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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

University of Louisville

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Simulation Of A Continuum Tumor Model Using Distributed Computing., Dylan A Goodin Jul 2019

Simulation Of A Continuum Tumor Model Using Distributed Computing., Dylan A Goodin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mathematical modeling aims to provide a theoretical framework for understanding tissue dynamics and for establishing treatment response for diseased tissues, such as tumors. Previously published continuum models have successfully represented idealized two-dimensional and three-dimensional tissue for short periods of time. A recently published continuum model of cancer increases model complexity and describes three-dimensional tissue that, due to the required complexity of the geometric multigrid solver, can only be feasibly applied to millimeter-scale simulations. Furthermore, the computational cost for such models has hindered their application in the laboratory and in the clinic. With computational demands greatly outpacing current openMP-based approaches on ...


Feasibility Study Of Intelligent Lvad Control For Optimal Heart Failure Therapy., John A. Karlen Iii Jul 2019

Feasibility Study Of Intelligent Lvad Control For Optimal Heart Failure Therapy., John A. Karlen Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are operated at constant speeds (rpm), consequently, pump flow is passively determined by the pressure difference between the LV and aorta. Since the diastolic pressure gradient (~70 mmHg) is much larger than the systolic gradient (~10 mmHg), the majority of pump flow occurs during systole. This limitation results in sub-optimal LV volume unloading, LV washing, and diminished vascular pulsatility that may be associated with increased risk for clinically-significant adverse events, including stroke, bleeding, arteriovenous malformations, and aortic insufficiency. To address these clinical adverse events, an intelligent control strategy using pump speed modulation was developed ...


Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage Dec 2018

Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of neural prostheses to improve health of paraplegics has been a prime interest of neuroscientists over the last few decades. Scientists have performed experiments with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to enable voluntary motor function of paralyzed patients. However, the experimentation on the human spinal cord is not a trivial task. Therefore, modeling and simulation techniques play a significant role in understanding the underlying concepts and mechanics of the spinal cord stimulation. In this work, simulation and modeling techniques related to spinal cord stimulation were investigated. The initial work was intended to visualize the electric field distribution patterns in ...


Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inherent heterogeneity of tumor tissue presents a major challenge to nanoparticle-medicated drug delivery. This heterogeneity spans from the molecular to the cellular (cell types) and to the tissue (vasculature, extra-cellular matrix) scales. Here we employ computational modeling to evaluate therapeutic response as a function of vascular-induced tumor tissue heterogeneity. Using data with three-layered gold nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin, nanotherapy is simulated with different levels of tissue heterogeneity, and the treatment response is measured in terms of tumor regression. The results show that tumor vascular density non-trivially influences the nanoparticle uptake and washout, and the associated tissue response. The drug ...


Rotary Pump Speed Modulation To Produce Pulsatile Flow And Ventricular Volume Unloading., Connor Joseph Smith Aug 2018

Rotary Pump Speed Modulation To Produce Pulsatile Flow And Ventricular Volume Unloading., Connor Joseph Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Continuous-flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have gained widespread clinical acceptance as a treatment option for advanced heart failure (HF); however, they have also been associated with an increased risk of adverse events, including gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic insufficiency, and hemorrhagic stroke. It has been hypothesized that the increase in adverse event incidence may be due in part to diminished vascular pulsatility and high shear stress when CF-LVADs are operated at fixed speeds. Previous studies have shown that pump speed modulation generates greater levels of pulsatility in rotary pumps than when operated at fixed speeds. The objective of this ...


The Effectiveness Of Localized Ultrasound And Aptamer Surface Modification On Nanoemulsions For Drug Delivery To Spheroids., Daniel A. Hodge Jul 2018

The Effectiveness Of Localized Ultrasound And Aptamer Surface Modification On Nanoemulsions For Drug Delivery To Spheroids., Daniel A. Hodge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is a group of diseases that affects 1.6 million and kills nearly 600,000 Americans each year. The National Cancer Institute defines it as “diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues” and it is often treated with one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation, surgery. The expense for these treatments is expected to rise to $156 billion by 2020. Localized delivery can improve effectiveness and cancer survival rates, decrease the cost of treatment, and decrease the side effects of chemotherapy. This paper addresses models for this localized delivery through nanoemulsions. Nanoemulsions ...


