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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Biomechanical Evaluation Of An Optical System For Quantitative Human Motion Analysis, Jeffrey D. Kertis Oct 2012

Biomechanical Evaluation Of An Optical System For Quantitative Human Motion Analysis, Jeffrey D. Kertis

Master's Theses (2009 -)

An eight-camera Optitrack motion capture system was evaluated by performing static, linear dynamic, and angular dynamic calibrations using marker distances associated with upper and lower extremity gait and wheelchair models. Data were analyzed to determine accuracy and resolution within a defined capture volume using a standard Cartesian reference system. Two additional cameras along with AMASS and Visual3D (C-Motion, Inc., Germantown, MD) biomechanical modeling software were used to determine joint kinematics at the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle of ten control subjects (mean age 21.5 ± 1.65 years). The same data were processed through Nexus (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, England ...


Biomechanical Model Of Pediatric Upper Extremity Dynamics During Wheelchair Mobility, Alyssa J. Paul Oct 2012

Biomechanical Model Of Pediatric Upper Extremity Dynamics During Wheelchair Mobility, Alyssa J. Paul

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Biomechanical analysis has been used by many to evaluate upper extremity (UE) motion during human movement, including during the use of assistive devices such as crutches and walkers. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the upper extremity kinetics during wheelchair mobility, specifically within the pediatric population. In 2000, 90% of wheelchair users (1.5 million people) in the United States were manual wheelchair users, requiring the use of their upper body to maneuver the wheelchair as well as perform other activities of daily living. Among children under the age of 18, the wheelchair was the most used assistive ...


Development And Performance Of A Sparsity-Exploiting Algorithm For Few-View Single Photon Emission Computed Tomogrpahy (Spect) Reconstruction, Paul Arthur Wolf Oct 2012

Development And Performance Of A Sparsity-Exploiting Algorithm For Few-View Single Photon Emission Computed Tomogrpahy (Spect) Reconstruction, Paul Arthur Wolf

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) provides noninvasive images of the distribution of radiotracer molecules. Dynamic Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography provides information about tracer uptake and washout from a series of time-sequence images. Stationary ring-like multi-camera systems are being developed to provide rapid dynamic acquisitions with high temporal sampling. Reducing the number of cameras reduces the cost of such systems but also reduces the number of views acquired, limiting the angular sampling of the system. Novel few-view image reconstruction methods may be beneficial and are being investigated for the application of dynamic SPECT. A sparsity-exploiting algorithm intended for few-view ...


Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Model Of Wrist Dynamics During Tasks Of Daily Living, Patrick Roscher Oct 2012

Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Model Of Wrist Dynamics During Tasks Of Daily Living, Patrick Roscher

Master's Theses (2009 -)

An understanding of wrist dynamics during functional movements is required to better diagnose and treat wrist injury and disease. Currently, there is a lack of upper extremity (UE) models that combine both the motions and resulting forces that occur in the wrist during daily activities. The purpose of this study is to create a three-dimensional (3D) model of the upper extremity that describes kinematics and wrist kinetics during functional activities. A model of this type could benefit clinical diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care of orthopaedic and neurological disorders of the wrist. The created dynamic wrist model was used to test ...


Examining Lower Extremity Motor Activity Using Magnetoencephalography, Ruth M. Swedler Jul 2012

Examining Lower Extremity Motor Activity Using Magnetoencephalography, Ruth M. Swedler

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The role of the cortex during locomotion remains unclear, but recent advances in neural imaging technologies have aided in developing ways to measure brain activity during motor tasks. One method is by measuring activations produced by neural oscillations which have been associated with a variety of human behaviors, from sleep and rest to cognitive actions and movement. The physiological and functional methods in which oscillations contribute to cortical control are still largely unknown. In this study, we aim to expand that knowledge by examining human cortical activity in the sensory and motor cortices during pedaling using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We hypothesized ...


