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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo Sep 2014

Characterization Of A Contact-Stylus Surface Digitization Method Using Collaborative Robots: Accuracy Evaluation In The Context Of Shoulder Replacement Or Resurfacing, Sara Saud Zimmo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is the third most common joint replacement. While robot-assisted hip and knee replacement technologies have enjoyed extensive development, this has been limited in the upper limb. This work focused on quantifying the localization accuracy of a robotic system, and evaluating its efficacy in the context of TSA.

A collaborative robot was fitted with a stylus tip to perform manual surface digitizations using the robot’s encoder output. In the first experiment, two precision-machined master cubes, representing the working volume around a glenoid structure, were used for system validation. Next, cadaveric glenoids were digitized and compared to ...


The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari Sep 2014

The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract:

The Effect of Fixation Plate Length on Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation for the Repair of in Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries

Introduction: Anterior cervical decompression and fusion with a plate (ACDFP) is a commonly performed treatment following a traumatic injury to the subaxial cervical spine. The purpose of the presented work was to determine the biomechanical effect of plate length on cervical spine kinematic stability following ACDFP stabilization for a simulated traumatic injury.

Methods: Eleven fresh-frozen cadaveric C5-C6 and C6-C7 motion segments were examined in this study. To assess kinematics, flexibility testing was performed on each specimen using ...


Design And Assessment Of An Experimental Test Setup For Use In Studies On The Vibrational Response Of The Head To Impact, Claudia M. Blandford Aug 2014

Design And Assessment Of An Experimental Test Setup For Use In Studies On The Vibrational Response Of The Head To Impact, Claudia M. Blandford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With the mortality, disability and socioeconomic costs associated with head injury, head impact biomechanics is important to developing injury criterions and safety tolerances. However, the current state of knowledge is contradictory and vague. This thesis will contribute to research done on the vibrational response of the head to impact by discussing two studies. The first will describe the design, implementation and validation of a head impactor setup specific for the study of the frequency response of the skull. An impactor capable of producing sub-5ms duration, sub-fracture impacts was successfully designed. The apparatus was validated by comparing the results of a ...


Computational Techniques To Predict Orthopaedic Implant Alignment And Fit In Bone, Seyed Kamaleddin Mostafavi Yazdi Apr 2014

Computational Techniques To Predict Orthopaedic Implant Alignment And Fit In Bone, Seyed Kamaleddin Mostafavi Yazdi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Among the broad palette of surgical techniques employed in the current orthopaedic practice, joint replacement represents one of the most difficult and costliest surgical procedures. While numerous recent advances suggest that computer assistance can dramatically improve the precision and long term outcomes of joint arthroplasty even in the hands of experienced surgeons, many of the joint replacement protocols continue to rely almost exclusively on an empirical basis that often entail a succession of trial and error maneuvers that can only be performed intraoperatively. Although the surgeon is generally unable to accurately and reliably predict a priori what the final malalignment ...


The Development And Application Of A Forearm Simulator To Investigate Radial Head Biomechanics, Brent A. Lanting Apr 2014

The Development And Application Of A Forearm Simulator To Investigate Radial Head Biomechanics, Brent A. Lanting

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The forearm is a complex articular unit, with poorly understood biomechanics. A novel forearm simulator to facilitate physiologic testing of cadavers for multiple clinical scenarios was designed, manufactured and validated. A number of outcome measurements were potentiated including the forearm’s resistance to rotation, radiocapitellar contact pressure and area as well as IOM loads. Testing of changes to forearm biomechanics due to radial head excision and variations of radial head arthroplasty dimensions was conducted. Radial head arthroplasty using the correct radial head length and diameter recreated the biomechanics of an intact forearm. Radial head excision as well an implant of ...


Biomechanical Investigations Of Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Gait Analysis, Materials Testing And Dynamic Radiography, Kristyn Leitch Apr 2014

Biomechanical Investigations Of Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: Gait Analysis, Materials Testing And Dynamic Radiography, Kristyn Leitch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis aimed to develop and assess biomechanical methods to assist in the evaluation of medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Five studies using diverse methods were performed, including three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis, materials testing of HTO fixation plates, and dynamic radiography in patients after surgery. Study 1 compared external knee joint moments during walking before and after varus or valgus producing osteotomy in patients with lateral or medial compartment osteoarthritis, and in healthy participants. The results highlighted the importance of alignment on gait biomechanics with changes in frontal plane angular impulse highly correlated to changes in mechanical axis ...


Development Of An In-Vitro Passive And Active Motion Simulator For The Investigation Of Shoulder Function And Kinematics, Joshua W. Giles Apr 2014

Development Of An In-Vitro Passive And Active Motion Simulator For The Investigation Of Shoulder Function And Kinematics, Joshua W. Giles

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Injuries and degenerative diseases of the shoulder are common and may relate to the joint’s complex biomechanics, which rely primarily on soft tissues to achieve stability. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, there is little information about their effects on the biomechanics of the shoulder, and a lack of evidence with which to guide clinical practice. Insight into these disorders and their treatments can be gained through in-vitro biomechanical experiments where the achieved physiologic accuracy and repeatability directly influence their efficacy and impact.

This work’s rationale was that developing a simulator with greater physiologic accuracy and testing capabilities ...