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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Theses/Dissertations

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

2015

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya Dec 2015

The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bone development and repair involve complex processes that include interaction between cells and their surrounding matrix. In the body, bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is up-regulated at the onset of mineralization. BSP is a multifunctional acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, hydroxyapatite nucleating, and integrin recognition (RGD sequence, which is important for cell-attachment and signaling) regions. Mice lacking BSP expression (Bsp-/-), exhibit a bone phenotype with reductions in bone mineral density, bone length, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. This thesis examined the role of BSP in tooth development and also its potential use as a therapeutic reagent for bone repair. MicroCT and ...


Towards The Development Of A Wearable Tremor Suppression Glove, Yue Zhou Dec 2015

Towards The Development Of A Wearable Tremor Suppression Glove, Yue Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often associate with tremor. Among other symptoms of PD, tremor is the most aggressive symptom and it is difficult to control with traditional treatments. This thesis presents the assessment of Parkinsonian hand tremor in both the time domain and the frequency domain, the performance of a tremor estimator using different tremor models, and the development of a novel mechatronic transmission system for a wearable tremor suppression device. This transmission system functions as a mechatronic splitter that allows a single power source to support multiple independent applications. Unique features of this transmission system include ...


Fundamentals Of The Biomechanical Characteristics Related To The Loading Of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Implants And The Development Of A Wear Simulation Strategy, G Daniel G. Langohr Nov 2015

Fundamentals Of The Biomechanical Characteristics Related To The Loading Of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Implants And The Development Of A Wear Simulation Strategy, G Daniel G. Langohr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A greater understanding of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) in terms of articular contact mechanics and wear is essential for the optimization of current surgical technique and future implant design. Despite the prevalence of RTSA for shoulder reconstruction, there is little information in current literature regarding the effects of changes in implant parameters on articular contact mechanics and wear. The present work describes the use of in-vitro cadaveric studies, a computational model of the articular contact surfaces, and the development and implementation of a wear simulation strategy to assess RTSA contact mechanics and wear.

The articular loading characteristics of RTSA ...


The Role Of Visualization, Force Feedback, And Augmented Reality In Minimally Invasive Heart Valve Repair, Maria E. Currie Nov 2015

The Role Of Visualization, Force Feedback, And Augmented Reality In Minimally Invasive Heart Valve Repair, Maria E. Currie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

New cardiovascular techniques have been developed to address the unique requirements of high risk, elderly, surgical patients with heart valve disease by avoiding both sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. However, these technologies pose new challenges in visualization, force application, and intracardiac navigation. Force feedback and augmented reality (AR) can be applied to minimally invasive mitral valve repair and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to potentially surmount these challenges. Our study demonstrated shorter operative times with three dimensional (3D) visualization compared to two dimensional (2D) visualization; however, both experts and novices applied significantly more force to cardiac tissue during 3D robotics-assisted ...


Development Of An In-Vitro Passive And Active Motion Simulator For The Investigation Of Wrist Function And Kinematics, Duncan J. Iglesias Nov 2015

Development Of An In-Vitro Passive And Active Motion Simulator For The Investigation Of Wrist Function And Kinematics, Duncan J. Iglesias

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis outlines the design and development of an active motion simulator for the investigation of wrist kinematics in multiple gravity loaded positions. Using optical trackers on the third metacarpal, radius, and ulna, the position of the wrist was monitored in real time without introducing material incompatibilities as present for electromagnetic tracking systems. Performance of the system was performed using a series of five cadaver upper limbs that compared the ability to produce repeatable trials using unrestrained active motion techniques over passive manipulation methods. Comparisons to achieve static positions as well as motion trials in flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation planes ...


Effect Of Hemiarthroplasty Implant Contact Geometry And Material On Early Cartilage Wear, Alana Khayat Sep 2015

Effect Of Hemiarthroplasty Implant Contact Geometry And Material On Early Cartilage Wear, Alana Khayat

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiarthroplasty is a minimally invasive, cost-effective alternative to total arthroplasty in joints of the upper limb. Though these procedures reduce patient morbidity while restoring joint kinematics, their longevity is limited by wear of the adjacent cartilage. This work investigates the roles of contact geometry and implant stiffness on cartilage wear with the aim of elucidating the mechanics that contribute to cartilage damage. An in vitro study examined the influence of implant geometry on cartilage wear using a pin-on-plate wear simulator. A significant decrease in volumetric wear was observed as contact area increased, which suggests that maximizing contact area should be ...


