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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh Oct 2014

Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh

Open Access Dissertations

Hierarchical structural interactions between components of cell microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoplasm, nucleus and fluid, are important phenomena that decide cell level physiological process and tissue engineering applications. One of those tissue engineering modalities is freezing of biomaterials, important in a wide variety of biomedical applications including cryopreservation and cryosurgeries. In order to design these applications, freezing-induced changes of the cells and tissues and corresponding biophysical mechanisms need to be well understood. Although the effects of freezing on cells in suspension have been extensively studied, the intracellular mechanics of cells embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM) during freezing are ...


Development Of A Static Bioactive Stent Prototype And Dynamic Aneurysm-On-A-Chip(Tm) Model For The Treatment Of Aneurysms, Lisa M. Reece Oct 2014

Development Of A Static Bioactive Stent Prototype And Dynamic Aneurysm-On-A-Chip(Tm) Model For The Treatment Of Aneurysms, Lisa M. Reece

Open Access Dissertations

Aneurysms are pockets of blood that collect outside blood vessel walls forming dilatations and leaving arterial walls very prone to rupture. Current treatments include: (1) clipping, and (2) coil embolization, including stent-assisted coiling. While these procedures can be effective, it would be advantageous to design a biologically active stent, modified with magnetic stent coatings, allowing cells to be manipulated to heal the arterial lining. Further, velocity, pressure, and wall shear stresses aid in the disease development of aneurysmal growth, but the shear force mechanisms effecting wound closure is elusive. Due to these factors, there is a definite need to cultivate ...


Nanotechnology And Additive Manufacturing Platforms For Clinical Medicine: An Investigation Of 3d Printing Bioactive Constructs And Halloysite Nanotubes For Drug Delivery And Biomaterials, Jeffery A. Weisman Oct 2014

Nanotechnology And Additive Manufacturing Platforms For Clinical Medicine: An Investigation Of 3d Printing Bioactive Constructs And Halloysite Nanotubes For Drug Delivery And Biomaterials, Jeffery A. Weisman

Doctoral Dissertations

Personalized medicine requires the development of new technologies for controlled or targeted drug delivery. Three-dimensional (3D) printing and additive manufacturing techniques can be used to generate customized constructs for bioactive compound delivery. Nanotechnology in the form of nanoparticles, used as a stand-alone construct or for material enhancements, can significantly improve established biomaterials such as PMMA based bone cements or enable new technology to have enhanced capabilities. Combinations of the technologies can be used in such applications as infectious disease treatments, chemotherapeutic targeted drug delivery or targeted delivery of nearly any bioactive compound.

Chemotherapeutic or antibiotic enhanced 3D printing filaments were ...


Self-Assembly Of Gold Nanosphere Dimers By Inertial Force, George Andrew Christopher Sakhel Aug 2014

Self-Assembly Of Gold Nanosphere Dimers By Inertial Force, George Andrew Christopher Sakhel

Theses and Dissertations

The morphology and composition of a nanoparticle (NP) play a critical role in determining the NP's properties and function. To date, researchers have created a myriad of NPs of different shapes, sizes, and compositions with interesting attributes and applications ushering a revolution in medicine, electronics, microscopy, and microfluidics.

In this study, gold (Au) nanosphere dimers (NSDs) have been synthesized through a novel self-assembly method. These particles were created from Au NPs mono-dispersed in aqueous solution via a process of centrifugation and capping agent replacement. Au NSDs consist of two Au NPs combined together with minimal gaps between them. Optical ...


Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova Jul 2014

Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova

Doctoral Dissertations

This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for performing thermoelectric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic device. The feasibility of the thermoelectric ELISA is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in urine samples from amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. The detection method is based on formation of a complex between 8OHdG and anti-8OHdG capture antibody conjugated to biotin. The complex is immobilized over the measuring junctions of a thermopile via biotin streptavidin interaction. The concentration of the analyte is determined by using enzyme linked secondary IgG antibody specific to the primary one. The ...


Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia Jun 2014

Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing for quantitative analysis of chemical reactions and biological interactions has become one of the most promising applications of plasmonics. This thesis focuses on performance analysis for plasmonic sensors and implementation of plamonic optical sensors with novel nanofabrication techniques.

A universal performance analysis model is established for general two-dimensional plasmonic sensors. This model is based on the fundamental facts of surface plasmon theory. The sensitivity only depends on excitation light wavelength as well as dielectric properties of metal and dielectrics. The expression involves no structure-specified parameters, which validates this formula in broad cases of periodic, quasiperiodic ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes Jun 2014

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar Apr 2014

Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (WEFS) microscopy is developed as a non-invasive, label-free live cell imaging technique. This new high-contrast imaging can be employed to study the first hundred nanometers from the surface as it utilizes the evanescent field of a waveguide as the illumination source. Previously, waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy was developed as a fluorescence imaging technique comparable to the total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. Both the WEFF and WEFS technique utilizes the same fundamental concepts except in WEFS microscopy imaging is accomplished without the application of any fluorescent labeling. In this work, bacterial ...


