Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

2014

Biomechanics and Biotransport

Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen Oct 2014

Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen

Open Access Dissertations

Despite advancement in the field of robotics, current legged robots still cannot achieve the kind of locomotion stability animals and humans have. In order to develop legged robots with greater stability, we need to better understand general locomotion dynamics and control principles. Here we demonstrate that a mathematical modeling approach could greatly enable the discovery and understanding of general locomotion principles. ^ It is found that animal leg stiffness when scaled by its weight and leg length falls in a narrow region between 7 and 27. Rarely in biology does such a universal preference exist. It is not known completely why ...


Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li Oct 2014

Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li

Open Access Dissertations

We develop a theory for encounter rates in a three-dimensional system of connected compartments. The model of connected compartments exhibits the length-scale dependent diffusion that is observed in many heterogeneous environments, such as porous catalysts and biological environments. We discovered a dimensionless number that is the dominant scaling variable and obtained, for the first time, an analytical expression for the encounter rate. The new theory generalizes the classic Smoluchowski diffusion limit to the case of heterogeneous environments. The new theory is tested using Brownian dynamics simulations.^ We also experimentally investigated the behavior of multivalent electrolyte near a charged solid-liquid interface ...


Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson Oct 2014

Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson

Open Access Dissertations

The nucleus is a membrane bound organelle and regulation center for gene expression in the cell. Mechanical forces transfer to the nucleus directly and indirectly through specific cellular cytoskeletal structures and pathways. There is increasing evidence that the transferred forces to the nucleus orchestrate gene expression activity. Methods to characterize nuclear mechanics typically study isolated cells or cells embedded in 3D gel matrices. Often report only aspect ratio and volume changes, measures that oversimplify the inherent complexity of internal strain patterns. This presents technical challenges to simultaneously observe small scale nuclear mechanics and gene expression levels inside the nuclei of ...


Effects Of Hip And Ankle Moments On Running Stability: Simulation Of A Simplified Model, Rubin C. Cholera Oct 2014

Effects Of Hip And Ankle Moments On Running Stability: Simulation Of A Simplified Model, Rubin C. Cholera

Open Access Theses

In human running, the ankle, knee, and hip moments are known to play different roles to influence the dynamics of locomotion. A recent study of hip moments and several hip-based legged robots have revealed that hip actuation can significantly improve the stability of locomotion, whether controlled or uncontrolled. Ankle moments are expected to also significantly affect running stability, but in a different way than hip moments. Here we seek to advance the current theory of dynamic running and associated legged robots by determining how simple open-loop ankle moments could affect running stability. We simulate a dynamical model, and compare it ...


Principle Of Bio-Inspired Insect Wing Rotational Hinge Design, Fan Fei Oct 2014

Principle Of Bio-Inspired Insect Wing Rotational Hinge Design, Fan Fei

Open Access Theses

A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is ...


Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo Sep 2014

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is the third most common joint replacement. While robot-assisted hip and knee replacement technologies have enjoyed extensive development, this has been limited in the upper limb. This work focused on quantifying the localization accuracy of a robotic system, and evaluating its efficacy in the context of TSA.

A collaborative robot was fitted with a stylus tip to perform manual surface digitizations using the robot’s encoder output. In the first experiment, two precision-machined master cubes, representing the working volume around a glenoid structure, were used for system validation. Next, cadaveric glenoids were digitized and compared to ...


The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari Sep 2014

The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract:

The Effect of Fixation Plate Length on Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation for the Repair of in Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries

Introduction: Anterior cervical decompression and fusion with a plate (ACDFP) is a commonly performed treatment following a traumatic injury to the subaxial cervical spine. The purpose of the presented work was to determine the biomechanical effect of plate length on cervical spine kinematic stability following ACDFP stabilization for a simulated traumatic injury.

Methods: Eleven fresh-frozen cadaveric C5-C6 and C6-C7 motion segments were examined in this study. To assess kinematics, flexibility testing was performed on each specimen using ...


