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Theses/Dissertations

2016

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi Dec 2016

Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by ongoing problems in social interaction and communication, and engagement in repetitive behaviors. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 68 children in the United States has ASD. Mounting evidence shows that many of these individuals display an interest in social interaction with computers and robots and, in general, feel comfortable spending time in such environments. It is known that the subtlety and unpredictability of people’s social behavior are intimidating and confusing for many individuals with ASD. Computerized learning environments and robots, however, prepare a ...


Mechanism Of Interaction Of Peptide Modified Nanoparticles With Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Ankita Jain Dec 2016

Mechanism Of Interaction Of Peptide Modified Nanoparticles With Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Ankita Jain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Studies suggest that P. gingivalis functions as a keystone pathogen and interacts with primary colonizers in the supragingival biofilm such as S. gordonii. This interaction contributes to the initial colonization of the oral cavity by P. gingivalis and thus represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We have identified a peptide (BAR) derived from the streptococcal SspB protein that functions to inhibit P. gingivalis adherence to S. gordonii. In addition, we showed that nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with BAR inhibit this interaction more potently than free soluble peptide, possibly by promoting interaction with P. gingivalis at higher valency than free peptide ...


A Cad System For Early Diagnosis Of Autism Using Different Imaging Modalities., Marwa Maher Tawfik Ismail Dec 2016

A Cad System For Early Diagnosis Of Autism Using Different Imaging Modalities., Marwa Maher Tawfik Ismail

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The term “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) refers to a collection of neuro-developmental disorders that affect linguistic, behavioral, and social skills. Autism has many symptoms, most prominently, social impairment and repetitive behaviors. It is crucial to diagnose autism at an early stage for better assessment and investigation of this complex syndrome. There have been a lot of efforts to diagnose ASD using different techniques, such as imaging modalities, genetic techniques, and behavior reports. Imaging modalities have been extensively exploited for ASD diagnosis, and one of the most successful ones is Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),where it has shown promise for the ...


A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox Dec 2016

A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the capabilities of additive manufacturing using a photo-cured jetted material 3D printer to manufacture a milli-microfluidic device with direct application in microalgae Dunaliella sp growth and intracellular compounds biosynthesis tests. A continuous microbioreactor for microalgae culture was CAD designed and successfully built in 1 hour and 49 minutes using black photopolymer cured by UV and a support material. The microreactor was made up of 2 parts including the bioreactor itself and a microchannel network for culture media fluids and microalgae. Both parts were assembled to form a single unit. Additional optical and auxiliar components were added. An external ...


Gamma-Radiation Exposure Alters The Cardiovascular Extracellular Matrix., Nicholas Allen Aug 2016

Gamma-Radiation Exposure Alters The Cardiovascular Extracellular Matrix., Nicholas Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ionizing radiation has been associated with various cardiovascular complications; however, the associated molecular changes from radiation exposure still remain largely uncharacterized. Alterations to the cardiovascular tissue microenvironment, i.e. the extracellular matrix (ECM), directly affect the function of integrated vascular cells, including cell adhesion, potential to form vessels, and endothelial permeability, which can promote cardiovascular pathologies. The ECM is constantly remodeled in response to stimuli, such as TGF-β1, which leads to excessive ECM accumulation. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will alter the cardiovascular ECM. Human Cardiac Fibroblasts (HCFs) were utilized to produce ECM as an in vitro model to study ...


Development And Evaluation Of Custom Prosthetic Devices For A Companion Animal Utilizing Additive Manufacturing., Benjamin Joseph Cahill Jul 2016

Development And Evaluation Of Custom Prosthetic Devices For A Companion Animal Utilizing Additive Manufacturing., Benjamin Joseph Cahill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND AND SIGINIFICANCE: Few options exist for companion animals in need of prosthetic devices. With the rise of rapid prototyping technology, the availability and customization of prosthetic devices for individual companion animals is now a viable and cost effective alternative to the current options of a peg leg prosthetic, or wheel-assisted prosthetic device. The goals of this study were to describe the (1) specific needs and (2) biomechanics of a feline with bilateral thoracic limb amputation, (3) develop custom prosthetic devices utilizing rapid prototyping technology, and (4) describe the biomechanics of a feline with bilateral thoracic limb amputation using the ...


Fabrication, Characterization And Skin Permeation Of Antoxidant-Loaded Lipid Vesicles For Transdermal Drug Delivery., Emily Martin Jul 2016

Fabrication, Characterization And Skin Permeation Of Antoxidant-Loaded Lipid Vesicles For Transdermal Drug Delivery., Emily Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excess production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can be caused by radiation, cigarette smoke, and pollutants, can cause many damaging cellular effects, such as DNA damage and unregulated cell apoptosis. If left unmitigated, chronic overproduction of ROS has been linked to the formation of cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammation, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ROS is typically eliminated with antioxidants, which scavenge and inhibit the formation of ROS by becoming oxidized by the ROS and by binding to its precursors.

