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Theses/Dissertations

2014

Mechanical Engineering

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

On The Application Of Mechanical Vibration In Robotics-Assisted Soft Tissue Intervention, Iman Khalaji Dec 2014

On The Application Of Mechanical Vibration In Robotics-Assisted Soft Tissue Intervention, Iman Khalaji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mechanical vibration as a way of transmitting energy has been an interesting subject to study. While cyclic oscillation is usually associated with fatigue effect, and hence a detrimental factor in failure of structures and machineries, by controlled transmission of vibration, energy can be transferred from the source to the target. In this thesis, the application of such mechanical vibration in a few surgical procedures is demonstrated.

Three challenges associated with lung cancer diagnosis and treatment are chosen for this purpose, namely, Motion Compensation, tumor targeting in lung Needle Insertion and Soft Tissue Dissection:

  1. A robotic solution is proposed for compensating ...


Design Of A Haptic Interface For Medical Applications Using Magneto-Rheological Fluid Based Actuators, Nima Najmaei Dec 2014

Design Of A Haptic Interface For Medical Applications Using Magneto-Rheological Fluid Based Actuators, Nima Najmaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis reports on the design, construction, and evaluation of a prototype two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) haptic interface, which takes advantage of Magneto-Rheological Fluid (MRF) based clutches for actuation. Haptic information provides important cues in teleoperated systems and enables the user to feel the interaction with a remote or virtual environment during teleoperation. The two main objectives in designing a haptic interface are stability and transparency. Indeed, deficiencies in these factors in haptics-enabled telerobotic systems has the introduction of haptics in medical environments where safety and reliability are prime considerations. An actuator with poor dynamics, high inertia, large size, and heavy ...


Designing A Biomimetic Testing Platform For Actuators In A Series-Elastic Co-Contraction System, Ryan Tyler Schroeder Dec 2014

Designing A Biomimetic Testing Platform For Actuators In A Series-Elastic Co-Contraction System, Ryan Tyler Schroeder

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Actuators determine the performance of robotic systems at the most intimate of levels. As a result, much work has been done to assess the performance of different actuator systems. However, biomimetics has not previously been utilized as a pretext for tuning a series elastic actuator system with the purpose of designing an empirical testing platform. Thus, an artificial muscle tendon system has been developed in order to assess the performance of two distinct actuator types: (1) direct current electromagnetic motors and (2) ultrasonic rotary piezoelectric motors. Because the design of the system takes advantage of biomimetic operating principles such as ...


Induction Of Differentiation Of Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Dpsc), Aubrey Young Dec 2014

Induction Of Differentiation Of Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Dpsc), Aubrey Young

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mesenchymal stem cells are derived from a variety of human tissues and are being bioengineered and studied for possible uses in the advancement of medicine. Recent efforts are being focused on Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC's) due to the accessibility of this tissue. Many factors influence DPSC quality and quantity, including the specific methods used to isolate, collect, concentrate, and store these isolates once they are removed. Ancillary factors, such as the choice of media, the selection of early versus late passage cells, and cryopreservation techniques may also influence the differentiation potential and proliferative capacity of DPSC isolates.

The ...


Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen Oct 2014

Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen

Open Access Dissertations

Despite advancement in the field of robotics, current legged robots still cannot achieve the kind of locomotion stability animals and humans have. In order to develop legged robots with greater stability, we need to better understand general locomotion dynamics and control principles. Here we demonstrate that a mathematical modeling approach could greatly enable the discovery and understanding of general locomotion principles. ^ It is found that animal leg stiffness when scaled by its weight and leg length falls in a narrow region between 7 and 27. Rarely in biology does such a universal preference exist. It is not known completely why ...


Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park Oct 2014

Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park

Open Access Dissertations

Tissue engineering is a promising technology that enables scientists to create artificial organs or replace damaged tissues using animal cells and other components. For successful tissue regeneration, many factors should be taken into account, however, three components are most crucial: cell, scaffold, and soluble factor(s). In order to check the functionality after regeneration of desired tissues, various approaches have been attempted, depending on the physical, biological, and chemical properties of the tissues. Recently, the importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure is being considered to be important in this regard. The ECM is closely associated with various functional properties ...