Design And Assessment Of An Experimental Test Setup For Use In Studies On The Vibrational Response Of The Head To Impact, Claudia M. Blandford Aug 2014

Design And Assessment Of An Experimental Test Setup For Use In Studies On The Vibrational Response Of The Head To Impact, Claudia M. Blandford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With the mortality, disability and socioeconomic costs associated with head injury, head impact biomechanics is important to developing injury criterions and safety tolerances. However, the current state of knowledge is contradictory and vague. This thesis will contribute to research done on the vibrational response of the head to impact by discussing two studies. The first will describe the design, implementation and validation of a head impactor setup specific for the study of the frequency response of the skull. An impactor capable of producing sub-5ms duration, sub-fracture impacts was successfully designed. The apparatus was validated by comparing the results of a ...


Mechanical Failure Of Chorioamnion And Cervical Tissue: Contributions To Preterm And Term Birth, Brandi Nicole Briggs Jul 2014

Mechanical Failure Of Chorioamnion And Cervical Tissue: Contributions To Preterm And Term Birth, Brandi Nicole Briggs

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Despite significant advances in medical research, spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) rates have not changed appreciably in over 100 years. SPTB is a global problem affecting 13 million babies annually and continues to be the leading cause of death among infants. During pregnancy, the cervix and chorioamnion (CA), the sac that surrounds the fetus during pregnancy, provide critical structural support for the growing fetus that requires optimum maintenance of tissue properties for sustaining pregnancy. This dissertation aims to elucidate the events leading to tissue failure in pregnancy by evaluating detrimental alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) chemistry and organization and tissue ...


Dynamic Simulations And Data Mining Of Single-Leg Jump Landing: Implications For Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention, Kristin Denise Morgan May 2014

Dynamic Simulations And Data Mining Of Single-Leg Jump Landing: Implications For Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention, Kristin Denise Morgan

Doctoral Dissertations

It is estimated that 400,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in the United States each year with the cost of ACL reconstruction surgery and rehabilitation exceeding $1 billion annually. The majority of ACL injuries are non-contact injuries occurring during cutting and jump landing movements. Because the majority of the injuries are non-contact injuries there is the potential to develop programs to reduce the risk of injury. Given our understanding of the joint kinematics and kinetics that place an individual at high risk for ACL, researchers have developed neuromuscular training programs that focus on improving muscle function in order ...


Development Of Biomechanical Analysis Techniques For Fatigue Of Transtibial Prosthetic Socket And Pylon Interactions, Thomas Z. Sudbury May 2014

Development Of Biomechanical Analysis Techniques For Fatigue Of Transtibial Prosthetic Socket And Pylon Interactions, Thomas Z. Sudbury

Honors Theses

The lack of formal, engineering based information is prevalent in the prosthetic industry. Currently, very few prosthetic manufacturing companies can definitively tell their patients how long their products will last. Because of this lack of information, many amputee patients will experience failure of their transtibial prosthetic device during daily activities. One such failure occurs from the fatigue of everyday use. Fatigue failures originate from the repeated application of certain loading conditions. These repeated loads usually occur for millions of cycles before a transtibial prosthetic catastrophically fails. The purpose of this study is to develop a testing procedure and apparatus that ...


The Development And Application Of A Forearm Simulator To Investigate Radial Head Biomechanics, Brent A. Lanting Apr 2014

The Development And Application Of A Forearm Simulator To Investigate Radial Head Biomechanics, Brent A. Lanting

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The forearm is a complex articular unit, with poorly understood biomechanics. A novel forearm simulator to facilitate physiologic testing of cadavers for multiple clinical scenarios was designed, manufactured and validated. A number of outcome measurements were potentiated including the forearm’s resistance to rotation, radiocapitellar contact pressure and area as well as IOM loads. Testing of changes to forearm biomechanics due to radial head excision and variations of radial head arthroplasty dimensions was conducted. Radial head arthroplasty using the correct radial head length and diameter recreated the biomechanics of an intact forearm. Radial head excision as well an implant of ...