Endoscopic Targeting Tasks Simulator: An Approach Using Game Engines, Shaun W. Carnegie Sep 2015

Endoscopic Targeting Tasks Simulator: An Approach Using Game Engines, Shaun W. Carnegie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pervasiveness of simulators used in professions requiring the skilled control of expensive machinery such as is the case in the aviation, mining, construction, and naval industries raises an intriguing question about the relatively poor adoption within the field of medicine. Certain surgical procedures such as neuro-endoscopic and laparoscopic lend themselves well to the application of virtual reality based simulators. This is due to the innate ability to decom- pose these complex macro level procedures into a hierarchy of subtasks that can be modelled in a software simulator to augment existing teaching and training techniques.

The research in this thesis ...


Calcification Of Bovine Pericardial Aortic Heart Valves, Asha Parekh Aug 2015

Calcification Of Bovine Pericardial Aortic Heart Valves, Asha Parekh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Heart valve disease is prevalent among Canadian population and worldwide; and for failing valves, the ultimate solution is valve replacement surgery. Bovine pericardial tissue is commonly used as a biomaterial to fabricate bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs), however calcification of the soft tissue is an ongoing concern for its long-term performance. Calcification ultimately results in device failure due to regurgitation, stenosis, or both, which is caused by stiffening, tearing and rupturing of the tissue valve leaflets. This project investigates parameters related to bovine pericardial heart valve calcification. Three in vitro methods of calcium quantification in soft tissue were assessed using bovine ...


Blood Supply To The Brain Via The Carotid Arteries: Examining Obstructive And Sclerotic Disorders Using Theoretical And Experimental Models, Onaizah Onaizah Aug 2015

Blood Supply To The Brain Via The Carotid Arteries: Examining Obstructive And Sclerotic Disorders Using Theoretical And Experimental Models, Onaizah Onaizah

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stroke remains one of the leading causes of death in North America. Approximately half of all ischemic episodes are a direct result of carotid artery disease, which can be categorized into either obstructive or sclerotic disease. Obstructive disease is a result of plaque development that imposes a direct limitation on the physical space available for blood flow. Sclerotic disease involves the hardening of the arteries as is often a result of aging and disease. While the impact of vessel stiffening is not as obvious, it does interfere with wave propagation. Effects of obstructive and sclerotic disease were studied using a ...


The Application Of The Ultrafine Technology In Improving The Biocompatibility And Osteo-Inductivity Of Dental Implants, Nicholas Y. Hou Aug 2015

The Application Of The Ultrafine Technology In Improving The Biocompatibility And Osteo-Inductivity Of Dental Implants, Nicholas Y. Hou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dental implants are very effective medical devices. However, although stable, the conventional titanium implants are not very bioactive which in some instances could reduce their efficacy. This thesis described the research progress of using polymeric ultrafine-particles with bioactive additives to enrich the surface of titanium substrate, thereby increasing the biocompatibility and osteo-inductivity of the biomaterial. During this doctoral project, three different types of polymers were examined, initially the conventional polyester, and later the novel epoxy as well as the epoxy/polyester hybrid polymers. Physical characterizations confirmed that all of the coating powders were ultrafine particles, and homogeneous surfaces were constructed ...


Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring Of Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating, Taylor Sheahan Aug 2015

Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring Of Fluidized Bed Pellet Coating, Taylor Sheahan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Passive acoustic emissions were assessed for their potential as a non-invasive monitoring tool for the coating of pellets in a fluidized bed. Pharmaceutical pellets are small spherical particles that contain an active ingredient. They are film coated for the purpose of modified drug release and packed into capsules as a multiple unit dosage form. A more reliable monitoring and control method is desired to ensure the appropriate drug release profile is achieved by minimizing variations within and between coated pellets.

Microphones attached to the exterior of a conical top spray fluidized bed measured acoustic emissions produced from the coating process ...


Signal Processing Methods For Quantitative Power Doppler Microvascular Angiography, Mai H. Elfarnawany Aug 2015

Signal Processing Methods For Quantitative Power Doppler Microvascular Angiography, Mai H. Elfarnawany

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Operator-dependent instrument settings and the likelihood of image artifacts are two challenges for reliably using three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler angiography in flow depiction and quantification applications.

To address the operator-dependent settings challenge, an automated method for wall filter cut-off selection, the wall filter selection curve (WFSC) method, was developed using flow-phantom images. The flow-phantom WFSCs guided the development of a theoretical signal model relating color pixel density (CPD) and wall filter cut-off frequency. Simulations using the theoretical model were used to define criteria for the WFSC method to be applied to unprocessed power Doppler signals from 3-D vasculature. The adapted ...


Development Of A Physical Shoulder Simulator For The Training Of Basic Arthroscopic Skills, Laura C. Mccracken Jul 2015

Development Of A Physical Shoulder Simulator For The Training Of Basic Arthroscopic Skills, Laura C. Mccracken

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increasingly, shoulder surgeries are performed using arthroscopic techniques, leading to reduced tissue damage and shorter patient recovery times. Orthopaedic training programs are responding to the increased demand for arthroscopic surgeries by incorporating arthroscopic skills into their residency curriculums. A need for accessible and effective training tools exists.

This thesis describes the design and development of a physical shoulder simulator for training basic arthroscopy skills such as triangulation, orientation, and navigation of the anatomy. The simulator can be used in either the lateral decubitus or beach chair orientation and accommodates wet or dry practice. Sensors embedded in the simulator provide a ...


Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Coating Of Titanium Substrates By Alkaline Hydrothermal Process, Mohamed Gebril Jul 2015

Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Coating Of Titanium Substrates By Alkaline Hydrothermal Process, Mohamed Gebril

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surface modification is a well-known approach to enhance the osseointegration of titanium dental implants. In this study, a novel hydrothermal method for coating titanium surfaces with bioactive glass was developed. Our method included sol-gel synthesis of bioactive glass, followed by hydrothermal coating of titanium under different NaOH concentrations. The surface properties of coated substrates were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. By varying the alkalinity of the hydrothermal process, different surface topographies, crystalline phases and chemistries could be obtained. Soaking the hydrothermally coated titanium substrates in simulated body fluid resulted in hydroxyapatite ...


Design Of Novel Sensors And Instruments For Minimally Invasive Lung Tumour Localization Via Palpation, Anish Srinivasan Naidu Jul 2015

Design Of Novel Sensors And Instruments For Minimally Invasive Lung Tumour Localization Via Palpation, Anish Srinivasan Naidu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally Invasive Thoracoscopic Surgery (MITS) has become the treatment of choice for lung cancer. However, MITS prevents the surgeons from using manual palpation, thereby often making it challenging to reliably locate the tumours for resection. This thesis presents the design, analysis and validation of novel tactile sensors, a novel miniature force sensor, a robotic instrument, and a wireless hand-held instrument to address this limitation. The low-cost, disposable tactile sensors have been shown to easily detect a 5 mm tumour located 10 mm deep in soft tissue. The force sensor can measure six degrees of freedom forces and torques with temperature ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Polymer Microfiber Drug Delivery System, Julie La Jul 2015

Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Polymer Microfiber Drug Delivery System, Julie La

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosis worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common diagnoses. Fortunately, these cancers are rarely fatal if detected and treated early on. However, current treatment options can be painful, disfiguring and can require long-term treatment courses, resulting in poor patient compliance and cancer progression. Since SCC begins as precancerous lesions, an opportunity exists for early preventative interventions which this work aims to address. We produced stabilized microfibers via centrifugal spinning and UV photocrosslinking composed of poly(ethylene oxide) functionalized with cinnamoyl chloride. Curcumin, a molecule known for its anti-cancer properties ...


Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Remote Catheter Navigation System, Mohammad Ali Tavallaei Jul 2015

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Remote Catheter Navigation System, Mohammad Ali Tavallaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many vascular and cardiac diseases are diagnosed and treated using a medical technique known as percutaneous transluminal catheter intervention (PTC). In PTC, the interventionalist inserts a catheter into the vasculature, and using the vessel as the guiding passageway, the catheter is navigated to desired anatomical targets where it would be used for various purposes such as catheter ablation for the treatment/management of cardiac arrhythmias. The catheterization procedure is conventionally guided with x-ray fluoroscopic imaging and more recently, but rarely, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray imaging irradiates the patient directly during the procedure, and the staff and interventionalists indirectly ...


Design And Fabrication Of A Multifunctional Nano-On-Micro Delivery System, Alexandra D. Bannerman May 2015

Design And Fabrication Of A Multifunctional Nano-On-Micro Delivery System, Alexandra D. Bannerman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The treatment of tumours using microbeads for embolization and drug delivery is a widely used, but often ineffective, technique. In this work, we aim to produce microbeads for this application with four main improvements: visibility, target-ability, degradability, and an alternative route for drug loading. We accomplish this through the fabrication of ~100μm diameter microbeads composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), iron oxide nanoparticles, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using a custom-designed microchannel system. Characterization demonstrated that microbeads were magnetic, as well as visible under clinical CT. Separately, the dissolution of PVA iron oxide hydrogels exposed to different environmental conditions was studied ...


Force Sensing In Arthroscopic Instruments Using Fiber Bragg Gratings, Daniel S. Yurkewich Apr 2015

Force Sensing In Arthroscopic Instruments Using Fiber Bragg Gratings, Daniel S. Yurkewich

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally-invasive surgery has revolutionized many medical procedures; however, it also impedes the ability to feel the interaction between the surgical tool and the anatomical part being operated on. In order to address this problem, it is necessary to obtain accurate measurements of the interaction forces exerted on the surgical tools during surgery. These forces can then be manifested to the surgeon via a haptic device or presented visually (visual-force feedback). This thesis describes the use of a fiber optic device to measure and display to the surgeon interaction forces acting on an arthroscopic tool. The sensorization of the tool involves ...


Multivariate Analysis Of Mr Images In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Diego H. Cantor-Rivera Apr 2015

Multivariate Analysis Of Mr Images In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Diego H. Cantor-Rivera

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Epilepsy stands aside from other neurological diseases because clinical patterns of progression are unknown: The etiology of each epilepsy case is unique and so it is the individual prognosis. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent type of focal epilepsy and the surgical excision of the hippocampus and the surrounding tissue is an accepted treatment in refractory cases, specially when seizures become frequent increasingly affecting the performance of daily tasks and significantly decreasing the quality of life of the patient. The sensitivity of clinical imaging is poor for patients with no hippocampal involvement and invasive procedures such as the ...


Osteoarthritis Induced Glenoid Morphology And Bone Quality: An Evaluation Of Augmented Glenoid Components, Nikolas K. Knowles Apr 2015

Osteoarthritis Induced Glenoid Morphology And Bone Quality: An Evaluation Of Augmented Glenoid Components, Nikolas K. Knowles

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Osteoarthritis of the glenoid results in regional bone density variations and bone loss that may compromise early component fixation and support. The two common morphologies, symmetric and asymmetric erosion, were characterized by bone density and morphology, and assessed on the basis of bone removal and bone quality in the context of augmented glenoid components. The bone strain field was also compared when different augmented glenoid components underwent simulated joint loading using finite element analysis.

Asymmetrically eroded glenoids were found to have denser bone (p


Engineering Periodontal Tissue Regeneration With The Use Of A Novel Periostin Electrospun Scaffold, Kendal I. Creber Mar 2015

Engineering Periodontal Tissue Regeneration With The Use Of A Novel Periostin Electrospun Scaffold, Kendal I. Creber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clinical therapies for the treatment of periodontitis are unable to reproducibly stimulate regeneration of the periodontium. We assessed the use of a novel electrospun type I collagen scaffold containing recombinant periostin to stimulate regeneration of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and bone. Human PDL cells demonstrated the ability to form a mineralized matrix in vitro and reduced osteogenic potential with increased donor age. In vitro analysis indicated scaffolds were biocompatible, however, periostin did not significantly influence adhesion or growth. In the healing of fenestration defects in rats, type I collagen scaffolds (with and without periostin) initially delayed cell infiltration and increased ...


Resting-State Functional Network Disruptions In A Rodent Model Of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Tle), Ravnoor Singh Gill Jan 2015

Resting-State Functional Network Disruptions In A Rodent Model Of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Tle), Ravnoor Singh Gill

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of drug-refractory epilepsy. The clinical application of non-invasively mapped networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in humans has been rather limited due to heterogeneous (varying etiology, drugs, onset, latent period, etc.) patient groups. We employed a pharmacological (kainic acid) rodent model of TLE to measure the extent of functional network disruptions using rsfMRI, and study selected behaviors and olfactory to hippocampus transmission. Graph theoretical network modelling and analysis revealed significant increase in functional connectivity connectivity to the temporal lobe (hippocampus) in epileptic-rats compared to controls in the limbic ...