Effects Of Hip And Ankle Moments On Running Stability: Simulation Of A Simplified Model, Rubin C. Cholera Oct 2014

Effects Of Hip And Ankle Moments On Running Stability: Simulation Of A Simplified Model, Rubin C. Cholera

Open Access Theses

In human running, the ankle, knee, and hip moments are known to play different roles to influence the dynamics of locomotion. A recent study of hip moments and several hip-based legged robots have revealed that hip actuation can significantly improve the stability of locomotion, whether controlled or uncontrolled. Ankle moments are expected to also significantly affect running stability, but in a different way than hip moments. Here we seek to advance the current theory of dynamic running and associated legged robots by determining how simple open-loop ankle moments could affect running stability. We simulate a dynamical model, and compare it ...


Effect Of Junction Geometry On Monodispersed Microdroplet Generation In Microfluidic Aqueous Two-Phase Systems, Young Gyu Nam Aug 2014

Effect Of Junction Geometry On Monodispersed Microdroplet Generation In Microfluidic Aqueous Two-Phase Systems, Young Gyu Nam

Theses and Dissertations

Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consists of two immiscible water-based solutions of polymers, which can form phase partitioning. Dextran and polyethylene glycol I used in this thesis is the one of common components of aqueous two-phase system give a reliable and incompatible environment for purification of biomedical products and cellular macromolecules. Recently, ATPS have received increasing attention as a separation method in microfluidic device due to the advantages of biocompatibility, unlimited combination, and low interfacial tension. Hence, it became an important to discover researches related to ATPS microfluidic device.

Microdroplets produced in microfluidic device are a largely interesting phenomenon for various ...


Cfd Simulation Of The Thermal Performance Of A Parallel Counter-Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger For The Treatment Of Hypothermia, Alex Heller Aug 2014

Cfd Simulation Of The Thermal Performance Of A Parallel Counter-Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger For The Treatment Of Hypothermia, Alex Heller

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Hypothermia is a life-threatening condition. Currently, active warming methods are the most effective treatment for dysthermic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in evaluating the thermal performance of a parallel/counter-parallel flow heat exchanger used as part of a fluid warmer to treat Hypothermia. The 3D model of the heat exchanger is divided into three regions; Infusate (fluid to be heated), Hot Water (heating fluid), and a Solid Region (wall). At the end of the heat exchanger, an elbow section is used to create the counter-parallel flow arrangement specific to ...


Implementation Of Analytical Fatigue Models Into Opensim To Predict The Effects Of Fatigue On Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading, Michael A. Samann Jul 2014

Implementation Of Analytical Fatigue Models Into Opensim To Predict The Effects Of Fatigue On Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading, Michael A. Samann

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides stability to the knee joint while performing activities such as a side step cut. Neuromuscular fatigue, a reduction in muscle force producing capabilities, alters lower extremity mechanics while performing a side step cut and may increase the risk of ACL injury, particularly in females. Musculoskeletal modeling allows for the measurement of muscle forces, which are difficult to measure in-vivo. Therefore, musculoskeletal modeling, may improve our understanding of the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on muscle force production and loading of the ACL. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal model which ...


2d Wireform Process Improvement, Katy Conlin, Carlo Ebora, Jordan Gamble Jun 2014

2d Wireform Process Improvement, Katy Conlin, Carlo Ebora, Jordan Gamble

Mechanical Engineering

The body of this work has been created for Edwards Lifesciences in conjunction with senior project requirements. As such, the information produced and contained within is under a non‐disclosure agreement. As per request by sponsor, the body of the work will not be submitted to any outside parties, and the title page will serve as proof of completion.


Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young May 2014

Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, the modeling, analysis and control of a multi-degree of freedom (mdof) robotic fluoroscope was investigated. A prototype robotic fluoroscope exists, and consists of a 3 dof mobile platform with two 2 dof Cartesian manipulators mounted symmetrically on opposite sides of the platform. One Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray generator and the other Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray imaging device. The robotic fluoroscope is used to x-ray skeletal joints of interest of human subjects performing natural movement activities. In order to collect the data, the Cartesian manipulators must keep the x-ray generation and imaging devices accurately aligned while ...


Subtalar Fusion Fixture Design And Test, Nathan Ortiz Apr 2014

Subtalar Fusion Fixture Design And Test, Nathan Ortiz

Honors Theses

Subtalar arthrodesis is performed when cartilage in the talo-calcaneal (the ankle) joint is degraded in a patient and there are multiple approaches to this surgery. Using synthetic bone material, fixtures were cast from aluminum, using the process of evaporation pattern casting, and epoxy. This casting was used to grip the calcaneus bone of the foot in order to load it mechanically, simulating different scenarios that would be encountered during walking. The relative displacement of the ankle joint was measured using a digital image correlation (DIC) program that was modified to work in both two- and three-dimensional space. This program can ...


