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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Novel Biomechanical Test Method For Cancellous Bone Screws And Screw Augmentation With Cement., Kevin Lancaster Dec 2015

Novel Biomechanical Test Method For Cancellous Bone Screws And Screw Augmentation With Cement., Kevin Lancaster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is often difficult to achieve adequate screw fixation for plate constructs in fractures with poor quality bone or in metaphyseal bone with extensive bone loss or comminution[7][17]. Furthermore, rescuing or augmenting failed screw fixation in inadequate bone with various cement products has yielded mixed results when tested with pure axial pullout loading[20][21]. In most cases, plate/screw constructs experience both vertical (translational) and horizontal (pullout) forces during physiologic loading[17][20][21]. The increased use of locked screws in plate constructs has also changed the loading patterns of bone screws. For this study, a novel ...


Synthesis And Functional Evaluation Of Peptide Modified Poly (Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Paridhi Kalia Dec 2015

Synthesis And Functional Evaluation Of Peptide Modified Poly (Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Paridhi Kalia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontal disease is an oral inflammatory disorder that afflicts roughly 46% of the adults in the U.S. Currently, treatment of periodontal disease involves the removal of plaque from the gingival pocket (with possible antibiotic treatment) and if necessary, gingival surgery. To our knowledge, no therapeutic approach exists that promotes host-biofilm homeostasis by limiting pathogen recolonization of the oral cavity after prophylaxis or treatment. The interaction of the pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis with commensal streptococci is critical for initiation of periodontitis and represents a target for limiting P. gingivalis colonization of the oral cavity. Previous studies showed that a synthetic ...


Development Of A Vascularized, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Liver-Tissue Mimic For Therapeutic Applications., Venkat Madhav Ramakrishnan Dec 2015

Development Of A Vascularized, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Liver-Tissue Mimic For Therapeutic Applications., Venkat Madhav Ramakrishnan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the incorporation of several technologies (stem cells, gene therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine) into a single project that aims to produce a liver-tissue mimic for therapeutic applications. The liver is arguably one of the most complex organs in the body. In addition to its remarkable capacity to regenerate, it performs a host of vital functions. As a result, its impairment has widespread systemic consequences. The work described herein focused on the liver in the context of cardiovascular disease and used the heritable disorder Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) as a clinical disease model. As (a) the only definitive ...


Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers Aug 2015

Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Early embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated orchestra of instructive cues that collectively guide naïve stem cells towards progressively more specialized fates. In the neural tube, the precursor structure to the brain and spinal cord, these signals emanate from ‘organizing centers’ surrounding the neural tube. These organizing centers send out soluble cues or morphogens that diffuse tens to hundreds of microns to recipient cells residing in the neural tube. Re-creating this dynamic landscape of cues in vitro is impossible using standard cell culture tools and techniques. However, microfluidics is perfectly suited to fill this gap, allowing precise control ...


Synthesis, Optimization, And Degradation Of A Fish Glue/Plga Polymer., Adam T. Schworer 1989- Aug 2015

Synthesis, Optimization, And Degradation Of A Fish Glue/Plga Polymer., Adam T. Schworer 1989-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomaterials used for tissue engineering, specifically polymers, come from either naturally occurring, like gelatin or collagen, or synthetic sources, such as polyesters. Often times, it is advantageous to combine biomaterials in order to maximize certain material properties, such as cellular adhesion and degradation. The purpose of this study is to provide direction for the synthesis, characterization, and a combination of a combination biomaterial between fish glue (FG), a natural source polymer, and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), a synthetically made polyester. First, FG is characterized for molecular weight via Gel Permeation Chromatography, GPC. Two combination methods to mix FG/PLGA solutions are ...


Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix: An Alternative Cell Culture Substrate That Alters Lung Cancer Cell Line Phenotype., Michael Thomas Scherzer Jun 2015

Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix: An Alternative Cell Culture Substrate That Alters Lung Cancer Cell Line Phenotype., Michael Thomas Scherzer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Poor lung cancer survival can largely be contributed to the metastatic cells that invade and spread throughout the body. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is composed of multiple cell types, as well as non-cellular components. The TME plays a critical role in the development of metastatic cancers by providing migratory cues that change the growing tumor’s properties. The Extracellular Matrix (ECM), a main component of the TME, has been shown to change composition during tumor progression, allowing cancer cells to invade tissue and survive away from the primary cancer site. Although the ECM is well-known to influence the fate of ...


Development Of A Neuromusculoskeletal Computer Model In A Chondrodystrophic Dog., Gregory Russo States Apr 2015

Development Of A Neuromusculoskeletal Computer Model In A Chondrodystrophic Dog., Gregory Russo States

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is a naturally occurring disease in dogs that produces a spontaneous injury to the spinal cord. IVDD is characterized by mineralization of the intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus, which reduces its load bearing capacity and results in high rates of intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). IVDH is disproportionately present in Dachshunds compared to other breeds, affecting an estimated 1 in 5 Dachshunds during their lifetime (Levine, J. M. et al., 2011). Assessment of injury severity and recovery in animal models is generally performed using a point scale, where subjects are graded according to metrics such as pain perception ...


Assessment Of Normal Knee Kinematics Using High-Speed Stereo-Radiography System, Vasiliki Kefala Mar 2015

Assessment Of Normal Knee Kinematics Using High-Speed Stereo-Radiography System, Vasiliki Kefala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The measurement of dynamic joint kinematics in vivo is important in order to understand the effects of joint injuries and diseases as well as for evaluating the treatment effectiveness. Quantification of knee motion is essential for assessment of joint function for diagnosis of pathology, such as tracking and progression of osteoarthritis and evaluation of outcome following conservative or surgical treatment. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an invasive treatment for arthritic pain and functional disability and it is used for deformed joint replacement with implants in order to restore joint alignment. It is important to describe knee kinematics in healthy individuals ...


Assessment Of Electrode Configurations Of Electrical Impedance Myography For The Evaluation Of Neuromuscular Diseases, Khondokar Mohammad Fazle Rabbi Jan 2015

Assessment Of Electrode Configurations Of Electrical Impedance Myography For The Evaluation Of Neuromuscular Diseases, Khondokar Mohammad Fazle Rabbi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a painless, noninvasive approach to measure the neuromuscular disease status. EIM parameters- resistance (R), reactance (X) and phase (θ) depend significantly on subcutaneous fat thickness, muscle size and inter electrode distance. The objective of this research is to find an electrode configuration which can minimize the effects on EIM parameters due to subcutaneous fat thickness variation. In this study, a model of human upper arm was developed using finite element method (FEM), which has already been established as an appropriate approach for the analysis of non-symmetrical shape for assessing alternations of muscle in disease-induced changes ...