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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation In Balb/C Mice, Laura Lenae Burckhardt Dec 2014

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation In Balb/C Mice, Laura Lenae Burckhardt

Biomedical Engineering

Of the approximately 8 million Americans who suffer from ischemic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD), many present with intermittent claudication, or pain associated with exercise. Impaired vasodilation of resistance vessels is a potential explanation for this symptom. Occluded arteries can lead to increased flow through collateral vessels, which function as natural bypasses around the obstruction. This increase in blood flow and resulting shear stress can cause outward remodeling, or arteriogenesis, which improves the efficacy of collaterals. However, following femoral artery ligation in a mouse model of chronic ischemia, vasodilation in the stem region of collateral vessels is impaired at day ...


Unlocking The Secrets Of Multi-Flagellated Propulsion, Stefan Oma Nwandu-Vincent Dec 2014

Unlocking The Secrets Of Multi-Flagellated Propulsion, Stefan Oma Nwandu-Vincent

Doctoral Dissertations

In this work, unique high-speed imaging platforms and an array of theoretical analysis methods are used to thoroughly investigate eukaryotic multi-flagellated propulsion using Tritrichomonas foetus as a test case. Through experimental observations through our imaging system with superior resolution and capture rate exceeding that of previous studies, it was discovered for the first time that the T. foetus employs a strategy similar to that of the “run and tumble” strategies found in bacteria and Chlamydomonas; it has two distinct flagellar beating patterns that result in two different body swimming motions, linear and turning swimming.

These two flagella patterns were ...


The Effect Of Artery Bifurcation Angles On Fluid Flow And Wall Shear Stress In The Middle Cerebral Artery, Zachary Ramey Jones Dec 2014

The Effect Of Artery Bifurcation Angles On Fluid Flow And Wall Shear Stress In The Middle Cerebral Artery, Zachary Ramey Jones

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Saccular aneurysms are the abnormal plastic deformation of veins and arteries that can lead to lethal thrombus genesis or internal hemorrhaging. Medication and surgery greatly reduce the mortality rates, but treatment is limited by predicting who will develop aneurysms. A common location for saccular aneurysm genesis is at the main middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation. The main MCA bifurcation is comprised of the M1 MCA segment, parent artery, and two M2 segments, daughter arteries. Studies have found that the lateral angle (LA) ratio of the MCA bifurcation is correlated with aneurysm formation. The LA ratio is defined as the angle ...


Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo Sep 2014

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is the third most common joint replacement. While robot-assisted hip and knee replacement technologies have enjoyed extensive development, this has been limited in the upper limb. This work focused on quantifying the localization accuracy of a robotic system, and evaluating its efficacy in the context of TSA.

A collaborative robot was fitted with a stylus tip to perform manual surface digitizations using the robot’s encoder output. In the first experiment, two precision-machined master cubes, representing the working volume around a glenoid structure, were used for system validation. Next, cadaveric glenoids were digitized and compared to ...


Finite Element Modeling Of The Proximal Humerus To Compare Stemless, Short And Standard Stem Humeral Components Of Varying Material Stiffness For Shoulder Arthroplasty, Najmeh Razfar Sep 2014

Finite Element Modeling Of The Proximal Humerus To Compare Stemless, Short And Standard Stem Humeral Components Of Varying Material Stiffness For Shoulder Arthroplasty, Najmeh Razfar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In patients with debilitating pain due to osteoarthritis, total shoulder arthroplasty can restore function and provide effective pain relief. Newer implant designs vary in length and material stiffness. Unfortunately, literature on these newer implants is limited. This thesis investigates the effect of stem length and implant material stiffness on proximal humeral bone stresses. 3D bone models with implants of various stem lengths (stemless, short, and standard) and different material stiffness’s (CoCr, Ti and PEEK) were generated using MIMICS, Solidworks and ABAQUS for varying abduction angles (15°, 45° and 75°). Cortical and trabecular stresses were contrasted with the intact bone ...


Visual Perception And Cognition In Image-Guided Intervention, Kamyar Abhari Sep 2014

Visual Perception And Cognition In Image-Guided Intervention, Kamyar Abhari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surgical image visualization and interaction systems can dramatically affect the efficacy and efficiency of surgical training, planning, and interventions. This is even more profound in the case of minimally-invasive surgery where restricted access to the operative field in conjunction with limited field of view necessitate a visualization medium to provide patient-specific information at any given moment. Unfortunately, little research has been devoted to studying human factors associated with medical image displays and the need for a robust, intuitive visualization and interaction interfaces has remained largely unfulfilled to this day. Failure to engineer efficient medical solutions and design intuitive visualization interfaces ...


Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick Aug 2014

Joint Reaction Force And Contributions Of Surrounding Muscles To Knee Joint Load During Stair Ascent In Total Knee Replacement Patients And Healthy Individuals, Robert Jacob Rasnick

Masters Theses

Total knee replacement (TKR) is commonly used to correct end stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing has been seen to exist, prolonging the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future research. The outcome of a TKR is intended to reestablish normal motion and loading of the knee. Musculoskeletal modeling provides a means to accurately approximate joint loading and the corresponding muscle contributions during a movement.

The purpose of the present study was to examine ...


Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez Aug 2014

Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral neuropathies are a set of common diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system, causing damage to vital connections between various parts of the body and the brain and spinal cord. Different clinical conditions are known to selectively impact various size nerve fibers, which often makes it difficult to diagnose which peripheral neuropathy a patient might have. The nerve conduction velocity diagnostic test provides clinically useful information in the diagnosis of some peripheral neuropathies. This method is advantageous because it tends to be minimally invasive yet it provides valuable diagnostic information. However, this test does not determine characteristics of peripheral ...


Design, Characterization And Application Of A Multiple Input Stethoscope Apparatus, Spencer Geng Wong Aug 2014

Design, Characterization And Application Of A Multiple Input Stethoscope Apparatus, Spencer Geng Wong

Master's Theses and Project Reports

For this project, the design, implementation, characterization, calibration and possible applications of a multiple transducer stethoscope apparatus were investigated. The multi-transducer sensor array design consists of five standard stethoscope diaphragms mounted to a rigid frame for a-priori knowledge of their relative spatial locations in the x-y plane, with compliant z-direction positioning to ensure good contact and pressure against the subject’s skin for reliable acoustic coupling. When this apparatus is properly placed on the body, it can digitally capture the same important body sounds investigated with standard acoustic stethoscopes; especially heart sounds. Acoustic signal inputs from each diaphragm are converted ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige Jul 2014

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...


Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper Jun 2014

Team Omnimouse, Derek J. Halman, Josh B. Porter, Steven A. Silver, Ian S. Stemper

Computer Engineering

INFORMATION, DATA, FIGURES AND DRAWINGS EMBODIED IN THIS DOCUMENT ARE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ARE SUPPLIED ON THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THEY WILL NOT BE DISCLOSED TO THIRD PARTIES WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE PLUS.


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes Jun 2014

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Mr To Ultrasound Registration For Image-Guided Prostate Biopsy, Yue Sun May 2014

Mr To Ultrasound Registration For Image-Guided Prostate Biopsy, Yue Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is the standard approach for diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, due to the lack of image contrast of prostate tumors, it often results in false negatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been considered to be a promising imaging modality for noninvasive identification of PCa, since it can provide a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of early stage PCa. Our main objective is to develop a registration method of 3D MR-TRUS images, allowing generation of volumetric 3D maps of targets identified in 3D MR images to be biopsied using 3D TRUS images ...


Preterm Birth: Prediction, Prevention, Care, Brandon Wesley Alleman May 2014

Preterm Birth: Prediction, Prevention, Care, Brandon Wesley Alleman

Theses and Dissertations

Preterm birth (PTB) is defined as birth before 37 weeks gestational age. PTB is a common outcome and one that may be increasing in prevalence with serious individual and public health implications both immediately and long term. While PTB is a pregnancy specific outcome it is more appropriately viewed as the culmination of risk factors present both before pregnancy and possibly in past generations. This thesis attempts to review the implications, risk factors and current prevention strategies directed at PTB while placing it in an intergenerational and life cycle context. Three novel investigations are presented and their consequences are discussed ...


Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik May 2014

Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Two-solution bone cements (TSBC) were developed to address the limitations of current powder-liquid bone cements, however are characterized by a limited shelf life due to spontaneous free radical polymerization. As a solution to pre-polymerization concerns, the initiator benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was removed from the cement solution and incorporated into a thin film coating within the static mixing nozzle, allowing the BPO to integrate with the TSBC as it is mixed for use. Only short-term storage of BPO-coated nozzles and the subsequent effects on bone cement properties is known. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time ...


