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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Formation Of A Vascular Regenerative Microenvironment Within Implantable Human Decellularized Adipose Tissue Bioscaffolds, Christopher Leclerc Sep 2019

Formation Of A Vascular Regenerative Microenvironment Within Implantable Human Decellularized Adipose Tissue Bioscaffolds, Christopher Leclerc

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular therapies targeted at stimulating therapeutic angiogenesis in individuals with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have been under intense investigation. Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) derived from umbilical cord blood have been previously shown to support limb revascularization in animal models of CLI, despite limited cell survival at the site of ischemia. This study attempted to improve HPC survival after transplantation and prolong pro-angiogenic function using human decellularized adipose tissue (hDAT) as a novel cell delivery platform. Compared to HPC conventionally grown on tissue-cultured plastic, hDAT scaffolds were shown to promote viability and proliferation of seeded HPC, and had cell- instructive effects ...


The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link Jan 2019

The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link

Theses and Dissertations

Angiogenesis is a complex process coordinating cell migration, proliferation, and lumen formation. Changes to the microenvironment regulate angiogenesis through mechanotransduction and cytokine signals. In pulmonary hypertension, something in the process becomes abnormal, resulting in changes to the microenvironment and the formation of a glomerulus of dysfunctional capillaries, called a plexiform lesion. Endothelial cells, expressing CD117 (CD117+ EC clones) increase in the plexiform lesions of pulmonary hypertension, independent of pro-angiogenic VEGF signaling. We hypothesize that the mechanical environment and the macromolecular composition of the extracellular matrix, both, contribute to the aberrant angiogenesis. When we changed the mechanical environment, we changed the ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding By The Human Endothelium, Taylor R. Mckenty Jan 2017

Quantifying The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding By The Human Endothelium, Taylor R. Mckenty

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Fluid pressures regulate endothelial cell (EC) tubulogenic activity involving fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and its receptor, FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2). Our lab has recently shown that sustained 20 mmHg hydrostatic pressure (HP) upregulates EC sprout formation in a FGF2-dependent fashion. This upregulation of sprout formation may be due to enhanced FGF-2 / FGFR2 interactions in the presence of 20 mmHg HP. We hypothesize that exposure of ECs to 20 mmHg sustained HP enhances FGF-2 binding kinetics. We used a custom hydrostatic pressure system, immunofluorescence, and FACS to quantify FGF-2 binding by ECs in the absence or presence of a range ...


Three-Dimensional Endothelial Spheroid-Based Investigation Of Pressure-Sensitive Sprout Formation, Min Song Jan 2016

Three-Dimensional Endothelial Spheroid-Based Investigation Of Pressure-Sensitive Sprout Formation, Min Song

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

This study explored hydrostatic pressure as a mechanobiological parameter to control in vitro endothelial cell tubulogenesis in 3-D hydrogels as a model microvascular tissue engineering approach. For this purpose, the present investigation used an endothelial spheroid model, which we believe is an adaptable microvascularization strategy for many tissue engineering construct designs. We also aimed to identify the operating magnitudes and exposure times for hydrostatic pressure-sensitive sprout formation as well as verify the involvement of VEGFR-3 signaling. For this purpose, we used a custom-designed pressure system and a 3-D endothelial cell spheroid model of sprouting tubulogenesis. We report that an exposure ...


Healing Of Bone Defects In A Rodent Calvarial Defect Model Using Strong Porous Bioactive Glass (13-93) Scaffolds, Yinan Lin Jan 2015

Healing Of Bone Defects In A Rodent Calvarial Defect Model Using Strong Porous Bioactive Glass (13-93) Scaffolds, Yinan Lin

Masters Theses

"The main objective of this project was to evaluate the capacity of strong porous silicate (13-93) bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by a robocasting technique to regenerate bone and stimulate angiogenesis in a rat calvarial defect model. The scaffolds were created with the same grid-like microstructure but in a variety of formulations: (i) as-fabricated, (ii) pretreated in an aqueous phosphate solution to convert the glass surface to hydroxyapatite, (iii) loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) (1 µg per scaffold), and (iv) doped with copper (0.4-2.0 wt. % CuO). When compared to the as-fabricated scaffolds, the pretreated scaffolds enhanced bone regeneration ...


A New Generation Of Polymer/Ceramic Composite Biomaterials For Bone Regeneration, Mehrnaz Salarian Dec 2014

A New Generation Of Polymer/Ceramic Composite Biomaterials For Bone Regeneration, Mehrnaz Salarian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a substantial emerging interest for fundamental and applied research on the reinforcement of polymeric materials using nanotechnology. In the biomedical industry, development of novel bone cement composite materials with enhanced mechanical properties is of tremendous potential importance. The most universally used injectable bone cement is made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA); however, the major disadvantage of PMMA is its non-biodegradability. Polymers such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and polycaprolactone (PCL) are biodegradable, but suffer from a lack of mechanical properties. The aim of this research was to test the efficacy of these biodegradable polymers integrating nanotechnology for the ...