Investigation Of Cardiovascular Tissue Following 56fe-Radiation And Potential Countermeasure Effectiveness., Alexandra R Decarlo May 2018

Investigation Of Cardiovascular Tissue Following 56fe-Radiation And Potential Countermeasure Effectiveness., Alexandra R Decarlo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Exposure to ionizing radiation is an important medical concern because it can lead to health problems including cancer and cardiovascular issues. In space, astronauts are exposed to ionizing radiation that is not experienced by those who remain on Earth. This radiation can cause health problems such as cardiovascular disease. One way this can happen is through the creation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate TGF-β1, contributing to fibrosis or other cardiovascular problems. Antioxidants can be a potential pharmacological mitigator of these excess reactive oxygen species because of their ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. One such antioxidant with potential ...


Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna Mckinsey May 2018

Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna Mckinsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bone fracture is the second most common injury of child abuse. Studies have generally reported that femur fractures are more likely due to abuse than accidental causes in cases where the child is non-ambulatory. They have also found that household falls are commonly offered as the cause of injury in cases of abuse. In this study, a finite element (FE) pediatric femur model will be developed and used to evaluate likelihood of fracture in common household fall scenarios (bed falls and feet first falls). This will provide greater biomechanical evidence as to the likelihood of femur fracture due to common ...


Plga-Modified Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Hypo-Vascularized Hpv-Related Cervical Cancers., Lee B. Sims May 2018

Plga-Modified Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Hypo-Vascularized Hpv-Related Cervical Cancers., Lee B. Sims

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A major challenge associated with delivery of active agents in the female reproductive tract (FRT) is the ability of agents to efficiently diffuse through the cervicovaginal mucosa (CVM) and reach the underlying sub-epithelial immune cell layer and vasculature. A variety of drug delivery vehicles have been employed to improve the delivery of agents across the CVM and offer the capability to increase the longevity and retention of active agents to treat infections of the female reproductive tract. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to improve retention, diffusion, and cell-specific targeting via specific surface modifications, relative to other delivery platforms. In particular ...


Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard May 2018

Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrophysiological measurements have been used in recent history to classify instantaneous physiological configurations, e.g., hand gestures. This work investigates the feasibility of working with changes in physiological configurations over time (i.e., longitudinally) using a variety of algorithms from the machine learning domain. We demonstrate a high degree of classification accuracy for a binary classification problem derived from electromyography measurements before and after a 35-day bedrest. The problem difficulty is increased with a more dynamic experiment testing for changes in astronaut sensorimotor performance by taking electromyography and force plate measurements before, during, and after a jump from a small ...


Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer Apr 2018

Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is an examination of two material systems derived from polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). PLA is a polymer commonly sourced from renewable sources such as starches and sugars. It is a relatively strong, biodegradable polymer, making it ideal for use in the body. Even though it has a relative high strength, PLA is also brittle leading to the use of plasticizers to increase flexibility. One such plasticizer is PEG, which is a material that can exist at room temperature as either a thin liquid, or a hard waxy solid depending on the molecular weight. The first ...


Tumor-Targeted Double Emulsions For Ultrasound-Triggered Delivery Of Molecular Therapeutics., Connor S Centner Apr 2018

Tumor-Targeted Double Emulsions For Ultrasound-Triggered Delivery Of Molecular Therapeutics., Connor S Centner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, with 1.74 million new cancer cases diagnosed and 610,000 cancer deaths expected in 2018 alone. Current treatments often result in negative systemic effects and ineffective treatment of the tumor. Drug delivery vehicles have been developed for more effective local delivery methods, but many drug delivery vehicles lack spatial and temporal control. Targeted double emulsions are a new class of drug delivery vehicles which present a promising option for a high payload and controlled delivery. The purpose of our project was to develop and characterize an aptamer-chelated ...


Design And Development Of A Multifunctional Surgical Device For Ground And Space-Based Surgical Applications., Brooke Elaine Barrow Apr 2018

Design And Development Of A Multifunctional Surgical Device For Ground And Space-Based Surgical Applications., Brooke Elaine Barrow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the possibility of longer ventures into space, NASA will face many new medical challenges. The ability to surgically treat trauma and other disorders in reduced gravity requires reliable wound access, containment, and visualization. In collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Louisville is currently developing the AISS (Aqueous Immersion Surgical System) to increase efficiency and control of the operative field in space-based surgeries. Reliable wound access and containment is achieved by placing a transparent wound-isolation dome securely over the wound-site and pressurizing it with a saline solution. Leak-free trocars provide access ports for various surgical instruments. This system ...