Hand Prosthesis, Tru Nguyen, Aaron Delano, Kyle M. Green, Jorge Maderal, Cody Poland Apr 2014

Hand Prosthesis, Tru Nguyen, Aaron Delano, Kyle M. Green, Jorge Maderal, Cody Poland

Thinking Matters Symposium

This project deals with engineering students’ prosthetic hand design, submitted to the University of Southern Maine’s engineering department. The primary goal of the prosthetic hand design is to allow an impaired individual to grasp and hold everyday objects ranging from a toothbrush to a jug of milk. The project consists of three teams each designing their respective portion of the prosthetic device. The teams will deal with three specific design areas; computer aided design of the mechanism, electronic integration, and manufacturing implementation. The design team turns notebook doodles into virtual models in SolidWorks. The electronics team will control a ...


Quantification Of Transhumeral Prosthetic Socket Residual Limb Interface Movement Using Motion Capture And A Slip Detection Sensor, Matthew Wernke Jan 2014

Quantification Of Transhumeral Prosthetic Socket Residual Limb Interface Movement Using Motion Capture And A Slip Detection Sensor, Matthew Wernke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current literature focusing on the prosthetic socket is limited by measurement techniques and modeling assumptions, leading to a limited understanding of the forces and motions occurring between the residual limb and prosthesis and how they can be used to influence socket design and fitting. Prosthetic socket fitting and prescription would benefit from an elegant method for comparing socket designs. This dissertation focuses on the development and implementation of a 3D motion capture model and a Slip Detection Sensor to quantify rotations and translations at the prosthetic socket-residual limb interface. The 3D motion capture model defines the residual limb bone position ...


On The Generalization Of Decision-Making Preferences In Movement Under Risk, Megan Kathleen O'Brien Jan 2014

On The Generalization Of Decision-Making Preferences In Movement Under Risk, Megan Kathleen O'Brien

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Nearly every aspect of our behavior is framed by risk, and people can respond to risk very differently. Some individuals readily confront highly variable situations in order to obtain large rewards (risk-seeking behavior), while others prefer more certain situations even if it means obtaining smaller rewards (risk-averse behavior).

At present, the role that risk plays in movement decisions is poorly understood. This dissertation investigates human movement decisions under risk, exploring the rationality of movement behavior in risky constructs and whether sensitivity to risk generalizes across movements. In the first study, I compared risk-sensitivity between two continuous motor tasks (arm-reaching and ...


Optically Active Plasmonic Microbubbles, Jacob Dove Jan 2014

Optically Active Plasmonic Microbubbles, Jacob Dove

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Contrast agents are used across a variety of medical imaging modalities for improved visualization of structures in the body. Microbubbles, for example, efficiently scatter ultrasound thereby providing enhanced ultrasonic imaging of the vasculature. Plasmonic nanoparticles, on the other hand, are efficient optical absorbers and can provide improvements in optical and photoacoustic imaging.

The focus of this thesis is on the development of novel contrast agents capable of enhancing both ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging modalities. The first agent is constructed by templating nanoparticles onto a lipid-encapsulated microbubble with a perfluorocarbon gas core. Using an avidin-biotin conjugation scheme, control over the nanoparticle ...


Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza Jan 2014

Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza

Theses and Dissertations

Muscle mechanical behavior potentially plays an important role in some of the most common bladder disorders. These include overactive bladder, which can involve involuntary contractions during bladder filling, and impaired contractility or underactive bladder, which may involve weak or incomplete contractions during voiding. Actin-myosin cross-bridges in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are responsible for contracting and emptying the bladder. The total tension produced by muscle is the sum of its preload and active tensions. Studies suggest that actin-myosin cross-links are involved in adjustable preload stiffness (APS), which is characterized by a preload tension curve that can be shifted along the length ...


Design Of A Passive Exoskeleton Spine, Haohan Zhang Jan 2014

Design Of A Passive Exoskeleton Spine, Haohan Zhang

Masters Theses

ABSTRACT

DESIGN OF A PASSIVE EXOSKELETON SPINE

SEPTEMBER 2014

HAOHAN ZHANG, B.E.M.E, DALIAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

M.S.M.E., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Directed by: Professor Frank C. Sup IV

In this thesis, a passive exoskeleton spine was designed and evaluated by a series of biomechanics simulations. The design objectives were to reduce the human operator’s back muscle efforts and the intervertebral reaction torques during a full range sagittal plane spine flexion/extension. The biomechanics simulations were performed using the OpenSim modeling environment. To manipulate the simulations, a full body musculoskeletal model was created based ...


Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume Jan 2014

Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume

Masters Theses

An ongoing debate concerning Neandertal ecology is whether or not they utilized long range weaponry. The anteroposteriorly expanded cross-section of Neandertal humeri have led some to argue they thrusted their weapons, while the rounder cross-section of Late Upper Paleolithic modern human humeri suggests they threw their weapons. We test the hypothesis that Neandertal humeri were built to resist strains engendered by thrusting rather than throwing using finite element models of one Neandertal, one Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) human and three recent human humeri, representing a range of cross-sectional shapes and sizes. Electromyography and kinematic data and articulated skeletons were used ...


Neuromodulation Based Control Of Autonomous Robots On A Cloud Computing Platform, Cameron Muhammad Jan 2014

Neuromodulation Based Control Of Autonomous Robots On A Cloud Computing Platform, Cameron Muhammad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, the advancement of neurobiologically plausible models and computer networking has resulted in new ways of implementing control systems on robotic platforms. The work presents a control approach based on vertebrate neuromodulation and its implementation on autonomous robots in the open-source, open-access environment of robot operating system (ROS). A spiking neural network (SNN) is used to model the neuromodulatory function for generating context based behavioral responses of the robots to sensory input signals. The neural network incorporates three types of neurons- cholinergic and noradrenergic (ACh/NE) neurons for attention focusing and action selection, dopaminergic (DA) neurons for rewards- ...


High-Performance Accelerometer Based On Asymmetric Gapped Cantilevers For Physiological Acoustic Sensing, Yating Hu Jan 2014

High-Performance Accelerometer Based On Asymmetric Gapped Cantilevers For Physiological Acoustic Sensing, Yating Hu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Continuous or mobile monitoring of physiological sounds is expected to play important role in the emerging mobile healthcare field. Because of the miniature size, low cost, and easy installation, accelerometer is an excellent choice for continuous physiological acoustic signal monitoring. However, in order to capture the detailed information in the physiological signals for clinical diagnostic purpose, there are more demanding requirements on the sensitivity/noise performance of accelerometers. In this thesis, a unique piezoelectric accelerometer based on the asymmetric gapped cantilever which exhibits significantly improved sensitivity is extensively studied. A meso-scale prototype is developed for capturing the high quality cardio ...


Changes In The Ultrastructural Features Of Estrogen Deficient Ovine Bone, Peter Mauer Jan 2014

Changes In The Ultrastructural Features Of Estrogen Deficient Ovine Bone, Peter Mauer

PhD theses

Osteoporosis is “a skeletal disorder characterised by compromised bone strength predis- posing to an increased risk of fracture” (NIH, 2001). Every second woman and every fifth man will suffer an osteoporotic fracture (Kanis et al., 2000). Of all people that suffer an age-related fracture, the current gold standard of osteoporosis diagnosis, DEXA scanning, misclassifies 80% of them to be non-osteoporotic (Sanders et al., 2006). Bone quantity is easily measured, however, bone strength is an interplay of bone quantity and quality — and the latter is hard to determine. More reliable clinical methods to diagnose osteoporosis are needed as well as widening ...


A Backing Device Based On An Embedded Stiffener And Retractable Insertion Tool For Thin-Film Cochlear Arrays, Radheshyam Tewari Jan 2014

A Backing Device Based On An Embedded Stiffener And Retractable Insertion Tool For Thin-Film Cochlear Arrays, Radheshyam Tewari

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Intracochlear trauma from surgical insertion of bulky electrode arrays and inadequate pitch perception are areas of concern with current hand-assembled commercial cochlear implants. Parylene thin-film arrays with higher electrode densities and lower profiles are a potential solution, but lack rigidity and hence depend on manually fabricated permanently attached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) tubing based bulky backing devices. As a solution, we investigated a new backing device with two sub-systems. The first sub-system is a thin poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stiffener that will be embedded in the parylene array. The second sub-system is an attaching and detaching mechanism, utilizing a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone ...