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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterizing Motor Control Signals In The Spinal Cord, Yi Guo May 2014

Characterizing Motor Control Signals In The Spinal Cord, Yi Guo

Dissertations

The main goal of this project is to develop a rodent model to study the central command signals generated in the brain and spinal cord for the control of motor function in the forearms. The nature of the central command signal has been debated for many decades with only limited progress. This thesis presents a project that investigated this problem using novel techniques. Rats are instrumented to record the control signals in their spinal cord while they are performing lever press task they are trained in. A haptic interface and wireless neural data amplifier system simultaneously collects dynamic and neural ...


Evaluation Of Methods To Account For Release From Nanofiber Scaffolds, Jennifer Moy May 2014

Evaluation Of Methods To Account For Release From Nanofiber Scaffolds, Jennifer Moy

Theses

Electrospinning is a common technique utilized to form fibers from the micro- to nanometer range. Nanofibers form through electrospinning can be utilized as scaffolds since the fiber structures are similar to the structures within the extracellular matrix. Researchers use additives, such as growth factors, to help facilitate cell proliferation and function. Also, researchers are attempting to use electrospun fibers for drug delivery and as wound dressings since the electrospun fibers have high surface area to volume ratio. In both situations, the release of either the additive or the drug needs to be controlled so that the fibers would release the ...


Optimizing Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules Using Co-Axial Air Flow Method As 3d Stem Cell Microenvironment, Noel Alfonso May 2014

Optimizing Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules Using Co-Axial Air Flow Method As 3d Stem Cell Microenvironment, Noel Alfonso

Theses

Microencapsulation of cells is gaining popular interest in the field of biomedical engineering because it provides a more effective 3D scaffold that can mimic the cell microenvironment. The benefits of using microcapsules are biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity, and formation under mild gelation conditions. In this study, the ability of the alginate microcapsules to control the proliferation and differentiation of mouse OCT4-GFP embryonic stem cells is investigated. Microcapsules are produced by extrusion of alginate into a calcium chloride gelation bath with the aid of a co-axial air flow. It is shown that the size of the spheres is controlled based on needle ...


The Effect Of Vergence Vision Training On Binocularly Normal Subjects, Henry Talasan May 2014

The Effect Of Vergence Vision Training On Binocularly Normal Subjects, Henry Talasan

Theses

Vergence is the disjunctive (inward or outward) movement of the eyes that is stimulated by retinal disparity (difference of where an image is projected to the retina and the fovea). A recent randomized clinical trial showed the efficacy of vision therapy for children with the binocular dysfunction known as convergence insufficiency is 73%. However, it is unknown whether binocularly normal persons will have any significant change to their vergence ocular motor system if they participate in vision training sessions. A total of ten (n = 10) binocularly normal persons participated in this study (18 to 28 years of age). A haploscope ...


Short Term Modification Of Vergence Ramp Eye Movements In The Convergent Direction, Chang Yaramothu May 2014

Short Term Modification Of Vergence Ramp Eye Movements In The Convergent Direction, Chang Yaramothu

Theses

Prior oculomotor studies have investigated the various effects of short-term modification on vergence, saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements. Previous vergence studies have concentrated on step modification stimuli. Few have investigated the effects of short-term modification on vergence ramp movements. Thus, this study explores the trends observed within a short-term modification experiment studying smoothly tracking vergence eye movements responses elicited from convergent ramp stimuli. A short-term modification experiment is composed of three phases: baseline, modification and recovery. Baseline and recovery phases contain only test stimuli; whereas, during modification, the subject is presented test and conditioning stimuli in a ratio of ...


Construction And Assessment Of A Computer Graphics-Based Model For Wheelchair Propulsion, Brooke Marie Odle Jan 2014

Construction And Assessment Of A Computer Graphics-Based Model For Wheelchair Propulsion, Brooke Marie Odle

Dissertations

Upper limb overuse injuries are common in manual wheelchair using persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially those with tetraplegia. Biomechanical analyses involving kinetics, kinematics, and muscle mechanics provide an opportunity to identify modifiable risk factors associated with wheelchair propulsion and upper limb overuse injuries that may be used toward developing prevention and treatment interventions. However, these analyses are limited because they cannot estimate muscle forces in vivo. Patient-specific computer graphics-based models have enhanced biomechanical analyses by determining in vivo estimates of shoulder muscle and joint contact forces. Current models do not include deep shoulder muscles. Also, patient-specific models have ...