Design, Development, And Characterization Of Breathforce : A Respiratory Training System For Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries., Kevin L Tran Dec 2017

Design, Development, And Characterization Of Breathforce : A Respiratory Training System For Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries., Kevin L Tran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction are consistently reported as the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the 1,275,000 people who are living with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States. Respiratory-cardiovascular complications from neurological disorders (primarily COPD and sleep apnea) are currently the number one cause of death and disability in the US.

The main goal of this project is to develop an inspiratory-expiratory training device for use in the rehabilitation of patients with respiratory motor and cardiovascular deficits that incorporates existing technologies and promotes successful training methodologies performed at the clinic and at home.

An ...


Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar Dec 2017

Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Powder injection molding (PIM) process simulations can be performed to minimize the number of injection molding experiments by estimating material properties necessary for PIM simulations. In current work, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder-polymer binder feedstock was compounded for 45 vol. % and 52 vol. % solids loading. PIM experiments on designed micro-pillar array geometry were performed using 52 vol. % PZT. Using PIM experiments results as basis, PIM simulations were performed on designed micro-pillar array geometries to understand the effectiveness of PIM simulations with the use of estimated feedstock properties in predicting molding behavior that have micro-features. Additionally, PIM simulations were performed to ...


A Novel Approach To Assess Minimally Invasive Surgical Device Failure Utilizing Adverse Event Outcome Severity And Design Complexity., Marie K. Riggs Dec 2017

A Novel Approach To Assess Minimally Invasive Surgical Device Failure Utilizing Adverse Event Outcome Severity And Design Complexity., Marie K. Riggs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Medical device failure and misuse have the potential to cause serious injury and death. Given the intricate nature of the instruments utilized specifically in minimally invasive surgery (MIS), users and manufacturers of surgical devices share a responsibility in preventing user error and device failure. A novel approach was presented for the evaluation of minimally invasive device failures, which involved assessing the severity of adverse event outcomes associated with the failures modes and investigating aspects of the devices’ design that may contribute to failure. The goals of this research were to 1) characterize the design attributes, failure modes, and adverse events ...


Biomechanical Testing Of An Exercise For Strengthening The Proximal Femur., Alyssa Osbourne Aug 2017

Biomechanical Testing Of An Exercise For Strengthening The Proximal Femur., Alyssa Osbourne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Based on the principles of cutting edge bone remodeling research, a unique therapeutic exercise device was designed specifically to improve bone quality at the most critical location of the proximal femur prone to fracture: the superior-lateral femoral neck where the fracture first initiates during a fall. The exercise/device is intended to work by inducing enough strain in the bone to stimulate the body’s natural bone remodeling mechanisms to increase bone density in the proximal femur and consequently prevent a fracture from arising if a fall to the side does occur.

In order to test the proposed exercise, experiments ...


Custom Software For The 3d Printing Of Patient Specific Plate Bending Templates In Pelvic Fracture Repair., Gordon B Lents Aug 2017

Custom Software For The 3d Printing Of Patient Specific Plate Bending Templates In Pelvic Fracture Repair., Gordon B Lents

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work is to reduce the operative time and blood loss incurred during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of traumatic pelvic injuries through the creation of patient specific bending templates for reconstruction plates. These templates are 3D printed in a resin capable of being sterilized and taken into the operating room so that bending may be performed by the surgeon before the patient is opened or by another team member in parallel with the surgeon.

A novel software extension was created in 3D modeling software to allow a surgeon to individually position screws on a pelvic ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., Scott D. Cambron May 2017

Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., Scott D. Cambron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Piezo-active composites have been implemented for sensing and transduction for decades. The 0-3 ceramic/polymer composite is one of the most common composite types used for sensing applications, owing to their tailorable properties of the two-phase composition, consisting of a three-dimensionally connected polymer/rubber matrix (inactive phase) with a dispersion of isolated piezo-ceramic particles (active phase). This thesis describes a method to develop novel biocompatible perivascular band comprised of a two-phase piezo-active composite to be fabricated using simple manufacturing processes. Biomaterials such as tissue scaffolds comprised of silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS), and biocompatible soft rubbers will be implemented ...


