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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Evaluating Devices For The Measurement Of Auditory-Evoked Fetal Movement, Patrick Gatutsi Aug 2018

Evaluating Devices For The Measurement Of Auditory-Evoked Fetal Movement, Patrick Gatutsi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Determining normal and abnormal fetal function in utero in order to better predict which fetuses are at risk for adverse outcome is critical. However, the medical imaging tools that could assist with diagnosis are very expensive and rarely available in the developing world. In this study, we developed a prototype audio-motio-tachograph (AMTG), which measures fetal movements through the recording of abdominal wall deformations and tested it in Rwanda. First, we showed that AMTG detected fetal signals and that fetuses respond to complex acoustic stimuli. In order to improve the sensitivity of the device, we then measured whole abdominal wall deformations ...


Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli Jul 2017

Genetic Engineering Studies Of Escherichia Coli And Microalgae For Expression Of Hydrolytic Enzymes And Development Of High Throughput Screening Technique, Shreyas S. Yedahalli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The field of biochemical engineering has made substantial progress through major advances in genetic and metabolic engineering with applications in various sectors such as energy, food science, pharmaceuticals, etc. The hosts used for this work are constantly broadening. A host particularly important for energy applications are microalgae. The potential to enhance microalgae genetically for energy applications is not well explored and was therefore investigated in this thesis. Non-photosynthetic micro-organisms and photosynthetic microalgae offer a potential approach to enhance sustainable biochemical production. In this study expression vectors for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were constructed for the ...


Investigation Of Chitosan-Based Hydrogels As A Cell Delivery Platform For Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cell Transplantation To Promote Angiogenesis In Ischemic Tissues, Jobanpreet Singh Dhillon Mar 2017

Investigation Of Chitosan-Based Hydrogels As A Cell Delivery Platform For Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cell Transplantation To Promote Angiogenesis In Ischemic Tissues, Jobanpreet Singh Dhillon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stem cell transplantation is under investigation to stimulate angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease. To develop a cell-delivery platform that enhances cell retention and function post-transplantation, the response of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) encapsulated within N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) hydrogels with or without integrin-binding RGD or IKVAV motifs was explored. ASC viability was enhanced in the MGC and MGC-RGD hydrogels relative to the MGC-IKVAV group under hypoxic (2% O­2) culture conditions, with cell spreading and higher metabolic activity noted in MGC-RGD at 14 days. Analysis of angiogenic gene expression revealed similar patterns between all hydrogel ...


Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr Jul 2016

Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two bioprocesses were separately investigated based on their common interest of using gaseous substrates that have low solubility. The first process involved the development of a mixed culture using two organisms capable of utilizing glycerol and carbon monoxide separately to increase biobutanol production, while the second process involved an investigation of different production media used in aerobic xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris with pressurization effects. It was determined that Clostridium pasteurianum should be used with an organism like Clostridium carboxidivorans or Eubacterium limosum in order for butyrate uptake at 3 g/L to occur with a minimum 0.1 g ...


Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon Apr 2016

Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this collection of studies was to further develop the knowledge of shoulder motion in order to better understand joint function through direct measurement of 3D scapulohumeral joint kinematics using a technique of high accuracy. Markerless, bi-planar fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis using a generic shoulder model was developed in this thesis, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to subjects. The studies compared kinematic data of the scapulohumeral joint in six degrees of freedom with a precise, in-vivo measuring technique. Data were collected on young and older healthy individuals, individuals with a torn supraspinatus and post-surgical intervention.

Although this generic ...


The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya Dec 2015

The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bone development and repair involve complex processes that include interaction between cells and their surrounding matrix. In the body, bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is up-regulated at the onset of mineralization. BSP is a multifunctional acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, hydroxyapatite nucleating, and integrin recognition (RGD sequence, which is important for cell-attachment and signaling) regions. Mice lacking BSP expression (Bsp-/-), exhibit a bone phenotype with reductions in bone mineral density, bone length, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. This thesis examined the role of BSP in tooth development and also its potential use as a therapeutic reagent for bone repair. MicroCT and ...


The Application Of The Ultrafine Technology In Improving The Biocompatibility And Osteo-Inductivity Of Dental Implants, Nicholas Y. Hou Aug 2015

The Application Of The Ultrafine Technology In Improving The Biocompatibility And Osteo-Inductivity Of Dental Implants, Nicholas Y. Hou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dental implants are very effective medical devices. However, although stable, the conventional titanium implants are not very bioactive which in some instances could reduce their efficacy. This thesis described the research progress of using polymeric ultrafine-particles with bioactive additives to enrich the surface of titanium substrate, thereby increasing the biocompatibility and osteo-inductivity of the biomaterial. During this doctoral project, three different types of polymers were examined, initially the conventional polyester, and later the novel epoxy as well as the epoxy/polyester hybrid polymers. Physical characterizations confirmed that all of the coating powders were ultrafine particles, and homogeneous surfaces were constructed ...