Curcumin is an effective lipid-soluble antioxidant agent. However, its poor ...


Efficacy Of Subcutaneous Electrocardiogram Leads For Synchronous Timing And Aortic Root Cannulation For Chronic Counterpulsation Therapy., Stephen R. Carnahan May 2016

Efficacy Of Subcutaneous Electrocardiogram Leads For Synchronous Timing And Aortic Root Cannulation For Chronic Counterpulsation Therapy., Stephen R. Carnahan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Counterpulsation devices (CPD) require electrocardiogram (ECG) lead implantation for timing device filling and ejection with the native heart. Non- implantable leads limit the scope of CPD treatment to short-term therapy. Standard transvenous/epicardial ECG leads increase the invasiveness of therapy.

Methods: To overcome these limitations, subcutaneous ECG leads were tested in chronic (n=6) and acute (n=5) bovine models. ECG waveforms from clinical- grade epicardial (control) leads and subcutaneous (test) leads were simultaneously recorded resulting in 830 data epochs (30-s each) for a total of 44,614 heart beats. Device triggering using R-wave detection was calculated for each ...


Development Of A Novel Device For Ventricular Assist Device Outflow Graft Anastomosis., Young Choi May 2016

Development Of A Novel Device For Ventricular Assist Device Outflow Graft Anastomosis., Young Choi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy can be live-saving for advanced heart failure patients. Conventional anastomosis (surgical connection) of LVAD outflow grafts to the aorta requires aortic clamping and hand-suturing. Aortic clamping increases the risk for neurological complications. Hand-suturing may be time-consuming and requires significant surgical dexterity. There is currently no commercially available device for sutureless anastomosis of large vascular grafts (diameter > 5mm). To overcome these limitations, a prototype LVAD outflow graft anastomosis device (GrAD) that facilitates sutureless anastomosis was developed and tested to demonstrate proof-of-concept and feasibility for (1) secured attachment withstanding physiological pressures, and (2) comparable attachment ...


Automated Analysis Of Cancerous Histological Samples., Thomas Allen Tennill May 2016

Automated Analysis Of Cancerous Histological Samples., Thomas Allen Tennill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of immunohistochemistry has become commonplace in the field of cancer diagnosis. A major limitation to the ability to use this tool effectively is the time consuming tasks required for the analysis of data due to the fact that it is largely done by hand. Additionally, because of this, there is an inherent level of subjectivity in the results obtained from this process that may depend on who it is conducting the analysis. Therefore, there exists a need for a method that is able to quantify results from immunohistochemical techniques in a way that it is both time-effective and ...


Foot Strike Patterns And Body Alignment Effects On Muscle Activity During Running., Nicole Knapp Mar 2016

Foot Strike Patterns And Body Alignment Effects On Muscle Activity During Running., Nicole Knapp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The mechanics of the running stride was altered around the 1970s when shoes were released with an elevated heel (McDougall 2009). At this point in time a heel strike running style became increasingly common and has remained the popular pattern when running in traditional shoes. In fact, the exact same person has been seen to alter their stride when running in a traditional shoe where they heel strike verses barefoot where they take on a forefoot strike (Lieberman 2010).

When an individual heel strikes, the ground reaction force is greater and contains an initial peak which is void in a ...


Cost-Effective Prosthetic Hand Controlled By Emg, Mohammad Yahya Almuhanna Jan 2016

Cost-Effective Prosthetic Hand Controlled By Emg, Mohammad Yahya Almuhanna

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A cost-effective five-finger prosthetic hand is designed from aluminum, modeled and controlled using surface Electromyography (EMG) signals, which are obtained from the human body. Force sensors are used to control required forces needed to grasp and pick objects. A prototype hand is developed and it is experimentally tested to reproduce a wide spectrum of human hand motions. The size of the five-finger hand is similar to an adult male human hand, and it is capable of reproducing most of movements. Each finger has the same number of links as the real/human hand. Each finger also has a force sensor ...


Ultra-Wideband Radar Based Human Motion Analysis, Zhichong Zhou Jan 2016

Ultra-Wideband Radar Based Human Motion Analysis, Zhichong Zhou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis proposes and investigates two techniques in ultra-wideband (UWB) radar based human motion analysis. The first one is accurate human body landmark detection using UWB radars. The detection is achieved by moving target indication (MTI) and constant false alarm rate detection (CFAR). A new CFAR detection technique is proposed, namely the out-of-band (OB) CFAR detection. In the field experiment, two RF reflective markers are attached to the wrist and elbow of one human arm for reflecting radar signals. It is demonstrated that detection of two markers are feasible and successfully achieved. And our results suggests the OB-CFAR performs better ...


