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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin Nov 2018

Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) provide a communication pathway between the electrical conducting units of the brain (neurons) and external devices. BMI technology may provide improved neurological and physiological functions to patients suffering from disabilities due to damaged nervous systems. Unfortunately, microelectrodes used in Intracortical Neural Interfaces (INI), a subset of the BMI device family, have yet to demonstrate long-term in vivo performance due to material, mechanical and electrical failures. Many state-of-the-art INI devices are constructed using stacks of multiple materials, such as silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), platinum (Pt), parylene C, and polyimide. Not only must each material tolerate the biological ...


Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe Apr 2018

Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Millions of people suffer from tinnitus, a disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment or cure. My dissertation work provides insight into the neural correlates of this pervasive hearing disorder and examines how a newly emerging therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), affects the central auditory system in the generation of the tinnitus percept. This work has a multifold focus of: i) developing and modeling the function of a miniature magnetic coil that can be used for TMS in rodents, ii) establishing a reliable mouse model of tinnitus that can be used for assessing TMS treatment-induced changes, iii) measuring ...


18f-Fdg Pet/Ctct-Based Radiomics For The Prediction Of Radiochemotherapy Treatment Outcomes Of Cervical Cancer, Badereldeen Abdulmajeed Altazi Nov 2017

18f-Fdg Pet/Ctct-Based Radiomics For The Prediction Of Radiochemotherapy Treatment Outcomes Of Cervical Cancer, Badereldeen Abdulmajeed Altazi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cervical cancer remains the third most commonly diagnosed gynecological malignancy in the United States and throughout the world despite being potentially preventable. Patients diagnosed with cervical cancer may develop local recurrence in the cervix and surrounding structures (vaginal apex, parametrial, or paracervical), regional recurrence in pelvic lymph nodes, distant metastasis, or a combination of all. The management of such treatment outcomes has not been subject to rigorous investigation. Therefore, there is a need for studies and clinical trials that focus on decision making to support the choice of the best treatment modality that leads to the minimal number of adverse ...


Microfluidic Biopsy Trapping Device For The Real-Time Monitoring Of The Tumor Microenvironment, Angela Holton Oct 2017

Microfluidic Biopsy Trapping Device For The Real-Time Monitoring Of The Tumor Microenvironment, Angela Holton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The tumor microenvironment is composed of cellular and stromal components such as tumor cells, mesenchymal cells, immune cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and the supporting extracellular matrix. The tumor microenvironment provides crucial support for growth and progression of tumor cells and affects tumor response to therapeutic interventions. To better understand tumor biology and to develop effective cancer therapeutic agents it is important to develop preclinical platforms that can faithfully recapitulate the tumor microenvironment and the complex interaction between the tumor and its surrounding stromal elements. Drug studies performed in vitro with conventional two-dimensional cancer cell line models do not optimally represent ...


Bisphosphonate Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles For The Study And Treatment Of Osteoporotic Disease, Christopher Conners Jul 2017

Bisphosphonate Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles For The Study And Treatment Of Osteoporotic Disease, Christopher Conners

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of nanoparticles for disease treatment is an increasingly popular area of research. The potential for multi-functionality allows nanoparticles to be used as transport and delivery vehicles for drugs and as diagnostic aides, among other applications, to address the unmet needs of many disease treatments. One such class of disease is osteoporosis including severe disorders, like Paget’s disease, Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Legg Calve Perthes disease. In this dissertation, we discuss a nanoparticle system consisting of gold nanoparticles surface functionalized with primary amine bisphosphonates, which is a classification of pharmaceuticals that is common in the treatment of osteoporosis. Functionalized ...


Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh Jun 2017

Morphometric Analysis Of The Talus On The Cohort Of Healthy And Arthritic Patient Population:, Tia Arvaneh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is less common in the ankle compared to other joints; however, deformation brought on by degeneration causes pain, loss of function, and overall decreased quality of life. Current surgical interventions for end-stage ankle OA are not as reliable as surgical treatments for other joints. Ankle arthroplasty currently has high failure rates, and there are lack of substantial data from long-term outcome studies. By understanding the morphometric changes that occur during the different stages of OA, we are able to identify early signs of the disease with the intention to apply treatment earlier in order to preclude ...


The Effect Of Antigen Polymorphisms On Serological Antibody Detection Assays Based Upon The, Kristi M. Miley Jun 2017

The Effect Of Antigen Polymorphisms On Serological Antibody Detection Assays Based Upon The, Kristi M. Miley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Onchocerca volvulus is a filarial parasite transmitted to humans by female Simulium spp. black flies. Infection with this parasite can cause blindness and severe skin disease among humans in Africa and the Americas. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay serological testing of OV-16 antigen is a diagnostic tool for determining effective elimination of the parasite. Programs typically rely on OV–16 ELISA to evaluate the progress towards interruption and/or elimination of disease by mass drug distribution of ivermectin and vector larvicidal control efforts. As elimination grows closer, monoclonal antibody positive controls for OV-16 ELISA become important to develop for Onchocerca testing due ...