Computational Techniques To Predict Orthopaedic Implant Alignment And Fit In Bone, Seyed Kamaleddin Mostafavi Yazdi Apr 2014

Computational Techniques To Predict Orthopaedic Implant Alignment And Fit In Bone, Seyed Kamaleddin Mostafavi Yazdi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Among the broad palette of surgical techniques employed in the current orthopaedic practice, joint replacement represents one of the most difficult and costliest surgical procedures. While numerous recent advances suggest that computer assistance can dramatically improve the precision and long term outcomes of joint arthroplasty even in the hands of experienced surgeons, many of the joint replacement protocols continue to rely almost exclusively on an empirical basis that often entail a succession of trial and error maneuvers that can only be performed intraoperatively. Although the surgeon is generally unable to accurately and reliably predict a priori what the final malalignment ...


Biomechanical Investigations Of Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Gait Analysis, Materials Testing And Dynamic Radiography, Kristyn Leitch Apr 2014

Biomechanical Investigations Of Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Gait Analysis, Materials Testing And Dynamic Radiography, Kristyn Leitch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis aimed to develop and assess biomechanical methods to assist in the evaluation of medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Five studies using diverse methods were performed, including three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis, materials testing of HTO fixation plates, and dynamic radiography in patients after surgery. Study 1 compared external knee joint moments during walking before and after varus or valgus producing osteotomy in patients with lateral or medial compartment osteoarthritis, and in healthy participants. The results highlighted the importance of alignment on gait biomechanics with changes in frontal plane angular impulse highly correlated to changes in mechanical axis ...


Subtalar Fusion Fixture Design And Test, Nathan Ortiz Apr 2014

Subtalar Fusion Fixture Design And Test, Nathan Ortiz

Honors Theses

Subtalar arthrodesis is performed when cartilage in the talo-calcaneal (the ankle) joint is degraded in a patient and there are multiple approaches to this surgery. Using synthetic bone material, fixtures were cast from aluminum, using the process of evaporation pattern casting, and epoxy. This casting was used to grip the calcaneus bone of the foot in order to load it mechanically, simulating different scenarios that would be encountered during walking. The relative displacement of the ankle joint was measured using a digital image correlation (DIC) program that was modified to work in both two- and three-dimensional space. This program can ...


Development Of An In-Vitro Passive And Active Motion Simulator For The Investigation Of Shoulder Function And Kinematics, Joshua W. Giles Apr 2014

Development Of An In-Vitro Passive And Active Motion Simulator For The Investigation Of Shoulder Function And Kinematics, Joshua W. Giles

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Injuries and degenerative diseases of the shoulder are common and may relate to the joint’s complex biomechanics, which rely primarily on soft tissues to achieve stability. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, there is little information about their effects on the biomechanics of the shoulder, and a lack of evidence with which to guide clinical practice. Insight into these disorders and their treatments can be gained through in-vitro biomechanical experiments where the achieved physiologic accuracy and repeatability directly influence their efficacy and impact.

This work’s rationale was that developing a simulator with greater physiologic accuracy and testing capabilities ...


Developing An Embedded System Solution For High-Speed, High-Capacity Data Logging For A Size-Constrained, Low-Power Biomechanical Telemetry System And Investigating Components For Optimal Performance, Brandon Blaine Gardner Apr 2014

Developing An Embedded System Solution For High-Speed, High-Capacity Data Logging For A Size-Constrained, Low-Power Biomechanical Telemetry System And Investigating Components For Optimal Performance, Brandon Blaine Gardner

Open Access Theses

The Purdue Neurotrauma Group (PNG) seeks to develop a biomechanical telemetry system capable of monitoring and storing athletes' head motions with the intention of identifying when a player may be at risk of neurophysiological damage, especially brain damage. A number of commercially-available systems exist with a similar goal; however, each of these systems discards information below an acceleration threshold. Research by PNG indicates that any acceleration may contribute to brain damage and that, because of this, an event-based model is insufficient for a proper understanding of an athlete's neurophysiological health. Continuous-time monitoring of head accelerations is therefore necessary. To ...


