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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Rab3a As A Modulator Of Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity, Andrew G. Koesters Jan 2014

Rab3a As A Modulator Of Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity, Andrew G. Koesters

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The nervous system is faced with perturbations in activity levels throughout development and in disease or injury states. Neurons need to adapt to these changes in activity, but also need to maintain circuit firing within a normal range to stabilize the network from becoming too excited or too depressed. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity, the compensatory increase or decrease in synaptic strength as a result of excessive circuit inhibition or excitation, is a mechanism that the nervous system utilizes to keep network activity at normal levels. Despite intense effort, little is known about the mechanisms underlying homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Numerous studies have ...


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha: Insight Into The Structure, Function And Energy Homeostasis, Dhawal P. Oswal Jan 2014

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha: Insight Into The Structure, Function And Energy Homeostasis, Dhawal P. Oswal

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) belongs to the family of ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors and serves as a lipid sensor to regulate nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. The transcriptional activity of PPAR alpha is thought to be regulated by the binding of exogenous ligands (example, fenofibrate, TriCor), as well as endogenous ligands including fatty acids and their derivatives. Although long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and their thioesters (long-chain fatty acyl-CoA; LCFA-CoA) have been shown to activate PPAR alpha of several species, the true identity of high-affinity endogenous ligands for human PPAR alpha (hPPAR alpha) has been more elusive. This two ...


The Regulation Of The Eight-Exon Isoform Of The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor (CarEx8) And Its Biological Relevance, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan Jan 2014

The Regulation Of The Eight-Exon Isoform Of The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor (CarEx8) And Its Biological Relevance, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan

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The airway epithelium poses a formidable barrier for the entry of pathogenic viruses due to the formation of tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells. The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a member of the Ig superfamily of cell junction adhesion proteins, is the primary receptor for adenovirus entry and infection. As a result of alternative splicing, two transmembrane isoforms of CAR are generated. While the seven-exon isoform of CAR (CAREX7) is hidden on the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia, the eight-exon isoform of CAR (CAREX8) localizes within the sub-apical region and at the air-exposed apical surface. Apical localization ...


The Role Of Subunit Iii In The Functional And Structural Regulation Of Cytochrome C Oxidase In Rhodobacter Spheroids, Khadijeh Salim Alnajjar Jan 2014

The Role Of Subunit Iii In The Functional And Structural Regulation Of Cytochrome C Oxidase In Rhodobacter Spheroids, Khadijeh Salim Alnajjar

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Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c and the reduction of oxygen to water while concomitantly translocating protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The catalytic core of COX consists of three subunits that are conserved from the bacterial to the mitochondrial forms of the enzyme. Subunits I and II (SUI and SUII) contain the metal centers where electrons are transferred and oxygen binds for reduction. Subunit III (SUIII) does not contain any metals and has an unknown function. It contains three conserved histidine residues (3, 7 and 10) that are surface exposed and are in close proximity ...


Evaluation Of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) For Assessment Of The Visual And Motor Cortices In Adults, Brenna Giacherio Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) For Assessment Of The Visual And Motor Cortices In Adults, Brenna Giacherio

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Introduction: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a relatively young technique in the field of medical imaging. As such, it has yet to be widely implemented for clinical use, despite its promising advantages. However, unlike fMRI-its much bulkier and costly counterpart-fNIRS has yet to be proven as a standalone imaging tool within a clinical setting, particularly that of ophthalmology or physical therapy.

Methods: Ten healthy young adults (23.8 ± 4.8 years) participated in the study. Activation of the visual cortex was achieved utilizing various reversing checkerboard stimuli across three data collection sessions for each participant. Further, activation of the motor ...


Segmentation And Analysis Of Mris Of Infants With Dysphagia, Irfaan A. Dar Jan 2014

Segmentation And Analysis Of Mris Of Infants With Dysphagia, Irfaan A. Dar

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Neonates are at a rapid stage of development from birth throughout childhood. Impairments to certain cortical areas can result in long lasting neuro-cognitive dysfunctions. Disorders to the swallowing neural pathways can have detrimental effects throughout life course since methods to provide nutrition can be comprised. Dysphagia, or the inability to swallow, can be caused by a multitude of reasons, chiefly neurological, but the underlying disruptions to the neural pathways are not defined. In this study we investigated the growth of multiple cortical areas involved in the swallowing pathway and categorized feeding outcomes with neural growth. Results showed that infants that ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Skull Fracture Evoked By Fall Injuries, Anthony Vicini Jan 2014

Finite Element Simulation Of Skull Fracture Evoked By Fall Injuries, Anthony Vicini

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This study presents novel predictive equations for von Mises stresses and deflection of bones in the frontal and lateral regions of the skull. The equations were developed based on results of a finite element model developed here. The model was validated for frontal and lateral loading conditions with input values mimetic to fall scenarios. Using neural network processing of the information derived from the model achieved R2 values of 0.9990 for both the stress and deflection. Based on the outcome of the fall victims, a threshold von Mises stress of 40.9 to 46.6 MPa was found to ...


Apelin Regulation Of K-Cl Cotransport In Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells., Neelima Sharma Jan 2014

Apelin Regulation Of K-Cl Cotransport In Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells., Neelima Sharma

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Atherosclerosis and high circulating levels of oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) are considered among the most important risk factors for the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). During the atherosclerotic lesion repair, phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from contractile to synthetic states plays a central role. In this process, enhanced proliferation/migration of VSMCs, from the tunica media to the intima, is required to sustain blood vessel endothelium integrity, and for inducing vessel wall remodeling in response to injury. At the molecular level, the activity of electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransporters or KCCs, is necessary to: a) allow ...