A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li May 2014

A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The goal of this research is to understand how a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas-reinhardtii, responds to red light (670nm) and sound waves, by monitoring the beating frequency of its two cilia, which control cell motility. Ciliary beating frequency (BF) is proportional to the production of ATP, mainly generated by photosynthesis. A photosynthesis inhibitor, 3-(3-, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU) decreases ATP production by photosynthesis. I used DCMU as a tool to analyze the red light effect on BF.

In the process of studying the effect of red light, I unexpectedly discovered experimental conditions for unstable ciliary beating (as shown in ...


Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen Apr 2014

Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A greater understanding of bone materials would be beneficial in creating more accurate computer models and in the making of biomedical products involving bone. This study set out to determine whether cortical and trabecular bone are two separate materials, or whether they are the same material with a variance in porosity. To answer this question, samples were taken from different sections of the equine metacarpus, underwent densitometry analysis and were statistically analyzed. The majority of results suggest that the material is the same between varying densities of bone and thus the same between cortical and trabecular bone. These particular results ...


The Effect Of Various Pathologies On Bone Quality, Daniel S. Porter Jan 2014

The Effect Of Various Pathologies On Bone Quality, Daniel S. Porter

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Bone’s ability to resist fracture is often ignored until a low-energy fracture occurs. Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) or osteoporosis are at an increased risk of low-energy fracture. Generally, fracture risk is evaluated by using a bone mineral density (BMD) test. BMD values; however, do not fully predict bone’s ability to resist fracture. This suggests that other parameters may be involved. Bone quality is the term used to describe these parameters, which are categorized into three groups: structural, material, and microdamage. The aim of this dissertation research was to examine whether bone quality was altered in patients ...


Human Cardiovascular Responses To Artificial Gravity Variables: Ground-Based Experimentation For Spaceflight Implementation, Mark Howarth Jan 2014

Human Cardiovascular Responses To Artificial Gravity Variables: Ground-Based Experimentation For Spaceflight Implementation, Mark Howarth

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

One countermeasure to cardiovascular spaceflight deconditioning being tested is the application of intermittent artificial gravity provided by centripetal acceleration of a human via centrifuge. However, artificial gravity protocols have not been optimized for the cardiovascular system, or any other physiological system for that matter. Before artificial gravity protocols can be optimized for the cardiovascular system, cardiovascular responses to the variables of artificial gravity need to be quantified.

The research presented in this document is intended to determine how the artificial gravity variables, radius (gravity gradient) and lower limb exercise, affect cardiovascular responses during centrifugation. Net fluid (blood) shifts between body ...


From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao Jan 2014

From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Understanding the mechanisms behind unexplained abnormal heart rhythms is important for diagnosis and prevention of arrhythmias. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. There is considerable information available from tissue level experiments that investigate local action potential properties and from optical imaging to observe activity propagation properties at an organ level. By combining those electrophysiological properties together, in the present study we developed a simulation model that can help in estimation of the resulting body surface potentials from a specific electrical activity pattern within the myocardium. Some of the potential uses of our model ...


Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza Jan 2014

Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza

Theses and Dissertations

Muscle mechanical behavior potentially plays an important role in some of the most common bladder disorders. These include overactive bladder, which can involve involuntary contractions during bladder filling, and impaired contractility or underactive bladder, which may involve weak or incomplete contractions during voiding. Actin-myosin cross-bridges in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are responsible for contracting and emptying the bladder. The total tension produced by muscle is the sum of its preload and active tensions. Studies suggest that actin-myosin cross-links are involved in adjustable preload stiffness (APS), which is characterized by a preload tension curve that can be shifted along the length ...


Novel Technologies For The Detection And Mitigation Of Drowsy Driving, Samuel Lawoyin Jan 2014

Novel Technologies For The Detection And Mitigation Of Drowsy Driving, Samuel Lawoyin

Theses and Dissertations

In the human control of motor vehicles, there are situations regularly encountered wherein the vehicle operator becomes drowsy and fatigued due to the influence of long work days, long driving hours, or low amounts of sleep. Although various methods are currently proposed to detect drowsiness in the operator, they are either obtrusive, expensive, or otherwise impractical. The method of drowsy driving detection through the collection of Steering Wheel Movement (SWM) signals has become an important measure as it lends itself to accurate, effective, and cost-effective drowsiness detection. In this dissertation, novel technologies for drowsiness detection using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs ...