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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari Sep 2019

A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Radiation therapy is a main component of treatment for many lung cancer patients. However, the respiratory motion can cause inaccuracies in radiation delivery that can lead to treatment complications. In addition, the radiation-induced damage to healthy tissue limits the effectiveness of radiation treatment. Motion management methods have been developed to increase the accuracy of radiation delivery, and functional avoidance treatment planning has emerged to help reduce the chances of radiation-induced toxicity. In this work, we have developed biomechanical model-based techniques for tumor motion estimation, as well as lung functional imaging. The proposed biomechanical model accurately estimates lung and tumor motion ...


A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman Sep 2018

A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A lack of adherence to prescribed physical therapy regimens in improper healing results in poor outcomes for those affected by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limb. Societal and psychological barriers to proper adherence can be addressed through the system presented in this work consisting of the following components: an ambulatory biosignal acquisition sleeve, an electromyography (EMG) based motion repetition detection algorithm, and the design of a compatible capacitive EMG acquisition module.

The biosignal acquisition sleeve was untethered, unobtrusive to motion, contained only modular components, and collected biomechanical and physiological sensor data to form full motion profiles of the following ...


Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado Aug 2018

Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The BONEBRIDGE bone-conduction device is used to treat conductive and mixed hearing losses. The size of its floating mass transducer (FMT) can preclude implantation in certain anatomies, necessitating comprehensive surgical planning. Current techniques are time consuming and difficult to transfer to the operating room. The objective of this thesis was to develop software for calculating skull thickness to the dura mater to find locations for the FMT and to the first air cells which guarantee sufficient bone for the implant screws to grasp. Temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images were segmented and processed and custom Matlab code was written to ...


Augmented Reality Ultrasound Guidance In Anesthesiology, Golafsoun Ameri Feb 2018

Augmented Reality Ultrasound Guidance In Anesthesiology, Golafsoun Ameri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Real-time ultrasound has become a mainstay in many image-guided interventions and increasingly popular in several percutaneous procedures in anesthesiology. One of the main constraints of ultrasound-guided needle interventions is identifying and distinguishing the needle tip from needle shaft in the image. Augmented reality (AR) environments have been employed to address challenges surrounding surgical tool visualization, navigation, and positioning in many image-guided interventions. The motivation behind this work was to explore the feasibility and utility of such visualization techniques in anesthesiology to address some of the specific limitations of ultrasound-guided needle interventions. This thesis brings together the goals, guidelines, and best ...


Design And Evaluation Of Neurosurgical Training Simulator, Trinette L. Wright Nov 2017

Design And Evaluation Of Neurosurgical Training Simulator, Trinette L. Wright

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Surgical simulators are becoming more important in surgical training. Consumer smartphone technology has improved to allow deployment of VR applications and are now being targeted for medical training simulators. A surgical simulator has been designed using a smartphone, Google cardboard 3D glasses, and the Leap Motion (LM) hand controller. Two expert and 16 novice users were tasked with completing the same pointing tasks using both the LM and the medical simulator NeuroTouch. The novice users had an accuracy of 0.2717 bits (SD 0.3899) and the experts had an accuracy of 0.0925 bits (SD 0.1210) while using ...


Force Sensing Surgical Grasper With Folding Capacitive Sensor, Dave Bp Tripp Aug 2017

Force Sensing Surgical Grasper With Folding Capacitive Sensor, Dave Bp Tripp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally-invasive surgery (MIS) has brought many benefits to the operating room, however, MIS procedures result in an absence of force feedback, and surgeons cannot as accurately feel the tissue they are working on, or the forces that they are applying. One of the barriers to introducing MIS instruments with force feedback systems is the high cost of manufacturing and assembly. Instruments must also be sterilized before every use, a process that can destroy embedded sensing systems. An instrument that can be disposed of after a single use and produced in bulk at a low cost is desirable. Printed circuit micro-electro-mechanical ...


Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell Jan 2017

Design Of Radio-Frequency Arrays For Ultra-High Field Mri, Ian R O Connell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an indispensable, non-invasive diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease and function. As an investigational device, MRI has found routine use in both basic science research and medicine for both human and non-human subjects.

Due to the potential increase in spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ability to exploit novel tissue contrasts, the main magnetic field strength of human MRI scanners has steadily increased since inception. Beginning in the early 1980’s, 0.15 T human MRI scanners have steadily risen in main magnetic field strength with ultra-high field (UHF) 8 T MRI systems ...