Resting-State Functional Network Disruptions In A Rodent Model Of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Tle), Ravnoor Singh Gill Jan 2015

Resting-State Functional Network Disruptions In A Rodent Model Of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Tle), Ravnoor Singh Gill

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of drug-refractory epilepsy. The clinical application of non-invasively mapped networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in humans has been rather limited due to heterogeneous (varying etiology, drugs, onset, latent period, etc.) patient groups. We employed a pharmacological (kainic acid) rodent model of TLE to measure the extent of functional network disruptions using rsfMRI, and study selected behaviors and olfactory to hippocampus transmission. Graph theoretical network modelling and analysis revealed significant increase in functional connectivity connectivity to the temporal lobe (hippocampus) in epileptic-rats compared to controls in the limbic ...


Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis Sep 2014

Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Performing magnetic resonance imaging at high magnetic field strength promises many improvements over low fields that are of direct benefit in functional neuroimaging. This includes the possibility of improved signal-to-noise levels, and increased BOLD functional contrast and spatial specificity. However, human MRI at 7T and above suffers from unique engineering challenges that limit the achievable gains. In this thesis, three technological developments are introduced, all of which address separate issues associated with functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging at very high magnetic field strengths.

First, the image homogeneity problem is addressed by investigating methods of RF shimming — modifying the excitation portion of ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige Jul 2014

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...


Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia Jun 2014

Plasmonic Optical Sensors: Performance Analysis And Engineering Towards Biosensing, Peipei Jia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing for quantitative analysis of chemical reactions and biological interactions has become one of the most promising applications of plasmonics. This thesis focuses on performance analysis for plasmonic sensors and implementation of plamonic optical sensors with novel nanofabrication techniques.

A universal performance analysis model is established for general two-dimensional plasmonic sensors. This model is based on the fundamental facts of surface plasmon theory. The sensitivity only depends on excitation light wavelength as well as dielectric properties of metal and dielectrics. The expression involves no structure-specified parameters, which validates this formula in broad cases of periodic, quasiperiodic ...


Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar Apr 2014

Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (WEFS) microscopy is developed as a non-invasive, label-free live cell imaging technique. This new high-contrast imaging can be employed to study the first hundred nanometers from the surface as it utilizes the evanescent field of a waveguide as the illumination source. Previously, waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy was developed as a fluorescence imaging technique comparable to the total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. Both the WEFF and WEFS technique utilizes the same fundamental concepts except in WEFS microscopy imaging is accomplished without the application of any fluorescent labeling. In this work, bacterial ...


Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer Sep 2013

Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis we described inexpensive alternatives to fabricate nanostructures on planar substrates and provided example applications to discuss the efficiency of fabricated nanostructures.

The first method we described is forming large area systematically changing multi-shape nanoscale structures on a chip by laser interference lithography. We analyzed the fabricated structures at different substrate positions with respect to exposure time, exposure angle and associated light intensity profile. We presented experimental details related to the fabrication of symmetric and biaxial periodic nanostructures on photoresist, silicon surfaces, and ion-milled glass substrates. Behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the nanostructures was investigated. These results ...


Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf Aug 2013

Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Limited fossil fuel reserves, increasing demand for energy in all parts of the world are some driving forces to look for new sources of transportation fuels. Among different options available, microalgae are currently attracting wide interests as an alternative and renewable fuel source.

Microalgae are single cell photosynthetic organisms that are known for rapid growth and high energy content and as a part of photosynthesis; they produce oil that can be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Some algae strains could contain lipid up to 80% of the dry biomass. The amount of lipid production is in direct relation ...


A Method To Measure The Detective Quantum Efficiency Of Radiographic Systems In Clinical Setting, Michael C. Mcdonald Apr 2012

A Method To Measure The Detective Quantum Efficiency Of Radiographic Systems In Clinical Setting, Michael C. Mcdonald

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The risks associated with exposure to radiation make it critical that digital imaging systems give the best possible images for a given dose to the patient. The DQE is the most widely accepted measure of performance and dose efficiency for digital radiography systems, however it is not commonly measured in a clinical environment as part of routine quality assurance. The primary reason for this is that the data provided to the user by clinical systems has typically undergone image processing and therefore may have a non-linear characteristic response. This is a problem because the Fourier metrics of the DQE require ...