Ex-Vivo Slaughterhouse Porcine Crystalloid-Perfused Beating Heart Via Langendorff Method, Rahiemin Talukder Jan 2016

Ex-Vivo Slaughterhouse Porcine Crystalloid-Perfused Beating Heart Via Langendorff Method, Rahiemin Talukder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to resuscitate isolated beating porcine hearts obtained from slaughterhouse swine for a minimum of 1 hour with a crystalloid buffer reperfusion instead of blood via an extracorporeal Langendorff apparatus. The isolated beating heart functions outside of the body under simulated physiologic conditions. Live functional anatomy was controlled under benchtop experimental settings. Porcine hearts (26 total) were topically cooled with saline. 300mL of 25°C cardioplegia with 20KU Streptokinase was preflushed via aortic root. WIT was less than 5 minutes. 1L 4°C cardioplegia was flushed antegrade with aortic cannula (Group 1) or coronary catheterization ...


Regional Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Of Ovine Heart Chambers, Shahnaz Javani Jan 2016

Regional Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Of Ovine Heart Chambers, Shahnaz Javani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mechanical properties of cardiac tissue play an important role in the normal heart function. As a baseline for understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, and for development and validation of new therapies, it is crucial to first understand the mechanical behavior of the normal heart tissue. Although heart chambers have the same embryonic origin, differences in the development of mechanical properties are expected to manifest over time during the adulthood period. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the passive mechanical properties of all heart chambers through a paired comparison study in an ovine model. Ovine ...


Assessment Of Optimized Electrode Configuration In Electrical Impedance Myography Study Using Genetic Algorithm Via Finite Element Model, Somen Baidya Jan 2016

Assessment Of Optimized Electrode Configuration In Electrical Impedance Myography Study Using Genetic Algorithm Via Finite Element Model, Somen Baidya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrical Impedance Myography (EIM) is a neurophysiologic technique in which high- frequency, low-intensity electrical current is applied via surface electrodes over a muscle or muscle group of interest and the resulting electrical parameters (resistance, reactance and phase) are analyzed to isolate diseased muscles from healthy ones. Beside muscle properties, some other anatomic and non-anatomic factors like muscle shape, subcutaneous fat (SF) thickness, inter-electrode distance, etc. also impact the major EIM parameters and thus affect the EIM analysis outcomes. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of variation in some of these factors impose on EIM parameters and ...


Finite Element And Probabilistic Analysis Of Soft Tissue Structures Of The Human Lumbar Spine, Dana Joseph Coombs Jan 2016

Finite Element And Probabilistic Analysis Of Soft Tissue Structures Of The Human Lumbar Spine, Dana Joseph Coombs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human lumbar spine mechanics are influenced by soft tissue structures. Understanding and properly modeling these structures can help determine pathology, treatment, and implant design and performance. Finite element models of the L4-L5 level of the lumbar spine are often used, which include a representation of the intervertebral disc and spinal ligaments. Validation of these models are typically based on torque rotation data from a single subject or the models use average properties reported in literature. However, experimental testing reports variation up to 40% in ligament stiffness and even greater variability for annulus fibrosis properties. Probabilistic approaches enable consideration of the ...


Anatomy, Implant Selection And Placement Influence Spine Mechanics Associated With Total Disc Replacement, Justin F.M. Hollenbeck Jan 2016

Anatomy, Implant Selection And Placement Influence Spine Mechanics Associated With Total Disc Replacement, Justin F.M. Hollenbeck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Through aging and injury, the intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine can undergo degeneration, leading to collapse of the vertebrae and low back pain, a symptom that affects half the adult population in any given year. In an effort to reduce low back pain, total disc replacement treatment removes the degenerated disc, restores natural height and lordosis of the segment, and preserves motion at the joint. Patient anatomy, implant selection, and implant placement play significant roles in a patient's outcomes after total disc replacement surgery. Thus, the objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop a ...


Multiscale Musculoskeletal Modeling Of The Lower Limb To Perform Personalized Simulations Of Movement, Alessandro Navacchia Jan 2016

Multiscale Musculoskeletal Modeling Of The Lower Limb To Perform Personalized Simulations Of Movement, Alessandro Navacchia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational modeling has been used for many decades to inform design and decision-making in several fields of engineering, such as aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others. However, it still struggles to have a similar impact in fields of medicine, such as orthopaedics. Three of the challenges that have limited the use of computational modeling in the clinical practice and in product development are model validation, personalization, and realism. Validation is a challenge because several internal parameters of the human body, such as muscle forces, are not safely measurable in vivo and, consequently, a thorough comparison between model outputs and experimental measurements ...