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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Stabilization Of Extended Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy Measurements On In Vivo Human Skeletal Muscle During Dynamic Exercise, Brad A. Henry Jan 2014

Stabilization Of Extended Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy Measurements On In Vivo Human Skeletal Muscle During Dynamic Exercise, Brad A. Henry

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

This research investigates various applications of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) on in-vivo human muscle tissue, both at rest and during dynamic exercise. Previously suspected muscle tissue relative blood flow (rBF) baseline shift during extended measurement with DCS and DCS-Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) hybrid optical systems are verified, quantified, and resolved by redesign of optical probe and alteration in optical probe attachment methodology during 40 minute supine bed rest baseline measurements. We then translate previously developed occlusion techniques, whereby rBF and relative oxygen consumption rV̇O2 are calibrated to initial resting absolute values by use of a venous occlusion (VO ...


The Effect Of Various Pathologies On Bone Quality, Daniel S. Porter Jan 2014

The Effect Of Various Pathologies On Bone Quality, Daniel S. Porter

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Bone’s ability to resist fracture is often ignored until a low-energy fracture occurs. Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) or osteoporosis are at an increased risk of low-energy fracture. Generally, fracture risk is evaluated by using a bone mineral density (BMD) test. BMD values; however, do not fully predict bone’s ability to resist fracture. This suggests that other parameters may be involved. Bone quality is the term used to describe these parameters, which are categorized into three groups: structural, material, and microdamage. The aim of this dissertation research was to examine whether bone quality was altered in patients ...


Investigation Of Cardiac Electrophysiology In Human Ventricular Tissue, Kathleen Brownson Jan 2014

Investigation Of Cardiac Electrophysiology In Human Ventricular Tissue, Kathleen Brownson

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Individuals with cardiomyopathy are at higher risk to die from sudden cardiac arrest than those with non-failing (NF) hearts. This study examined the differences in electrical properties of failing and NF human hearts in terms of cardiac memory through explicit control of diastolic intervals in a sinusoidal fashion, restitution of action potential duration (APD) through standard and dynamic pacing protocols, maximum rate of depolarization and APD alternans. Recordings of transmembrane potentials were made in tissues extracted from patients with heart failure and one donor NF heart. Computational simulations were performed using the O’Hara Rudy model for generating surrogates of ...


The Effects Of Body Armor On Lower Back And Knee Biomechanics During Basic And Military Inspired Tasks, Megan P. Phillips Jan 2014

The Effects Of Body Armor On Lower Back And Knee Biomechanics During Basic And Military Inspired Tasks, Megan P. Phillips

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

With increased military personal protection equipment, body armor, comes the addition of carried load. Such person protection in recent history has been instrumental in combating the imminent threats (e.g., improvised explosive devices) of hostile environments, preventing otherwise lethal injuries. However, body armor has been suggested to degrade warfighters’ performance and compound the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Both performance and risk of injury are intensely related to joint biomechanics. Therefore the objective of this project was set to determine the immediate and prolonged effects of wearing body armor on biomechanics of the lower back and knee. A randomized cross-over study ...


The Study Of Trunk Mechanical And Neuromuscular Behaviors, Brian D. Koch Jan 2014

The Study Of Trunk Mechanical And Neuromuscular Behaviors, Brian D. Koch

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Low back pain (LBP) is a common ailment in the United States, affecting up to 80% of adults at least once in their lifetime. Although 90% of LBP cases are considered nonspecific, recent studies show that abnormal mechanics of the lower back can be a major factor. One method of assessing the lower back mechanical environment is through perturbation experiments. An intensive literature review of perturbation systems was used to select and develop a system for the Human Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Lab (HMBL). Following construction, individuals with high/low exposure to day-long physical activity were assessed to quantify daily changes in ...


Microsphere Spray System For Wound Coverage, Nicholas J. Andersen Jan 2014

Microsphere Spray System For Wound Coverage, Nicholas J. Andersen

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Spinal fusion is used to treat diseases or disorders of the spine by fusing together two or more vertebrae. Two associated risks with spinal fusion are infection and blood loss. Administration of tranexamic acid is used to prevent blood loss, and transfusions are given following blood loss. Surgical site infections are prevented with vancomycin powder spread into the surgical wound, while established infections are treated by debridement and delivery of antibiotics for 4 to 6 weeks. The present research explored an alternate method to prevent and treat blood loss or infection in spinal fusion. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres was ...


Mucoadhesive Films For Treatment Of Local Oral Disorders: Development, Characterization And In Vivo Testing, Sandeep K. Ramineni Jan 2014

Mucoadhesive Films For Treatment Of Local Oral Disorders: Development, Characterization And In Vivo Testing, Sandeep K. Ramineni

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems which are being used from 1980’s to avoid first pass metabolism of drugs, commercially exist for only systemic drug delivery with fast erosion times (15-60 min), that may not be appropriate for local oral disorders. The goal of this research was to develop and characterize mucoadhesive films with flexibility of carrying different drugs and proteins and provide sustained release for local treatment of oral disorders.

