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Theses/Dissertations

Cartilage

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Role Of Obesity And Dietary Fatty Acid Content In Regulating Humeral Bone And Cartilage Homeostasis, Lauren Votava Apr 2018

The Role Of Obesity And Dietary Fatty Acid Content In Regulating Humeral Bone And Cartilage Homeostasis, Lauren Votava

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary fatty acids in the context of diet-induced obesity on bone and cartilage in the humerus. It is known that obesity increases the severity of injury-induced osteoarthritis in the knee, however it is not fully understood what pathological changes have occurred due to diet alone1. Additionally, while it is known that shoulder osteoarthritis has a link to obesity, the alterations in this joint are incompletely described.

Methods: In order to examine diet-induced changes in both bone and cartilage, this research utilized mice that had been previously ...


The Role Of Physiochemical Cues On Msc Differentiation And Tissue Regeneration In A Cartilage Biomimetic Hydrogel, Elizabeth Anne Aisenbrey Jan 2017

The Role Of Physiochemical Cues On Msc Differentiation And Tissue Regeneration In A Cartilage Biomimetic Hydrogel, Elizabeth Anne Aisenbrey

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Cartilage defects, whether caused by injury or disease, often lead to further degeneration and ultimately osteoarthritis. Current treatments such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and microfracture have shown limited success at repairing and regenerating cartilage tissue, thus an alternative treatment is necessary. Cartilage tissue engineering using scaffolds as a vehicle to deliver cells, biochemical cues, and soluble factors presents a promising strategy to regenerate cartilage tissue. Photopolymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels that can be modified with different biochemical moieties, degradable and nondegradable peptides, and therapeutic agents are an attractive platform to design and develop scaffolds that can be tailored ...


Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence On Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, And Microstructure, Joseph Anders Wahlquist Jan 2017

Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence On Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, And Microstructure, Joseph Anders Wahlquist

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This work focused on characterizing the mechanical behavior of biological material in physiologically relevant conditions and at sub millimeter length scales. Elucidating the time, length scale, and directionally dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage and other biological materials is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory cues for cells, create computational models that mimic native tissue behavior, and assess disease progression. This work focused on three broad aspects of characterizing the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. First, we sought to reveal the causes of time-dependent deformation and variation of mechanical properties with distance from the articular surface. Second, we investigated size dependence ...


Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence On Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, And Microstructure, Joseph Anders Wahlquist Jan 2017

Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence On Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, And Microstructure, Joseph Anders Wahlquist

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This work focused on characterizing the mechanical behavior of biological material in physiologically relevant conditions and at sub millimeter length scales. Elucidating the time, length scale, and directionally dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage and other biological materials is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory cues for cells, create computational models that mimic native tissue behavior, and assess disease progression. This work focused on three broad aspects of characterizing the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. First, we sought to reveal the causes of time-dependent deformation and variation of mechanical properties with distance from the articular surface. Second, we investigated size dependence ...


Impact Of Acl Injury On Patellar Cartilage Thickness, Ethan Leveillee Jan 2016

Impact Of Acl Injury On Patellar Cartilage Thickness, Ethan Leveillee

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

ACL injury has been shown to have long-lasting and severe consequences on the different structures of the knee such as the articular cartilage and meniscus. Cartilage thickness changes in particular are indicative of osteoarthritic changes in the tibiofemoral joint. While there has been significant research focused on cartilage changes of the tibia and femur, there has been little work looking at patellar cartilage. The following goals were set forth for this study. First, to establish a robust coordinate system to accurately determine the location and orientation of the patella. Secondly, to determine the effects of ACL injury on patellar cartilage ...


Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis Of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Diganta Dutta Jul 2015

Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis Of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Diganta Dutta

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a probe-based microscope that uses nanoscale and structural imaging where high resolution is desired. AFM has also been used in mechanical, electrical, and thermal engineering applications. This unique technique provides vital local material properties like the modulus of elasticity, hardness, surface potential, Hamaker constant, and the surface charge density from force versus displacement curve. Therefore, AFM was used to measure both the diameter and mechanical properties of the collagen nanostraws in human costal cartilage. Human costal cartilage forms a bridge between the sternum and bony ribs. The chest wall of some humans is deformed ...


