Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

University of Louisville

2018

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage Dec 2018

Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of neural prostheses to improve health of paraplegics has been a prime interest of neuroscientists over the last few decades. Scientists have performed experiments with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to enable voluntary motor function of paralyzed patients. However, the experimentation on the human spinal cord is not a trivial task. Therefore, modeling and simulation techniques play a significant role in understanding the underlying concepts and mechanics of the spinal cord stimulation. In this work, simulation and modeling techniques related to spinal cord stimulation were investigated. The initial work was intended to visualize the electric field distribution patterns in ...


Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inherent heterogeneity of tumor tissue presents a major challenge to nanoparticle-medicated drug delivery. This heterogeneity spans from the molecular to the cellular (cell types) and to the tissue (vasculature, extra-cellular matrix) scales. Here we employ computational modeling to evaluate therapeutic response as a function of vascular-induced tumor tissue heterogeneity. Using data with three-layered gold nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin, nanotherapy is simulated with different levels of tissue heterogeneity, and the treatment response is measured in terms of tumor regression. The results show that tumor vascular density non-trivially influences the nanoparticle uptake and washout, and the associated tissue response. The drug ...


Rotary Pump Speed Modulation To Produce Pulsatile Flow And Ventricular Volume Unloading., Connor Joseph Smith Aug 2018

Rotary Pump Speed Modulation To Produce Pulsatile Flow And Ventricular Volume Unloading., Connor Joseph Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Continuous-flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have gained widespread clinical acceptance as a treatment option for advanced heart failure (HF); however, they have also been associated with an increased risk of adverse events, including gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic insufficiency, and hemorrhagic stroke. It has been hypothesized that the increase in adverse event incidence may be due in part to diminished vascular pulsatility and high shear stress when CF-LVADs are operated at fixed speeds. Previous studies have shown that pump speed modulation generates greater levels of pulsatility in rotary pumps than when operated at fixed speeds. The objective of this ...


The Effectiveness Of Localized Ultrasound And Aptamer Surface Modification On Nanoemulsions For Drug Delivery To Spheroids., Daniel A. Hodge Jul 2018

The Effectiveness Of Localized Ultrasound And Aptamer Surface Modification On Nanoemulsions For Drug Delivery To Spheroids., Daniel A. Hodge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is a group of diseases that affects 1.6 million and kills nearly 600,000 Americans each year. The National Cancer Institute defines it as “diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues” and it is often treated with one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation, surgery. The expense for these treatments is expected to rise to $156 billion by 2020. Localized delivery can improve effectiveness and cancer survival rates, decrease the cost of treatment, and decrease the side effects of chemotherapy. This paper addresses models for this localized delivery through nanoemulsions. Nanoemulsions ...


Investigation Of Cardiovascular Tissue Following 56fe-Radiation And Potential Countermeasure Effectiveness., Alexandra R Decarlo May 2018

Investigation Of Cardiovascular Tissue Following 56fe-Radiation And Potential Countermeasure Effectiveness., Alexandra R Decarlo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Exposure to ionizing radiation is an important medical concern because it can lead to health problems including cancer and cardiovascular issues. In space, astronauts are exposed to ionizing radiation that is not experienced by those who remain on Earth. This radiation can cause health problems such as cardiovascular disease. One way this can happen is through the creation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate TGF-β1, contributing to fibrosis or other cardiovascular problems. Antioxidants can be a potential pharmacological mitigator of these excess reactive oxygen species because of their ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. One such antioxidant with potential ...


Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna Mckinsey May 2018

Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna Mckinsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bone fracture is the second most common injury of child abuse. Studies have generally reported that femur fractures are more likely due to abuse than accidental causes in cases where the child is non-ambulatory. They have also found that household falls are commonly offered as the cause of injury in cases of abuse. In this study, a finite element (FE) pediatric femur model will be developed and used to evaluate likelihood of fracture in common household fall scenarios (bed falls and feet first falls). This will provide greater biomechanical evidence as to the likelihood of femur fracture due to common ...


Plga-Modified Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Hypo-Vascularized Hpv-Related Cervical Cancers., Lee B. Sims May 2018

Plga-Modified Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Hypo-Vascularized Hpv-Related Cervical Cancers., Lee B. Sims

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A major challenge associated with delivery of active agents in the female reproductive tract (FRT) is the ability of agents to efficiently diffuse through the cervicovaginal mucosa (CVM) and reach the underlying sub-epithelial immune cell layer and vasculature. A variety of drug delivery vehicles have been employed to improve the delivery of agents across the CVM and offer the capability to increase the longevity and retention of active agents to treat infections of the female reproductive tract. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to improve retention, diffusion, and cell-specific targeting via specific surface modifications, relative to other delivery platforms. In particular ...


Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard May 2018

Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrophysiological measurements have been used in recent history to classify instantaneous physiological configurations, e.g., hand gestures. This work investigates the feasibility of working with changes in physiological configurations over time (i.e., longitudinally) using a variety of algorithms from the machine learning domain. We demonstrate a high degree of classification accuracy for a binary classification problem derived from electromyography measurements before and after a 35-day bedrest. The problem difficulty is increased with a more dynamic experiment testing for changes in astronaut sensorimotor performance by taking electromyography and force plate measurements before, during, and after a jump from a small ...


Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer Apr 2018

Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is an examination of two material systems derived from polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). PLA is a polymer commonly sourced from renewable sources such as starches and sugars. It is a relatively strong, biodegradable polymer, making it ideal for use in the body. Even though it has a relative high strength, PLA is also brittle leading to the use of plasticizers to increase flexibility. One such plasticizer is PEG, which is a material that can exist at room temperature as either a thin liquid, or a hard waxy solid depending on the molecular weight. The first ...


Tumor-Targeted Double Emulsions For Ultrasound-Triggered Delivery Of Molecular Therapeutics., Connor S Centner Apr 2018

Tumor-Targeted Double Emulsions For Ultrasound-Triggered Delivery Of Molecular Therapeutics., Connor S Centner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, with 1.74 million new cancer cases diagnosed and 610,000 cancer deaths expected in 2018 alone. Current treatments often result in negative systemic effects and ineffective treatment of the tumor. Drug delivery vehicles have been developed for more effective local delivery methods, but many drug delivery vehicles lack spatial and temporal control. Targeted double emulsions are a new class of drug delivery vehicles which present a promising option for a high payload and controlled delivery. The purpose of our project was to develop and characterize an aptamer-chelated ...


Design And Development Of A Multifunctional Surgical Device For Ground And Space-Based Surgical Applications., Brooke Elaine Barrow Apr 2018

Design And Development Of A Multifunctional Surgical Device For Ground And Space-Based Surgical Applications., Brooke Elaine Barrow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the possibility of longer ventures into space, NASA will face many new medical challenges. The ability to surgically treat trauma and other disorders in reduced gravity requires reliable wound access, containment, and visualization. In collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Louisville is currently developing the AISS (Aqueous Immersion Surgical System) to increase efficiency and control of the operative field in space-based surgeries. Reliable wound access and containment is achieved by placing a transparent wound-isolation dome securely over the wound-site and pressurizing it with a saline solution. Leak-free trocars provide access ports for various surgical instruments. This system ...