Mucoadhesive films composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and carboxymethlycellulose (CMC) were formulated with imiquimod, an immune response modifier. Problems such as solubilization of imiquimod to increase drug loading, uniformity in films ...


Additives To Control Mechanical Properties And Drug Delivery Of Injectable Polymeric Scaffolds, Paul Fisher Jan 2014

Additives To Control Mechanical Properties And Drug Delivery Of Injectable Polymeric Scaffolds, Paul Fisher

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

In situ forming implants (ISIs) are popular due to their ease of use and local drug delivery potential, but they suffer from high initial drug burst, and release behavior is tied closely to solvent exchange and polymer properties. Additionally, such systems are traditionally viewed purely as drug delivery devices rather than potential scaffold materials due to their poor mechanical properties and minimal porosity. The aim of this research was to develop an injectable ISI with drug release, mechanical, and microstructural properties controlled by micro- and nanoparticle additives.

First, an injectable ISI was developed with appropriate drug release kinetics for orthopedic ...


Relationships Of Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment With Measures Of Bone Microarchitecture And Mechanical Competence, Jonathan Joseph Ward Jan 2014

Relationships Of Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment With Measures Of Bone Microarchitecture And Mechanical Competence, Jonathan Joseph Ward

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Oral bisphosphonate drug therapy is a common and effective treatment for osteoporosis. Little is known about the long-term effects of bisphosphonates on bone quality. This study examined the structural and mechanical properties of trabecular bone following 0-16 years of bisphosphonate treatment. Fifty-three iliac crest bone samples of Caucasian women diagnosed with low turnover osteoporosis were identified from the Kentucky Bone Registry. Forty-five were treated with oral bisphosphonates for 1 to 16 years while eight were treatment naive. A section of trabecular bone was chosen from a micro-computed tomography (Scanco µCT 40) scan of each sample for a uniaxial linearly elastic ...


Human Cardiovascular Responses To Artificial Gravity Variables: Ground-Based Experimentation For Spaceflight Implementation, Mark Howarth Jan 2014

Human Cardiovascular Responses To Artificial Gravity Variables: Ground-Based Experimentation For Spaceflight Implementation, Mark Howarth

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

One countermeasure to cardiovascular spaceflight deconditioning being tested is the application of intermittent artificial gravity provided by centripetal acceleration of a human via centrifuge. However, artificial gravity protocols have not been optimized for the cardiovascular system, or any other physiological system for that matter. Before artificial gravity protocols can be optimized for the cardiovascular system, cardiovascular responses to the variables of artificial gravity need to be quantified.

The research presented in this document is intended to determine how the artificial gravity variables, radius (gravity gradient) and lower limb exercise, affect cardiovascular responses during centrifugation. Net fluid (blood) shifts between body ...


Development Of A Moldable Composite Bone Graft Substitute Releasing Antibacterial And Osteogenic Drugs, Matthew E. Brown Jan 2014

Development Of A Moldable Composite Bone Graft Substitute Releasing Antibacterial And Osteogenic Drugs, Matthew E. Brown

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Large infected bone defects (IBD) are very complicated to treat due to their high variability; they often require multiple procedures. Bone autografts are the gold standard for treatment but have several drawbacks, such as a need for a second surgery site, limited grafting material, and donor site morbidity. The objective of this research was to develop a moldable synthetic bone grafting material capable of releasing both antimicrobial and osteogenic drugs over a clinically relevant time course for the treatment of IBDs. Current treatment methods for large IBDs require two separate procedures to treat the bone defect and the infection.

This ...


Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana Jan 2014

Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Bone regeneration or augmentation is often required prior to or concomitant with implant placement. With the limitations of many existing technologies, a biologically compatible synthetic bone grafting substitute that is osteogenic, bioerodible, and provides spacing-making functionality while acting as a drug delivery vehicle for bioactive molecules could provide an alternative to ‘gold standard’ techniques.

In the first part of this work, calcium sulfate (CS) space-making synthetic bone grafts with uniformly embedded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) biodegradable hydrogel particles was developed to allow controlled release of bioactive agents. The embedded gel particles’ influence on the physical and chemical characteristics of CS ...


From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao Jan 2014

From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Understanding the mechanisms behind unexplained abnormal heart rhythms is important for diagnosis and prevention of arrhythmias. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. There is considerable information available from tissue level experiments that investigate local action potential properties and from optical imaging to observe activity propagation properties at an organ level. By combining those electrophysiological properties together, in the present study we developed a simulation model that can help in estimation of the resulting body surface potentials from a specific electrical activity pattern within the myocardium. Some of the potential uses of our model ...