Identification Of Proper And Common Names In The Anterior Temporal Lobe: An Fmri Study, Usha Tadimeti Jul 2012

Identification Of Proper And Common Names In The Anterior Temporal Lobe: An Fmri Study, Usha Tadimeti

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Temporal lobe epilepsy is a neurological disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. They are usually treated through surgical resection of portions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Surgical resection is effective for seizure control, but produces language and verbal memory deficits such as anomic aphasia, which adversely affects an individual's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional MRI protocol for mapping the function of ATL in healthy subjects, and to better understand the role of the ATL and other regions of the semantic system. Such a protocol may ultimately be used by ...


A Large-Scale Mathematical Model Of The Rat Pulmonary Circulation And The Effect Of Chronic Hypoxia, Loolu Rafeeq Jul 2012

A Large-Scale Mathematical Model Of The Rat Pulmonary Circulation And The Effect Of Chronic Hypoxia, Loolu Rafeeq

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Mathematical models are useful for developing understanding of the behavior of complex biological systems. Recent work on a “physiome” project is aimed at using computational modeling to analyze integrative biological function by developing a simulation system for hypothesis testing (Borg & Hunter, 2003). To date, extensive work on cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous system models has been undertaken. Our objective here is to contribute to this effort by further developing a comprehensive integrative model of the pulmonary circulation. A computational model of the dog pulmonary circulation was originally developed by Haworth et al. (Haworth S. T., 1996; Haworth, Linehan, Bronikowski, & Dawson, 1991). In this thesis, their work was extended to the rat pulmonary circulation. The rat model geometry is characterized by 18 orders of arteries and 19 orders of veins. The average distensibility (% increase in diameter over the undistended diameter) for the model arteries and veins are 2.8 %/mmHg and 1.6 %/mmHg. These arterial and ...


Reducing The Radiation Dose To Women Receiving Cardiac Ct Scans, Michael Hoppe Apr 2012

Reducing The Radiation Dose To Women Receiving Cardiac Ct Scans, Michael Hoppe

Master's Theses (2009 -)

This thesis aims to quantify the reduction in radiation dose deposited in glandular breast tissue achieved by using tilted gantry acquisition during cardiac CT scans. Previous work by Halpern et al. suggested using tilted acquisition parallel to the long axis of the patient’s heart. However, for a larger portion of the population this is not feasible due to the design of current scanners (which are limited to maximum tilt angles of 30 degrees). This study investigated the potential dose reduction and image quality effects at commercially available tilt angles between 0-30 degrees through simulation and experimental studies.

Upon IRB ...


Advanced Visualization And Intuitive User Interface Systems For Biomedical Applications, David Quam Apr 2012

Advanced Visualization And Intuitive User Interface Systems For Biomedical Applications, David Quam

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Modern scientific research produces data at rates that far outpace our ability to comprehend and analyze it. Such sources include medical imaging data and computer simulations, where technological advancements and spatiotemporal resolution generate increasing amounts of data from each scan or simulation. A bottleneck has developed whereby medical professionals and researchers are unable to fully use the advanced information available to them. By integrating computer science, computer graphics, artistic ability and medical expertise, scientific visualization of medical data has become a new field of study. The objective of this thesis is to develop two visualization systems that use advanced visualization ...


Abnormal Neuromuscular Fatigue And Motor Performance Of The Knee Extensors Post Stroke, Henry Kuhnen Apr 2012

Abnormal Neuromuscular Fatigue And Motor Performance Of The Knee Extensors Post Stroke, Henry Kuhnen

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Stroke causes paresis in leg muscles, such as the knee extensors, that significantly impairs motor control and function during tasks such as walking. Reduced endurance and increased kinematic asymmetries during walking over time indicate paretic musculature may fatigue more quickly than non-paretic musculature. The primary purpose of this study was to identify abnormalities in neuromuscular fatigue (reduction in force over time) of the paretic knee extensors and associate them with motor performance.

We investigated the effects of repeated six second isometric submaximal (30% of maximum voluntary contraction) knee extensor fatiguing contractions on task failure and motor performance in ten chronic ...