Towards The Development Of A Wearable Tremor Suppression Glove, Yue Zhou Dec 2015

Towards The Development Of A Wearable Tremor Suppression Glove, Yue Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often associate with tremor. Among other symptoms of PD, tremor is the most aggressive symptom and it is difficult to control with traditional treatments. This thesis presents the assessment of Parkinsonian hand tremor in both the time domain and the frequency domain, the performance of a tremor estimator using different tremor models, and the development of a novel mechatronic transmission system for a wearable tremor suppression device. This transmission system functions as a mechatronic splitter that allows a single power source to support multiple independent applications. Unique features of this transmission system include ...


Endoscopic Targeting Tasks Simulator: An Approach Using Game Engines, Shaun W. Carnegie Sep 2015

Endoscopic Targeting Tasks Simulator: An Approach Using Game Engines, Shaun W. Carnegie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pervasiveness of simulators used in professions requiring the skilled control of expensive machinery such as is the case in the aviation, mining, construction, and naval industries raises an intriguing question about the relatively poor adoption within the field of medicine. Certain surgical procedures such as neuro-endoscopic and laparoscopic lend themselves well to the application of virtual reality based simulators. This is due to the innate ability to decom- pose these complex macro level procedures into a hierarchy of subtasks that can be modelled in a software simulator to augment existing teaching and training techniques.

The research in this thesis ...


Design Of Novel Sensors And Instruments For Minimally Invasive Lung Tumour Localization Via Palpation, Anish Srinivasan Naidu Jul 2015

Design Of Novel Sensors And Instruments For Minimally Invasive Lung Tumour Localization Via Palpation, Anish Srinivasan Naidu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally Invasive Thoracoscopic Surgery (MITS) has become the treatment of choice for lung cancer. However, MITS prevents the surgeons from using manual palpation, thereby often making it challenging to reliably locate the tumours for resection. This thesis presents the design, analysis and validation of novel tactile sensors, a novel miniature force sensor, a robotic instrument, and a wireless hand-held instrument to address this limitation. The low-cost, disposable tactile sensors have been shown to easily detect a 5 mm tumour located 10 mm deep in soft tissue. The force sensor can measure six degrees of freedom forces and torques with temperature ...


Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Remote Catheter Navigation System, Mohammad Ali Tavallaei Jul 2015

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Remote Catheter Navigation System, Mohammad Ali Tavallaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many vascular and cardiac diseases are diagnosed and treated using a medical technique known as percutaneous transluminal catheter intervention (PTC). In PTC, the interventionalist inserts a catheter into the vasculature, and using the vessel as the guiding passageway, the catheter is navigated to desired anatomical targets where it would be used for various purposes such as catheter ablation for the treatment/management of cardiac arrhythmias. The catheterization procedure is conventionally guided with x-ray fluoroscopic imaging and more recently, but rarely, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray imaging irradiates the patient directly during the procedure, and the staff and interventionalists indirectly ...


Force Sensing In Arthroscopic Instruments Using Fiber Bragg Gratings, Daniel S. Yurkewich Apr 2015

Force Sensing In Arthroscopic Instruments Using Fiber Bragg Gratings, Daniel S. Yurkewich

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally-invasive surgery has revolutionized many medical procedures; however, it also impedes the ability to feel the interaction between the surgical tool and the anatomical part being operated on. In order to address this problem, it is necessary to obtain accurate measurements of the interaction forces exerted on the surgical tools during surgery. These forces can then be manifested to the surgeon via a haptic device or presented visually (visual-force feedback). This thesis describes the use of a fiber optic device to measure and display to the surgeon interaction forces acting on an arthroscopic tool. The sensorization of the tool involves ...


Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo Sep 2014

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is the third most common joint replacement. While robot-assisted hip and knee replacement technologies have enjoyed extensive development, this has been limited in the upper limb. This work focused on quantifying the localization accuracy of a robotic system, and evaluating its efficacy in the context of TSA.

A collaborative robot was fitted with a stylus tip to perform manual surface digitizations using the robot’s encoder output. In the first experiment, two precision-machined master cubes, representing the working volume around a glenoid structure, were used for system validation. Next, cadaveric glenoids were digitized and compared to ...


Evaluating Human Performance For Image-Guided Surgical Tasks, Matthew Kenneth Kramers Aug 2014

Evaluating Human Performance For Image-Guided Surgical Tasks, Matthew Kenneth Kramers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The following work focuses on the objective evaluation of human performance for two different interventional tasks; targeted prostate biopsy tasks using a tracked biopsy device, and external ventricular drain placement tasks using a mobile-based augmented reality device for visualization and guidance. In both tasks, a human performance methodology was utilized which respects the trade-off between speed and accuracy for users conducting a series of targeting tasks using each device. This work outlines the development and application of performance evaluation methods using these devices, as well as details regarding the implementation of the mobile AR application. It was determined that the ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige Jul 2014

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...


Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar Apr 2014

Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (WEFS) microscopy is developed as a non-invasive, label-free live cell imaging technique. This new high-contrast imaging can be employed to study the first hundred nanometers from the surface as it utilizes the evanescent field of a waveguide as the illumination source. Previously, waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy was developed as a fluorescence imaging technique comparable to the total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. Both the WEFF and WEFS technique utilizes the same fundamental concepts except in WEFS microscopy imaging is accomplished without the application of any fluorescent labeling. In this work, bacterial ...


Image Fusion And Axial Labeling Of The Spine, Brandon Miles Jan 2014

Image Fusion And Axial Labeling Of The Spine, Brandon Miles

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In order to improve radiological diagnosis of back pain and spine disease, two new algorithms have been developed to aid the 75% of Canadians who will suffer from back pain in a given year. With the associated medical imaging required for many of these patients, there is a potential for improvement in both patient care and healthcare economics by increasing the accuracy and efficiency of spine diagnosis. A real-time spine image fusion system and an automatic vertebra/disc labeling system have been developed to address this. Both magnetic resonance (MR) images and computed tomography (CT) images are often acquired for ...


Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad Dec 2013

Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Due to physical and biological constraints and requirements on the minimum resolution and SNR, the acquisition time is relatively long in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, a limited number of pulse sequences can be run in a clinical MRI session because of constraints on the total acquisition time due to patient comfort and cost considerations. Therefore, it is strongly desired to reduce the acquisition time without compromising the reconstruction quality. This thesis concerns under-sampled reconstruction techniques for acceleration of MRI acquisitions, i.e., parallel imaging and compressed sensing.

While compressed sensing MRI reconstructions are commonly regularized by penalizing the decimated ...


Development Of A Novel Handheld Device For Active Compensation Of Physiological Tremor, Abhijit Saxena Oct 2012

Development Of A Novel Handheld Device For Active Compensation Of Physiological Tremor, Abhijit Saxena

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In microsurgery, the human hand imposes certain limitations in accurately positioning the tip of a device such as scalpel. Any errors in the motion of the hand make microsurgical procedures difficult and involuntary motions such as hand tremors can make some procedures significantly difficult to perform. This is particularly true in the case of vitreoretinal microsurgery. The most familiar source of involuntary motion is physiological tremor. Real-time compensation of tremor is, therefore, necessary to assist surgeons to precisely position and manipulate the tool-tip to accurately perform a microsurgery. In this thesis, a novel handheld device (AID) is described for compensation ...


Metrics For Evaluating Surgical Microscope Usage During Myringotomy, Arefin M. Shamsil Aug 2012

Metrics For Evaluating Surgical Microscope Usage During Myringotomy, Arefin M. Shamsil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

Although teaching and learning surgical microscope manoeuvring is a fundamental step in middle ear surgical training, currently there is no objective method to teach or assess this skill. This thesis presents an experimental study designed to implement and test sets of metrics capable of numerically evaluating microscope manoeuvrability and qualitatively assessing surgical expertise of a subject during a middle ear surgery called myringotomy. The experiment involved performing a myringotomy on a fixed cadaveric ear. As participants, experienced ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeons and ENT surgical residents were invited. While performing the procedure, their microscope manoeuvring motions were captured as translational and ...


Preoperative Planning Of Robotics-Assisted Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Under Uncertainty, Hamidreza Azimian Aug 2012

Preoperative Planning Of Robotics-Assisted Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Under Uncertainty, Hamidreza Azimian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, a computational framework for patient-specific preoperative planning of Robotics-Assisted Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery (RAMICS) is developed. It is expected that preoperative planning of RAMICS will improve the rate of success by considering robot kinematics, patient-specific thoracic anatomy, and procedure-specific intraoperative conditions. Given the significant anatomical features localized in the preoperative computed tomography images of a patient's thorax, port locations and robot orientations (with respect to the patient's body coordinate frame) are determined to optimize characteristics such as dexterity, reachability, tool approach angles and maneuverability. In this thesis, two approaches for preoperative planning of RAMICS are ...


Modeling Lung Tissue Motions And Deformations: Applications In Tumor Ablative Procedures, Ali Sadeghi Naini May 2011

Modeling Lung Tissue Motions And Deformations: Applications In Tumor Ablative Procedures, Ali Sadeghi Naini

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Various types of motion and deformation that the lung undergoes during minimally invasive tumor ablative procedures have been investigated and modeled in this dissertation. The lung frequently undergoes continuous large respiratory deformation, which can greatly affect the pre-planned outcome of the operation, hence deformation compensation becomes necessary. The first type of major deformation involved in a target lung throughout a tumor ablative procedure is the one encountered in procedures where the lung is totally deflated before starting the operation. A consequence of this deflation is that pre-operative images (acquired while the lung was partially inflated) become inaccurate for targeting the ...