Characteristics Of Fibrous Tissue At High Rates Of Tensile Loading, Benjamin J. Claus Apr 2014

Characteristics Of Fibrous Tissue At High Rates Of Tensile Loading, Benjamin J. Claus

Open Access Theses

The mechanical behavior of fibrous tissue is generally characterized at very low strain rates. However, many injuries occur at high rates of loading, such as those encountered in sporting events or vehicle accidents. An understanding of injury behavior requires the injury process to be recorded at high strain rates. Even at low rates of loading, the injury/failure within tissues occurs quickly. Furthermore, using conventional imaging systems, the surface of a specimen may be well documented throughout an experiment. However, damage formation does not necessarily begin at the surface of the specimen or even on the surface exposed to a ...


Biomechanics And Relaxivity For Functional Imaging Of Articular Cartilage Injury And Degradation, Kateri Elizabeth Fites Apr 2014

Biomechanics And Relaxivity For Functional Imaging Of Articular Cartilage Injury And Degradation, Kateri Elizabeth Fites

Open Access Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major debilitating health concern and economic burden worldwide, affecting 27 million people in the United States alone. OA often follows tissue injury, and is marked by changes in the structure and biomechanical function of cartilage, including breakdown of extracellular matrix molecules, loss of bulk tissue stiffness, and increase in articular surface friction and wear. Unlike bone and many other tissues, cartilage lacks an intrinsic capacity for regeneration. Advanced OA is typically diagnosed by patient symptoms (e.g. joint pain) and confirmed by radiographic evaluation of joint space narrowing. However, the application of functional imaging to assess ...


Developing A Hardware Platform For A Low-Power, Low-Cost, Size-Constrained Biomechanical Telemetry System, Aditya Balasubramanian Apr 2014

Developing A Hardware Platform For A Low-Power, Low-Cost, Size-Constrained Biomechanical Telemetry System, Aditya Balasubramanian

Open Access Theses

As sport-related traumatic brain injuries face increasing attention from the media and the general public, the need to be able to detect brain injury quickly, inexpensively and accurately is more important than ever. Commercially-available event-based systems exist that claim to achieve this goal; however, they collect little to no continuous-time data and primarily indicate when a pre-determined acceleration threshold has been exceeded under the unvalidated assumption that a potentially concussive blow has occurred. Recent findings by the Purdue Neurotrauma Group (PNG) have indicated that repeated exposure to both concussive and subconcussive blows can result in cumulative trauma disorder. To track ...


Hand Prosthesis, Tru Nguyen, Aaron Delano, Kyle M. Green, Jorge Maderal, Cody Poland Apr 2014

Hand Prosthesis, Tru Nguyen, Aaron Delano, Kyle M. Green, Jorge Maderal, Cody Poland

Thinking Matters Symposium

This project deals with engineering students’ prosthetic hand design, submitted to the University of Southern Maine’s engineering department. The primary goal of the prosthetic hand design is to allow an impaired individual to grasp and hold everyday objects ranging from a toothbrush to a jug of milk. The project consists of three teams each designing their respective portion of the prosthetic device. The teams will deal with three specific design areas; computer aided design of the mechanism, electronic integration, and manufacturing implementation. The design team turns notebook doodles into virtual models in SolidWorks. The electronics team will control a ...


Changes In The Ultrastructural Features Of Estrogen Deficient Ovine Bone, Peter Mauer Jan 2014

Changes In The Ultrastructural Features Of Estrogen Deficient Ovine Bone, Peter Mauer

PhD theses

Osteoporosis is “a skeletal disorder characterised by compromised bone strength predis- posing to an increased risk of fracture” (NIH, 2001). Every second woman and every fifth man will suffer an osteoporotic fracture (Kanis et al., 2000). Of all people that suffer an age-related fracture, the current gold standard of osteoporosis diagnosis, DEXA scanning, misclassifies 80% of them to be non-osteoporotic (Sanders et al., 2006). Bone quantity is easily measured, however, bone strength is an interplay of bone quantity and quality — and the latter is hard to determine. More reliable clinical methods to diagnose osteoporosis are needed as well as widening ...