Examining The Effects Of Macrophage Populations On Cancerous Tumor Growth., Grace E. Mahlbacher May 2017

Examining The Effects Of Macrophage Populations On Cancerous Tumor Growth., Grace E. Mahlbacher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The most abundant immune cell types of the tumor microenvironment macrophages recruited there by tumor-eluted factors. The role of these immune cells in tumor progression, and the interplay between tumor and immune cells is an emerging field of research with potential for novel treatment strategies. Here, a TIE2 expressing macrophage (TEM) subtype is integrated into a virtual tumor model. Within the 2D microenvironment, the TEM will differentiate from an extravasated monocyte precursor, congregate around the abluminal side of the vasculature in response to a chemoattractant gradient, secrete cytokines which favor differentiation of a separate angiogenic macrophage subtype [1]. The effects ...


A Novel Mra-Based Framework For The Detection Of Changes In Cerebrovascular Blood Pressure., Yitzhak Atakilt Gebru May 2017

A Novel Mra-Based Framework For The Detection Of Changes In Cerebrovascular Blood Pressure., Yitzhak Atakilt Gebru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: High blood pressure (HBP) affects 75 million adults and is the primary or contributing cause of mortality in 410,000 adults each year in the United States. Chronic HBP leads to cerebrovascular changes and is a significant contributor for strokes, dementia, and cognitive impairment. Non-invasive measurement of changes in cerebral vasculature and blood pressure (BP) may enable physicians to optimally treat HBP patients. This manuscript describes a method to non-invasively quantify changes in cerebral vasculature and BP using Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) imaging.

Methods: MRA images and BP measurements were obtained from patients (n=15, M=8, F=7 ...


Development Of A Directional Bone Reaming System., Richard J Ackermann May 2017

Development Of A Directional Bone Reaming System., Richard J Ackermann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Preparation of long bones such as the femur or tibia for placement of intramedullary devices for the treatment of fractures usually involves reaming with a series of central cutters driven by a drill-like device with a flexible shaft over a guide wire. The reamers sequentially enlarge the intramedullary canal into a tunnel of circular cross-section and a diameter appropriate for the procedure. The current technology is concentric, meaning that the system is self-centering within the original intramedullary canal and the expansion is symmetric with respect to the original centerline. A novel system for laterally deflecting the head of a 12mm ...


Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi Dec 2016

Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by ongoing problems in social interaction and communication, and engagement in repetitive behaviors. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 68 children in the United States has ASD. Mounting evidence shows that many of these individuals display an interest in social interaction with computers and robots and, in general, feel comfortable spending time in such environments. It is known that the subtlety and unpredictability of people’s social behavior are intimidating and confusing for many individuals with ASD. Computerized learning environments and robots, however, prepare a ...


Mechanism Of Interaction Of Peptide Modified Nanoparticles With Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Ankita Jain Dec 2016

Mechanism Of Interaction Of Peptide Modified Nanoparticles With Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Ankita Jain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Studies suggest that P. gingivalis functions as a keystone pathogen and interacts with primary colonizers in the supragingival biofilm such as S. gordonii. This interaction contributes to the initial colonization of the oral cavity by P. gingivalis and thus represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We have identified a peptide (BAR) derived from the streptococcal SspB protein that functions to inhibit P. gingivalis adherence to S. gordonii. In addition, we showed that nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with BAR inhibit this interaction more potently than free soluble peptide, possibly by promoting interaction with P. gingivalis at higher valency than free peptide ...


A Cad System For Early Diagnosis Of Autism Using Different Imaging Modalities., Marwa Maher Tawfik Ismail Dec 2016

A Cad System For Early Diagnosis Of Autism Using Different Imaging Modalities., Marwa Maher Tawfik Ismail

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The term “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) refers to a collection of neuro-developmental disorders that affect linguistic, behavioral, and social skills. Autism has many symptoms, most prominently, social impairment and repetitive behaviors. It is crucial to diagnose autism at an early stage for better assessment and investigation of this complex syndrome. There have been a lot of efforts to diagnose ASD using different techniques, such as imaging modalities, genetic techniques, and behavior reports. Imaging modalities have been extensively exploited for ASD diagnosis, and one of the most successful ones is Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),where it has shown promise for the ...