Use Of Biofunctional Hydrogel Matrices For Chondrocyte Transplantation Applications, Balaji V. Sridhar Jan 2015

Use Of Biofunctional Hydrogel Matrices For Chondrocyte Transplantation Applications, Balaji V. Sridhar

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Healing joint articular cartilage is a significant clinical challenge because it lacks self-healing properties. Focal defects that do not heal properly tend to progress to debilitating osteoarthritis that affects millions of people worldwide. Tissue engineering strategies that utilize biofunctional scaffolds as chondrocyte carriers present a promising treatment option to regenerate cartilage tissue. Autologous chondrocytes are a good cell source since they regulate cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production in the tissue. Cells can be combined with photopolymerizable scaffolds, which permit control over network formation and can be modified to present biological cues. Current treatment options for cartilage regeneration have generally yielded ...


Osteochondral Tissue Modeling Of Damage, Poroelastcity, And Remodeling In Osteoarthritis, Michael Eric Stender Jan 2015

Osteochondral Tissue Modeling Of Damage, Poroelastcity, And Remodeling In Osteoarthritis, Michael Eric Stender

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Arthritis is the most costly disability in the United States annually incurring billions of dollars in treatment costs and lost wages. Osteoarthritis, a classification of arthritis, affects articulating synovial joints (e.g., hip, knee, shoulder) and results in moderate to severe pain. In extreme cases, osteoarthritis causes loss of joint mobility. Presently, there is not a clear understanding of how osteoarthritis initiates, propagates, and ultimately degrades the mechanics of healthy synovial joints. This doctoral work uses computational modeling techniques and finite element analysis to elucidate the initiation and evolution of osteoarthritis with the ultimate goal of contributing to improved clinical ...


Tuning Hydrogel Degradation For Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Stacey Skaalure Jul 2014

Tuning Hydrogel Degradation For Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Stacey Skaalure

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Cartilage tissue engineering using biodegradable scaffolds as carriers for cartilage cells (chondrocytes) presents a promising strategy to regenerate cartilage damaged by age, injury, or disease. State-of-the-art clinical therapies implement chondrocytes harvested from the patient, however these treatments suffer from patient-to-patient variability and ineffectiveness due to aging. Photopolymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel scaffolds that can be modified to permit tunable degradation present an opportunity to tailor scaffolds to the patient's cells. Scaffold degradation is crucial to encourage cartilaginous matrix deposition by entrapped chondrocytes, however the rate of degradation must be matched to matrix deposition, which is a significant design ...


Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson Dec 2013

Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the leading causes of chronic disability (along with the hip). Due to rising healthcare costs associated with OA, it is important to fully understand the disease and how it progresses in the knee. One symptom of knee OA is the degeneration of cartilage in the articulating knee. The cartilage pad plays a major role in painting the biomechanical picture of the knee. This work attempts to quantify the cartilage thickness of healthy male and female knees using statistical shape models (SSMs) for a deep knee bend activity. Additionally, novel cartilage segmentation from ...


Discriminating Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells (Cpcs) As A Distinct Cell Type, Apart From Normal Chondrocytes, Cheng Zhou Jul 2013

Discriminating Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells (Cpcs) As A Distinct Cell Type, Apart From Normal Chondrocytes, Cheng Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Articular cartilage is an avascular, aneural, and alymphatic tissue with a structure consisting of a superficial, a middle and a deep zone, overlie a calcified zone at the cartilage border between. Each zone has biological and mechanical properties. Self-repair of damaged cartilage seldom if ever occurs, and joint injuries that harm cartilage surfaces often result in osteoarthritis. This has prompted researchers to explore diverse approaches to cartilage regeneration.

The superficial zone shows the highest cellularity and the lowest matrix density. Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) residing in the superficial zone had been thought to be a subpopulation of chondrocytes. However, our laboratory ...


Matrix Remodeling Accompanies In Vitro Articular Cartilage Spherical Shaping, Nathan Thomas Balcom Jun 2013

Matrix Remodeling Accompanies In Vitro Articular Cartilage Spherical Shaping, Nathan Thomas Balcom

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Introduction: Articular cartilage (AC) is a low friction load bearing material found in synovial joints. The natural repair of damaged tissue is difficult and often requires surgical intervention. With large defects it becomes necessary to match the original tissue geometry. We hypothesized that localized collagen (COL) and/or proteoglycan (PG) remodeling occurs during AC spherical reshaping. The objective of this study was to determine the presence, magnitude and depth dependence of COL and PG remodeling that accompanies AC reshaping. Methods: Full thickness AC blocks (7x7 mm2 surface area) were harvested from the ridges of the patellofemoral groove of immature ...


Effect Of Rolling On Viscoelastic Fluids Using A Novel Testing Device, Aswini Mangadu Jan 2013

Effect Of Rolling On Viscoelastic Fluids Using A Novel Testing Device, Aswini Mangadu

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this research thesis project was to develop a mechanical testing device that could enable us to load articular cartilage with a rolling/sliding motion. This novel device was then used to observe the effect of a rolling motion on the fluid film thickness of different lubricants (motor oil, synovial fluid and Hyaluronic Acid (HA)) to varying loads (1kg, 2,kg, 3kg and 4kg) and speeds (10, 25, 48 and 91 mm/s) applied on the sample fluids for 10 cycles. We were able to examine the effect of different speeds within each load for each of the ...


Identification And Characterization Of Cartilage Progenitor Cells By Single Cell Sorting And Cloning, Yin Yu Jul 2012

Identification And Characterization Of Cartilage Progenitor Cells By Single Cell Sorting And Cloning, Yin Yu

Theses and Dissertations

Cartilage lesion is a fairly common problem in orthopaedic practise. It is often a consequence of traumas, inflammatory conditions, and biomechanics alterations. However, as an avascular and aneural tissue, articular cartilage has minimal healing ability. Over the past decades, surgeons and scientists have proposed a nubmer of treatment strategies to promote restoration of articular cartilage, like arthroscopic lavage, microfracture surgery, osteochoncral autografts and allografts, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and other cell-based repairs. Nevertheless, these solutions often result in fibrocartilage, which has inferior mechanical and biochemical properties, with increased susceptibility to injury, which usually ultimately leads to osteoarthritis (OA).

Stem cell therapy ...


Viscoelastic Anisotropic Finite Element Mixture Model Of Articular Cartilage Using Viscoelastic Collagen Fibers And Validation With Stress Relaxation Data, Matthew Alexander Griebel Jun 2012

Viscoelastic Anisotropic Finite Element Mixture Model Of Articular Cartilage Using Viscoelastic Collagen Fibers And Validation With Stress Relaxation Data, Matthew Alexander Griebel

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Experimental results show that collagen fibers exhibit stress relaxation under tension and a highly anisotropic distribution. To further develop the earlier model of Stender [1], the collagen constituent was updated to reflect its intrinsic viscoelasticity and anisotropic distribution, and integrated with an existing mixture model with glycosaminoglycans and ground substance matrix. A two-term Prony series expansion of the quasi-linear viscoelastic model was chosen to model the viscoelastic properties of the collagen fibers. Material parameters were determined by using the simplex method to minimize the sum of squared errors between model results and experimental stress relaxation data of tissue in tension ...


Bioengineering Approach To Understanding Tmj Pathobiology, Jonathan Kuo May 2012

Bioengineering Approach To Understanding Tmj Pathobiology, Jonathan Kuo

All Dissertations

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a load-bearing joint consisting of the condyle of the mandibular bone, the fossa eminence of the temporal bone, and a fibrocartilaginous disc held in between the bone surfaces by ligaments. The TMJ disc serves to distribute stress, lubricate movement, and protect the articular surfaces of the joint. Over ten million Americans suffer from TMJ disorders (TMD) that affect the movement and function of the joint, making everyday tasks like talking and eating difficult and painful. A wide variety of treatments and surgeries have been proposed and undertaken with limited success based on the varying degree ...


Optimization And Translation Of Msc-Based Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels For Cartilage Repair, Isaac E. Erickson Dec 2011

Optimization And Translation Of Msc-Based Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels For Cartilage Repair, Isaac E. Erickson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Traumatic injury and disease disrupt the ability of cartilage to carry joint stresses and, without an innate regenerative response, often lead to degenerative changes towards the premature development of osteoarthritis. Surgical interventions have yet to restore long-term mechanical function. Towards this end, tissue engineering has been explored for the de novo formation of engineered cartilage as a biologic approach to cartilage repair. Research utilizing autologous chondrocytes has been promising, but clinical limitations in their yield have motivated research into the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source. MSCs are multipotent cells that can differentiate towards a ...


Dissolution Of The Chondrocyte Cytoskeleton Prevents Mitochondrial Oxidant Release And Cell Death In Injured Articular Cartilage, Ellen Elizabeth Sauter Jul 2011

Dissolution Of The Chondrocyte Cytoskeleton Prevents Mitochondrial Oxidant Release And Cell Death In Injured Articular Cartilage, Ellen Elizabeth Sauter

Theses and Dissertations

It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are released in response to articular cartilage injury. The excessive release of ROS has been shown to be mitochondrial in nature and leads to chondrocyte death which in turn can lead to post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Evidence suggests that mitochondria are attached to chondrocytes' cytoskeleton. Upon tissue level deformation, it is believed that mitochondria also experience deformation in response to cytoskeletal strain, releasing ROS. Therefore, it was hypothesized that inhibition of chondrocytes' cytoskeleton would prevent mitochondrial distortion rendering them unable to release ROS in response to the applied strain, saving chondrocytes. Osteochondral ...


Design Of An Implant For First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Atul Kumar Jan 2011

Design Of An Implant For First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Atul Kumar

ETD Archive

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and it affects 27 million US adults. OA disease involves all of the tissues of the diarthrodial joint and ultimately, may lead to softening, ulceration, loss of articular cartilage, sclerosis and polished appearance of the subchondral bone, osteophytes, and subchondral cysts. The first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ1) is affected in up to 42 cases of OA. Besides osteoarthritis, other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout also affect the MTPJ1. Involvement of MTPJ1 with these conditions invariably leads to deformed toe such as hallux valgus and hallux rigidus. Over 150 surgical techniques ...


The Development Of A Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Biphasic Osteochondral Tissue Engineered Construct, Scott Maxson Jan 2010

The Development Of A Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Biphasic Osteochondral Tissue Engineered Construct, Scott Maxson

All Dissertations

The ability of human articular cartilage to respond to injury is poor. Once cartilage damage has occurred, an irreversible degenerative process can occur and will often lead to osteoarthritis (OA). An estimated 26.9 million of U.S. adults are affected by OA. Osteochondral grafting is currently used to treat OA and osteochondral defects; however, complications can develop at the donor site and defect area. Osteochondral tissue engineering provides a potential treatment option and alternative to osteochondral grafting. The long term goal of this work is to develop a tissue engineered mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based osteochondral construct to repair ...


Nano-Mechanics Of Cartilage Glycosaminoglycans Using Molecular Dynamics Methods, Kevin Neil Hendrickson Jan 2009

Nano-Mechanics Of Cartilage Glycosaminoglycans Using Molecular Dynamics Methods, Kevin Neil Hendrickson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Articular Cartilage (AC) is the main load carrying material in synovial joints {Hamerman, 1962} and degeneration of AC can cause pain in the form of arthritis. Current work is centered on the method of replacing damaged cartilage inside the body (in vivo) with tissue engineered outside the body (ex vivo) {Temenoff, 2000}. In order to engineer tissue ex vivo similar to the native tissue in structure and function there must be a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of AC. This work focuses on the study of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a molecule known to be primarily responsible for the compressive stiffness ...