Rate Alterable Traumatic Brain Injury Device For Rodent Models, Radia Abdul Wahab Jan 2014

Rate Alterable Traumatic Brain Injury Device For Rodent Models, Radia Abdul Wahab

Dissertations

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a physical impact to the head resulting in functional deficits in memory and motor systems. TBI is a prevalent problem occurring in 1.7 million people annually in the United States (Faul et al. 2010). TBIs can differ greatly in terms of the biomechanics of the impact such as magnitude, direction and rate. Indeed, it is likely that the wide range of TBI outcomes may be due to the physical characteristics of the trauma. Studies to date on impact have used injury devices with limited alterable parameters. Therefore, the existing impact studies have considered the ...


The Effect Of Mechanical Vestibular Stimulation On Muscle Tone And Spasticity In Individuals With Neurological Impairment, Ghaith J. Androwis Jan 2014

The Effect Of Mechanical Vestibular Stimulation On Muscle Tone And Spasticity In Individuals With Neurological Impairment, Ghaith J. Androwis

Dissertations

In the desire to better understand spasticity mainly in Cerebral Palsy (CP) and to examine vestibular stimulation as a future intervention for .muscle tone reduction, and to be able to describe the change in level of spasticity in subjects with disability and describe interventions effects, a series of experiments are done on children with spasticity. In addition to understanding the otoliths in the vestibular system and their projections, properties and pathways a more important major objective of this work is to validate the changes in otoliths signal caused by vestibular stimulation based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis and the inclusion ...


Differentiating Schizophrenic Patients From Healthy Control; Application Of Machine Learning To Resting State Fmri, Hossein Ebrahimi Nezhad Jan 2014

Differentiating Schizophrenic Patients From Healthy Control; Application Of Machine Learning To Resting State Fmri, Hossein Ebrahimi Nezhad

Theses

In recent years, one analysis approach that has grown in popularity is the use of machine learning algorithms to train classifiers to decode stimuli, mental states, behaviors and other variables of interest from fMRI data. Most of these studies focus on fMRI low frequency oscillations. This study focuses on the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). A Voxel-wise analysis is performed on the whole brain for two groups of subjects. A machine learning algorithm is applied to two independent groups of subjects (a total of 160 healthy control and schizophrenic subjects) to classify Schizophrenia ...


Mathematically Modeling The Mechanical Constants Of Thoracolumbar Fascia Under Compression, In Vivo, Vrajeshri Patel Jan 2014

Mathematically Modeling The Mechanical Constants Of Thoracolumbar Fascia Under Compression, In Vivo, Vrajeshri Patel

Theses

The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) is a complex structure made of many interconnecting aponeurosis and muscle fascia. It plays a role in posture, stabilizing the lumbosacral spine, load transfer, and respiration. Its complex structure and connections have mostly been observed through cadaveric studies while its mechanical properties have been addressed in only a few studies. Recently, new advances in ultrasound imaging have made it possible to move towards measuring tissue strain. Since this is an in vivo method, mechanical data of tissues in their natural environment allows a more accurate representation of tissue strain. However, many different methods of analyzing ultrasound ...


Developing A Labview Based Thermally Stimulated Current (Tsc) Controller To Measure Residual Charge In Electrospinning, Jai Abhishekh Veezhinathan Jan 2014

Developing A Labview Based Thermally Stimulated Current (Tsc) Controller To Measure Residual Charge In Electrospinning, Jai Abhishekh Veezhinathan

Theses

Electrospinning is an electrohydrodynamic process for the fabrication of nanofibers which are widely used in therapeutical tissue engineering approaches. It utilizes the potential difference of an electrostatic field to overcome the surface tension of the polymer solution to extrude a fine jet of fluid which deposits on the grounded collector as a nanofiber mat. Using this process, nanofibers with diameters less than a micron can be produced.

Previous studies have shown the presence of residual charge in electrospun nanofibers. The presence and decay of residual charge during cell culture media is still unknown. In an attempt to clarify the presence ...


Using The Piezoelectric Backscatter Signal For Remote Sensing Of Neural Signals, Eren Alay Jan 2014

Using The Piezoelectric Backscatter Signal For Remote Sensing Of Neural Signals, Eren Alay

Theses

In recent studies, various methods to sense neural signals are used and new methods for remote sensing of neural signals are being developed. However, there are still major difficulties in building long-term implantable neural interface systems that can reliably record neural activity and serve as the basis of brain-machine interfaces (BMI). Therefore, this research is conducted to design a remote neural sensing system that is based on modulation of the backscatter signal from a piezoelectric element by the neural signals. The hypothesis is that if the neural signal is detected with a simple amplifier and the output of this amplifier ...