Gamma-Radiation Exposure Alters The Cardiovascular Extracellular Matrix., Nicholas Allen Aug 2016

Gamma-Radiation Exposure Alters The Cardiovascular Extracellular Matrix., Nicholas Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ionizing radiation has been associated with various cardiovascular complications; however, the associated molecular changes from radiation exposure still remain largely uncharacterized. Alterations to the cardiovascular tissue microenvironment, i.e. the extracellular matrix (ECM), directly affect the function of integrated vascular cells, including cell adhesion, potential to form vessels, and endothelial permeability, which can promote cardiovascular pathologies. The ECM is constantly remodeled in response to stimuli, such as TGF-β1, which leads to excessive ECM accumulation. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will alter the cardiovascular ECM. Human Cardiac Fibroblasts (HCFs) were utilized to produce ECM as an in vitro model to study ...


Fabrication, Characterization And Skin Permeation Of Antoxidant-Loaded Lipid Vesicles For Transdermal Drug Delivery., Emily Martin Jul 2016

Fabrication, Characterization And Skin Permeation Of Antoxidant-Loaded Lipid Vesicles For Transdermal Drug Delivery., Emily Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excess production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can be caused by radiation, cigarette smoke, and pollutants, can cause many damaging cellular effects, such as DNA damage and unregulated cell apoptosis. If left unmitigated, chronic overproduction of ROS has been linked to the formation of cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammation, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ROS is typically eliminated with antioxidants, which scavenge and inhibit the formation of ROS by becoming oxidized by the ROS and by binding to its precursors.

Curcumin is an effective lipid-soluble antioxidant agent. However, its poor ...


Development And Evaluation Of Custom Prosthetic Devices For A Companion Animal Utilizing Additive Manufacturing., Benjamin Joseph Cahill Jul 2016

Development And Evaluation Of Custom Prosthetic Devices For A Companion Animal Utilizing Additive Manufacturing., Benjamin Joseph Cahill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND AND SIGINIFICANCE: Few options exist for companion animals in need of prosthetic devices. With the rise of rapid prototyping technology, the availability and customization of prosthetic devices for individual companion animals is now a viable and cost effective alternative to the current options of a peg leg prosthetic, or wheel-assisted prosthetic device. The goals of this study were to describe the (1) specific needs and (2) biomechanics of a feline with bilateral thoracic limb amputation, (3) develop custom prosthetic devices utilizing rapid prototyping technology, and (4) describe the biomechanics of a feline with bilateral thoracic limb amputation using the ...


Development Of A Novel Device For Ventricular Assist Device Outflow Graft Anastomosis., Young Choi May 2016

Development Of A Novel Device For Ventricular Assist Device Outflow Graft Anastomosis., Young Choi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy can be live-saving for advanced heart failure patients. Conventional anastomosis (surgical connection) of LVAD outflow grafts to the aorta requires aortic clamping and hand-suturing. Aortic clamping increases the risk for neurological complications. Hand-suturing may be time-consuming and requires significant surgical dexterity. There is currently no commercially available device for sutureless anastomosis of large vascular grafts (diameter > 5mm). To overcome these limitations, a prototype LVAD outflow graft anastomosis device (GrAD) that facilitates sutureless anastomosis was developed and tested to demonstrate proof-of-concept and feasibility for (1) secured attachment withstanding physiological pressures, and (2) comparable attachment ...


Efficacy Of Subcutaneous Electrocardiogram Leads For Synchronous Timing And Aortic Root Cannulation For Chronic Counterpulsation Therapy., Stephen R. Carnahan May 2016

Efficacy Of Subcutaneous Electrocardiogram Leads For Synchronous Timing And Aortic Root Cannulation For Chronic Counterpulsation Therapy., Stephen R. Carnahan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Counterpulsation devices (CPD) require electrocardiogram (ECG) lead implantation for timing device filling and ejection with the native heart. Non- implantable leads limit the scope of CPD treatment to short-term therapy. Standard transvenous/epicardial ECG leads increase the invasiveness of therapy.

Methods: To overcome these limitations, subcutaneous ECG leads were tested in chronic (n=6) and acute (n=5) bovine models. ECG waveforms from clinical- grade epicardial (control) leads and subcutaneous (test) leads were simultaneously recorded resulting in 830 data epochs (30-s each) for a total of 44,614 heart beats. Device triggering using R-wave detection was calculated for each ...