Force Compensation And Recreation Accuracy In Humans, Benjamin Rigsby Jun 2017

Force Compensation And Recreation Accuracy In Humans, Benjamin Rigsby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As industry becomes increasingly reliant on robotic assistance and human-computer interfaces, the demand to understand the human sensorimotor system’s characteristics intensifies. Although this field of research has been going on for over a century, new technologies push the limits of the human motor system and our knowledge of it. With new technologies come new abilities, and, in the area of medical care and rehabilitation, the need to expand our knowledge of the sensorimotor system comes from both the patient and physician.

Two studies relating to human force interaction are presented in this thesis. The first study

focuses on humans ...


Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht Apr 2017

Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The auditory temporal processing deficits associated with age-dependent hearing decline have been increasingly attributed to issues beyond peripheral hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also known as presbycusis, is linked with changes in the expression of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. There are also age-related changes in the expression and function of the ion channels which mediate action potential firing. The slow, Ca2+ activated, K+ channels of the BK-type are essential in controlling both neurotransmitter release and neural communication via alteration of action potential durations, firing frequency, and neural adaptation. There are many subsets ...


Intraocular Pressure Sensing And Control For Glaucoma Research, Simon Antonio Bello Nov 2016

Intraocular Pressure Sensing And Control For Glaucoma Research, Simon Antonio Bello

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Animal models of ocular hypertension are important for glaucoma research but come with experimental costs. Available methods of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation are not always successful, the amplitude and time course of IOP changes are unpredictable and irreversible, and IOP measurement by tonometry is laborious. This dissertation focuses on the development and implementation of two novel systems for monitoring and controlling IOP without these limitations. The first device consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye, a pressure sensor that continually measures IOP, and a bidirectional pump driven by control circuitry that can infuse or withdraw ...


Graphene Quantum Dots-Based Drug Delivery For Ovarian Cancer Therapy, Yiru Qin May 2016

Graphene Quantum Dots-Based Drug Delivery For Ovarian Cancer Therapy, Yiru Qin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer, one of the most dreadful malignancies of the female reproductive system, poses a lethal threat to women worldwide. In this dissertation, the objective was to introduce a novel type of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) based nano-sized drug delivery systems (DDS) for ovarian cancer treatment. As a starting point, the facile synthesis method of the GQDs was established. Subsequently, the targeting ligand,folic acid (FA), was conjugated to GQDs. Next, a FDA approved chemotherapeutic drug, Doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded to form the GQDs-FA-DOX nano-conjugation as the DDS. Moreover, the uptake profile and anti-cancer effect of the GQDs-FA-DOX were validated ...


Modulation Of Whole Cell Currents In Human Neuroblastoma Cells Via The Hormone Aldosterone: An In Vitro Study, Harish Kumar Chittam Mar 2016

Modulation Of Whole Cell Currents In Human Neuroblastoma Cells Via The Hormone Aldosterone: An In Vitro Study, Harish Kumar Chittam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ion channels play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis by moving various ions in and out of cells. The Na+-K+-2Cl- or NKCC1 ion channel is involved in the regulation of Na+, K+, and Cl- across cell membranes, and plays a key role in many forms of cellular physiology. In the cochlea, NKCC1 is involved in endolymph production and maintenance of the endocochlear potential. Our hypothesis is that blocking NKCC1 channels should directly impact auditory sensitivity causing hearing loss. Our lab has also shown that the hormone aldosterone (ALD) can upregulate NKCC1 protein expression in vitro and in vivo ...


Image-Based 3d Morphometric Analysis Of The Clavicle Intramedullary (Im) Canal, Jazmine Aira Mar 2016

Image-Based 3d Morphometric Analysis Of The Clavicle Intramedullary (Im) Canal, Jazmine Aira

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Midshaft clavicle fractures are very common. Current treatment of choice involves internal fixation with superior or anterior clavicle plating, however their clinical success and patient satisfaction are slowly decreasing. The design of intramedullary (IM) devices is on the rise, but data describing the IM canal parameters is lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify morphometry of the clavicle and its IM canal, and to evaluate the effect of gender and anatomical side. This study used 3-dimensional (3D) image-based models with novel and automated methods of standardization, normalization and bone cross-section evaluation. The data obtained in this thesis presents ...


