testing machine and motion capture ...


Identification And Characterization Of Cartilage Progenitor Cells By Single Cell Sorting And Cloning, Yin Yu Jul 2012

Identification And Characterization Of Cartilage Progenitor Cells By Single Cell Sorting And Cloning, Yin Yu

Theses and Dissertations

Cartilage lesion is a fairly common problem in orthopaedic practise. It is often a consequence of traumas, inflammatory conditions, and biomechanics alterations. However, as an avascular and aneural tissue, articular cartilage has minimal healing ability. Over the past decades, surgeons and scientists have proposed a nubmer of treatment strategies to promote restoration of articular cartilage, like arthroscopic lavage, microfracture surgery, osteochoncral autografts and allografts, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and other cell-based repairs. Nevertheless, these solutions often result in fibrocartilage, which has inferior mechanical and biochemical properties, with increased susceptibility to injury, which usually ultimately leads to osteoarthritis (OA).

Stem cell therapy ...


Characterizing Cartilage-Specific T1rho Mri For Clinical Translation And Application, Noelle F. Klocke Jul 2011

Characterizing Cartilage-Specific T1rho Mri For Clinical Translation And Application, Noelle F. Klocke

Theses and Dissertations

T1rho MRI, spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame, is postulated to be sensitive to early biochemical changes within articular cartilage that may lead to osteoarthritis. This means that it has potential as a non-invasive, early biomarker for disease progression. However, T1rho has been primarily studied in a research setting. Therefore, the main question posed in this work is:

Can T1rho MRI be used in an at-risk population (ACL-rupture patients) and translated to a clinical setting?

To answer this question, two tools (Relaxometry program, Line Profile Analysis) were created and validated for measuring T1rho within living subjects. These tools were used ...


Computational Analysis Applied To The Study Of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis, Curtis Michael Goreham-Voss Jul 2011

Computational Analysis Applied To The Study Of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis, Curtis Michael Goreham-Voss

Theses and Dissertations

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a debilitating joint disease in which cartilage degenerates following joint trauma, including intra-articular fracture or ligament rupture. Acute damage and chronically altered joint loading have both been implicated in the development of PTOA, but the precise pathway leading from injury to cartilage degeneration is not yet known. A series of computational analyses were performed to gain insight into the initiation and progression of cartilage degeneration. Finite element models of in vitro drop-tower impacts were created to evaluate the local stress and strain distributions that cartilage experiences during such experiments. These distributions were compared with confocal imaging ...