Controlling Protein Release Using Biodegradable Microparticles, Benjamin Patrick Kline Apr 2014

Controlling Protein Release Using Biodegradable Microparticles, Benjamin Patrick Kline

Open Access Theses

Research in the field of protein therapeutics has exploded over the past decade and continues to grow in both academia and in industry. Protein drugs have advantages of being highly specific and highly active making them coveted targets for high profile disease states like cancer and multiple sclerosis. Unfortunately, their many advantages are complemented by their obstacles. Because proteins are highly active and highly specific, the window between efficacy and toxicity is very narrow and drug development can be long and arduous. In addition, protein activity is dependent on its specific folding conformation that is easily disrupted by a variety ...


Real-Time Single-Molecule Observations Of Proteins At The Solid-Liquid Interface, Blake Brianna Langdon Jan 2014

Real-Time Single-Molecule Observations Of Proteins At The Solid-Liquid Interface, Blake Brianna Langdon

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Non-specific protein adsorption to solid surfaces is pervasive and observed across a broad spectrum of applications including biomaterials, separations, pharmaceuticals, and biosensing. Despite great interest in and considerable literature dedicated to the phenomena, a mechanistic understanding of this complex phenomena is lacking and remains controversial, partially due to the limits of ensemble-averaging techniques used to study it. Single-molecule tracking (SMT) methods allow us to study distinct protein dynamics (e.g. adsorption, desorption, diffusion, and intermolecular associations) on a molecule-by-molecule basis revealing the protein population and spatial heterogeneity inherent in protein interfacial behavior. By employing single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy ...


Development And Application Of Biomimetic Electrospun Nanofibers In Total Joint Replacement, Wei Song Jan 2014

Development And Application Of Biomimetic Electrospun Nanofibers In Total Joint Replacement, Wei Song

Wayne State University Dissertations

Failure of osseointegration (direct anchorage of an implant by bone formation at the bone-implant surface) and implant infection (such as that caused by Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus) are the two main causes of implant failure and loosening. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. A better understanding of the key factors that influence cell fate decisions at the bone-implant interface is required. Our study is to develop a class of "bone-like" nanofibers (NFs) that promote osseointegration while preventing ...


The Application Of Graphene Films In Biosensing And Electrowetting, Xuebin Tan Jan 2014

The Application Of Graphene Films In Biosensing And Electrowetting, Xuebin Tan

Wayne State University Dissertations

In recent years, graphene has been found to possess extraordinary electronic, optical, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene is optically transparent and mechanically flexible, and has high electron mobility and conductivity. In this thesis, we propose to investigate graphene's properties in the detection of biomolecules as well as the manipulation of biological samples. Graphene without defects has high charge carrier mobility and surface areas, which is ideal for biosensors. However, literature shows a lot of variations in the measurements using graphene biosensors. In addition, the surface functionalization of graphene in order to enhance the specificity has not been fully investigated ...


Dendrimer Based Nanotherapeutics For Ocular Drug Delivery, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati Jan 2014

Dendrimer Based Nanotherapeutics For Ocular Drug Delivery, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati

Wayne State University Dissertations

PAMAM dendrimers are a class of well-defined, hyperbranched polymeric nanocarriers that are being investigated for ocular drug and gene delivery. Their favorable properties such as small size, multivalency and water solubility can provide significant opportunities for many biologically unstable drugs and allows potentially favorable ocular biodistribution. This work exploits hydroxyl terminated dendrimers (G4-OH) as drug/gene delivery vehicles that can target retinal microglia and pigment epithelium via systemic delivery with improved efficacy at much lower concentrations without any side effects.

Two different drugs Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) conjugated to G4-OH dendrimers showed tailorable sustained release in physiological ...


Fabrication Of Drug Eluting Ti Implants For Dental/Orthopedic Applications, Azhang Hamlekhan Jan 2014

Fabrication Of Drug Eluting Ti Implants For Dental/Orthopedic Applications, Azhang Hamlekhan

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Titanium and its alloys are typically used for fabrication of dental and orthopedic implants as they possess various desirable properties including biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In spite of such benefits, titanium implants show lack of osseointegration after surgery in minor cases. The objective of this research has been to modify the surface of titanium alloy for medical applications through increasing surface hydrophilicity and drug loading. Primarily, anodization method is employed for fabrication of nanotubes on titanium surface to act as anchoring cite for cells.

Considering the key role of surface hydrophilicity on cellular attachment to the surface and subsequent biological ...