On The Generalization Of Decision-Making Preferences In Movement Under Risk, Megan Kathleen O'Brien Jan 2014

On The Generalization Of Decision-Making Preferences In Movement Under Risk, Megan Kathleen O'Brien

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Nearly every aspect of our behavior is framed by risk, and people can respond to risk very differently. Some individuals readily confront highly variable situations in order to obtain large rewards (risk-seeking behavior), while others prefer more certain situations even if it means obtaining smaller rewards (risk-averse behavior).

At present, the role that risk plays in movement decisions is poorly understood. This dissertation investigates human movement decisions under risk, exploring the rationality of movement behavior in risky constructs and whether sensitivity to risk generalizes across movements. In the first study, I compared risk-sensitivity between two continuous motor tasks (arm-reaching and ...


Relationships Of Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment With Measures Of Bone Microarchitecture And Mechanical Competence, Jonathan Joseph Ward Jan 2014

Relationships Of Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment With Measures Of Bone Microarchitecture And Mechanical Competence, Jonathan Joseph Ward

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Oral bisphosphonate drug therapy is a common and effective treatment for osteoporosis. Little is known about the long-term effects of bisphosphonates on bone quality. This study examined the structural and mechanical properties of trabecular bone following 0-16 years of bisphosphonate treatment. Fifty-three iliac crest bone samples of Caucasian women diagnosed with low turnover osteoporosis were identified from the Kentucky Bone Registry. Forty-five were treated with oral bisphosphonates for 1 to 16 years while eight were treatment naive. A section of trabecular bone was chosen from a micro-computed tomography (Scanco µCT 40) scan of each sample for a uniaxial linearly elastic ...


Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza Jan 2014

Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza

Theses and Dissertations

Muscle mechanical behavior potentially plays an important role in some of the most common bladder disorders. These include overactive bladder, which can involve involuntary contractions during bladder filling, and impaired contractility or underactive bladder, which may involve weak or incomplete contractions during voiding. Actin-myosin cross-bridges in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are responsible for contracting and emptying the bladder. The total tension produced by muscle is the sum of its preload and active tensions. Studies suggest that actin-myosin cross-links are involved in adjustable preload stiffness (APS), which is characterized by a preload tension curve that can be shifted along the length ...


Design And Validation Of A Computational Model For Study Of Scapholunate Joint Kinematics, Edward J. Tremols Jan 2014

Design And Validation Of A Computational Model For Study Of Scapholunate Joint Kinematics, Edward J. Tremols

Theses and Dissertations

As computational power has increased, computational modeling has become a very promising tool to model the biomechanics of complex joint systems. Musculoskeletal computational models have become more complex when compared to original iterations which utilized a number of simplifications. This thesis utilized a three-dimensional computational model of the wrist joint structure to investigate scapholunate kinematics. The model accurately represented the bony anatomy of the wrist and hand and represented soft tissue structures such as ligaments, tendons, and other surrounding tissues. Creation of the model was done using commercially available computer-aided design and medical image processing software, and utilized the rigid ...


Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume Jan 2014

Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume

Masters Theses

An ongoing debate concerning Neandertal ecology is whether or not they utilized long range weaponry. The anteroposteriorly expanded cross-section of Neandertal humeri have led some to argue they thrusted their weapons, while the rounder cross-section of Late Upper Paleolithic modern human humeri suggests they threw their weapons. We test the hypothesis that Neandertal humeri were built to resist strains engendered by thrusting rather than throwing using finite element models of one Neandertal, one Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) human and three recent human humeri, representing a range of cross-sectional shapes and sizes. Electromyography and kinematic data and articulated skeletons were used ...