Microvascular Topology And Intravascular Endothelial Cell Labeling In The Gracilis Anterior Muscle Of Balb/C Mice, Paul Heckler Ii Aug 2014

Microvascular Topology And Intravascular Endothelial Cell Labeling In The Gracilis Anterior Muscle Of Balb/C Mice, Paul Heckler Ii

Biomedical Engineering

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) affects approximately 200 million individuals globally. The major underlying cause of PAOD is an inflammatory disease known as atherosclerosis, which results from the build-up of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the sub-intimal space. This initiates a complex cascade of events that lead to plaque growth. Plaque growth can then expand into the lumen of the vessel and result in occlusion and/or thrombosis. Symptoms of the disease can include claudication, ulcers, and/or gangrene, although many patients are asymptomatic. Similar to other forms of ischemic disease, risk factors for PAOD include hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Common ...


The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood Jan 2013

The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The effects of mechanical forces on endothelial cell function and behavior are well documented, but have not been fully characterized. Specifically, fluid pressure has been shown to elicit physical and chemical responses known to be involved in the initiation and progression of endothelial cell-mediated vascularization. Central to the process of vascularization is the formation of tube-like structures. This process—tubulogenesis—is essential to both the physiological and pathological growth of tissues. Given the known effects of pressure on endothelial cells and its ubiquitous presence in the vasculature, we investigated pressure as a magnitude-dependent parameter for the regulation of endothelial tubulogenic ...


Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover Jun 2012

Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover

Biomedical Engineering

Numerous molecular factors active in bone tissue direct fracture repair and remodeling which can be altered by disease conditions such as Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Osteoporosis. Methods of molecular biology are commonly applied to investigate the expression and role of these molecular factors. This project presents a robust three-step protocol for examining gene expression in the mouse tibia. The protocol begins with isolating RNA from a flash frozen tibia sample. The isolated RNA is reverse transcribed into cDNA. Finally, PCR is performed to indentify expressed genes. Establishing this protocol will allow further research into the mechanisms of bone remodeling ...


Regeneration Of Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts: A Phenomenon Associated With Vascular Graft Properties And Macrophage Phenotypes (M1/M2), Koyal Garg Jan 2012

Regeneration Of Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts: A Phenomenon Associated With Vascular Graft Properties And Macrophage Phenotypes (M1/M2), Koyal Garg

Theses and Dissertations

Macrophages (MФ) and mast cells are important cell types in the context of tissue remodeling and regeneration. Mast cells participate in the early stages of wound healing and modulate the acute inflammatory responses to biomaterials. Mast cells can secrete a myriad of different cytokines by the process of degranulation; the process of regulated secretion in which preformed contents stored in their granules are rapidly released by exocytosis. Some of these cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and TNF-α can modulate the MФ phenotype. Macrophages (MΦ) are innate immune cells, crucial for tissue homeostasis, presentation of foreign and self-antigens following infection/injury ...


Immunohistochemical Mapping Of Hypoxia In Ischemic Mouse Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle, Emily Deckert Aug 2010

Immunohistochemical Mapping Of Hypoxia In Ischemic Mouse Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle, Emily Deckert

Biomedical Engineering

The study of blood vessel growth and remodeling is a complex endeavor. Hypoxia, the lack of oxygen in a tissue, is known to stimulate angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels), and have little effect on arteriogenesis (the enlargement of existing blood vessels). However, the role of hypoxia in vessel function is unknown, but may be determined using the results and methods developed in this experiment.

Supplied by the bloodstream, oxygen is required by all cells and tissues to remain healthy. If the bloodstream supplying a certain tissue with blood is disrupted, the tissue becomes ischemic, often leading to hypoxia ...


Regulation Of Angiogenesis By Adhesive And Mechanical Cues From The Extracellular Matrix, Colette Shen May 2010

Regulation Of Angiogenesis By Adhesive And Mechanical Cues From The Extracellular Matrix, Colette Shen

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new capillaries from existing blood vessels, is essential for the survival of tissues and normally occurs during development and wound healing. Successful vascularization of engineered tissues is currently a major challenge, as it is critical for the survival and incorporation of implanted tissue replacements. While the role of soluble factors in regulating angiogenesis is well established, there is significant interest in uncovering the contributions of cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). We chose to study the role of cell-ECM adhesion in regulating angiogenesis, with the hypothesis that quantitative changes in the degree of cell-ECM adhesion ...


Angiogenic Potential Of Human Macrophages On Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts, Koyal Garg Nov 2008

Angiogenic Potential Of Human Macrophages On Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts, Koyal Garg

Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage interactions with electrospun scaffolds and quantify the expression of vital angiogenic growth factors in vitro. This study will further help in evaluating the potential of these electrospun constructs as vascular grafts for tissue repair and regeneration in situ. Human peripheral blood macrophages were seeded in serum free media on electrospun (10 mm) discs of polydioxanone (PDO), elastin and PDO:elastin blends (50:50, 70:30 and 90:10). The growth factor secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Macrophages produced high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and acidic fibroblast growth factor ...