Development Of An Efficient Human Hepatocyte Culture Platform For Assessing Novel Therapeutic Efficacy Against Plasmodium Liver Parasites, Steven Patrick Maher Jul 2014

Development Of An Efficient Human Hepatocyte Culture Platform For Assessing Novel Therapeutic Efficacy Against Plasmodium Liver Parasites, Steven Patrick Maher

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Malaria is a critical and global public health problem, affecting over 200 million people every year, resulting in over 500,000 deaths. A vaccine is not currently available and only one drug, primaquine, is effective against the dormant stages of Plasmodium vivax. Preclinical assessment of novel therapeutic drugs and vaccines is hampered by the lack of an in vitro liver model for P. falciparum and P. vivax. To provide a stable human hepatocyte-based culture platform for parasite development, we engineered a microfluidic bilayer device capable of both simple and complex culture methods, including perfusion and co-culture, to better understand the ...


Quantifying The Ergonomic Impact On Healthcare Workers Using A Needle-Free Injector Device, Humberto Jose Olivero Lara Jan 2013

Quantifying The Ergonomic Impact On Healthcare Workers Using A Needle-Free Injector Device, Humberto Jose Olivero Lara

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Jet injectors are advantageous over needle injectors by eliminating sharps hazards. The Government Accountability Office estimates 29% preventable sharp injuries with an estimated direct cost of more than $500 million out of the CDC's reported incidence of 385,000 needle stick injuries per year among US hospital healthcare workers. Yet the forces required to set and trigger devices using spring mechanisms for medication delivery have not been explored. This laboratory experiment measured forces exerted by healthcare workers (HCWs) using a particular jet injector approved by FDA in 2011.

Objectives: In order to quantify the ergonomic impact on HCWs ...


Development Of A Bi-Directional Electronics Platform For Advanced Neural Applications, Luca Abbati Jan 2012

Development Of A Bi-Directional Electronics Platform For Advanced Neural Applications, Luca Abbati

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work presents a high-voltage, high-precision bi-directional multi-channel system capable of stimulating neural activity through bi-phasic pulses of amplitude up to ∓50 V while recording very low-voltage responses as low as tens of microvolts. Most of the systems reported from the scientific community possess at least one of the following common limitations: low stimulation voltages, low gain capabilities, or insufficient bandwidth to acquire a wide range of different neural activities.

While systems can be found that present remarkable capabilities in one or more specific areas, a versatile system that performs over all these aspects is missing. Moreover, as many novel ...


Evaluation Of Transfer Technologies To Preserve Shoulder Function In Sci, Karen Michelle Mann Jan 2012

Evaluation Of Transfer Technologies To Preserve Shoulder Function In Sci, Karen Michelle Mann

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated a series of independent unassisted and device-assisted transfers from a wheelchair to vehicle mock-up and vice versa while simultaneously capturing kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic (EMG) data of impaired volunteers. The study provides a venue for observation and evaluation of upper extremity (UE) joint stresses, muscular force and functional demands associated with transfers in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) to ultimately prevent UE injury, minimize excessive stress, preserve functionality and limit pain. If people with SCI lose function of their UEs, due to pain and/or degeneration, they must then rely on others for everyday tasks.

Five ...


Edge Cross-Section Profile For Colonoscopic Object Detection, Yi Wang Jan 2012

Edge Cross-Section Profile For Colonoscopic Object Detection, Yi Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, claiming close to 50,000 lives annually in the United States alone. Colonoscopy is an important screening tool that has contributed to a significant decline in colorectal cancer-related deaths. During colonoscopy, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the human colon. The video data is displayed on a monitor for real-time diagnosis by the endoscopist. Despite the success of colonoscopy in lowering cancer-related deaths, a significant miss rate for detection of both large polyps and cancers is estimated ...


A Volume Rendering Engine For Desktops, Laptops, Mobile Devices And Immersive Virtual Reality Systems Using Gpu-Based Volume Raycasting, Christian John Noon Jan 2012

A Volume Rendering Engine For Desktops, Laptops, Mobile Devices And Immersive Virtual Reality Systems Using Gpu-Based Volume Raycasting, Christian John Noon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Volume rendering is the process of visualizing characteristics and properties of three-dimensional (3D) volume data as a 3D object. The most extensive use of volume rendering takes place within the medical field. Physicians are using a combination of medical imaging technologies and volume rendering techniques to non-invasively examine patients to make critical medical decisions and diagnoses such as finding tumors, searching for blood clots and monitoring unborn fetuses. As the technological computing power continues to increase at a rapid rate, so do the opportunities to provide volume rendering solutions on new and innovative platforms such as mobile devices and immersive ...