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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer Apr 2018

Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is an examination of two material systems derived from polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). PLA is a polymer commonly sourced from renewable sources such as starches and sugars. It is a relatively strong, biodegradable polymer, making it ideal for use in the body. Even though it has a relative high strength, PLA is also brittle leading to the use of plasticizers to increase flexibility. One such plasticizer is PEG, which is a material that can exist at room temperature as either a thin liquid, or a hard waxy solid depending on the molecular weight. The first ...


Lcd 3d Printing Of A Photocurable Elastomer For Tissue Engineering, Beatriz Luiza De Souza Jan 2018

Lcd 3d Printing Of A Photocurable Elastomer For Tissue Engineering, Beatriz Luiza De Souza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Three-dimensional scaffolding is an emerging research area in biomedical and tissue engineering. Scaffolds provide the possibility of growing tissues in a controlled environment, with desired characteristics and properties towards a specific application. A new method to 3D print biodegradable and biocompatible material called Polyglycerol Sebacate Acrylate (PGSA) is demonstrated. PGSA is essentially an acrylated form of PGS using photoinitiator to become a photocurable resin suitable for liquid crystal display (LCD) 3D printing. PGSA was selected because its rheological and crosslinking behavior (and hence its mechanical properties) can be controlled by changes in curing time, temperature, and pressure. This material has ...


Computational Modeling Of Transcatheter Aortic Valves, Mostafa Abbasi Jan 2018

Computational Modeling Of Transcatheter Aortic Valves, Mostafa Abbasi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established therapy alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk and intermediate-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Currently, although TAVR is an alternative and less-invasive treatment for high-risk and intermediate-risk patients, surgical aortic valves replacement (SAVR) was still considered as the gold standard for low-risk patients. TAVR could potentially be applied to lower-risk younger patients if the indications can be safely expanded to the patients and transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) long-term durability can match with that of surgical bioprostheses. In contrast to surgical aortic valves (SAVs), there have been limited clinical data on the ...


Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar Dec 2017

Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Powder injection molding (PIM) process simulations can be performed to minimize the number of injection molding experiments by estimating material properties necessary for PIM simulations. In current work, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder-polymer binder feedstock was compounded for 45 vol. % and 52 vol. % solids loading. PIM experiments on designed micro-pillar array geometry were performed using 52 vol. % PZT. Using PIM experiments results as basis, PIM simulations were performed on designed micro-pillar array geometries to understand the effectiveness of PIM simulations with the use of estimated feedstock properties in predicting molding behavior that have micro-features. Additionally, PIM simulations were performed to ...


Biomechanical Testing Of An Exercise For Strengthening The Proximal Femur., Alyssa Osbourne Aug 2017

Biomechanical Testing Of An Exercise For Strengthening The Proximal Femur., Alyssa Osbourne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Based on the principles of cutting edge bone remodeling research, a unique therapeutic exercise device was designed specifically to improve bone quality at the most critical location of the proximal femur prone to fracture: the superior-lateral femoral neck where the fracture first initiates during a fall. The exercise/device is intended to work by inducing enough strain in the bone to stimulate the body’s natural bone remodeling mechanisms to increase bone density in the proximal femur and consequently prevent a fracture from arising if a fall to the side does occur.

In order to test the proposed exercise, experiments ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., Scott D. Cambron May 2017

Development And Evaluation Of A Biocompatible Electroactive Sensor For Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement., Scott D. Cambron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Piezo-active composites have been implemented for sensing and transduction for decades. The 0-3 ceramic/polymer composite is one of the most common composite types used for sensing applications, owing to their tailorable properties of the two-phase composition, consisting of a three-dimensionally connected polymer/rubber matrix (inactive phase) with a dispersion of isolated piezo-ceramic particles (active phase). This thesis describes a method to develop novel biocompatible perivascular band comprised of a two-phase piezo-active composite to be fabricated using simple manufacturing processes. Biomaterials such as tissue scaffolds comprised of silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS), and biocompatible soft rubbers will be implemented ...


Statistical Shape Modeling To Quantify Variation In The Proximal Humeral Anatomy, Paul B. Sade Sr. Jan 2017

Statistical Shape Modeling To Quantify Variation In The Proximal Humeral Anatomy, Paul B. Sade Sr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The fit of the humeral prosthesis to the intramedullary canal and the replication of the anatomic humeral head center are important factors in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (TSA). The objective of this thesis was to develop a Statistical Shape Model (SSM) of the cortical and cancellous bone regions of the proximal humerus, and to assess potential shape differences with gender and ethnicity, with a goal of informing implant design. An SSM was used and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to data that represented both the cancellous and cortical humeral bone of 63 healthy subjects and cadavers. Anatomical measurements and PC ...


Finite Element And Probabilistic Analysis Of Soft Tissue Structures Of The Human Lumbar Spine, Dana Joseph Coombs Jan 2016

Finite Element And Probabilistic Analysis Of Soft Tissue Structures Of The Human Lumbar Spine, Dana Joseph Coombs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human lumbar spine mechanics are influenced by soft tissue structures. Understanding and properly modeling these structures can help determine pathology, treatment, and implant design and performance. Finite element models of the L4-L5 level of the lumbar spine are often used, which include a representation of the intervertebral disc and spinal ligaments. Validation of these models are typically based on torque rotation data from a single subject or the models use average properties reported in literature. However, experimental testing reports variation up to 40% in ligament stiffness and even greater variability for annulus fibrosis properties. Probabilistic approaches enable consideration of the ...


Anatomy, Implant Selection And Placement Influence Spine Mechanics Associated With Total Disc Replacement, Justin F.M. Hollenbeck Jan 2016

Anatomy, Implant Selection And Placement Influence Spine Mechanics Associated With Total Disc Replacement, Justin F.M. Hollenbeck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Through aging and injury, the intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine can undergo degeneration, leading to collapse of the vertebrae and low back pain, a symptom that affects half the adult population in any given year. In an effort to reduce low back pain, total disc replacement treatment removes the degenerated disc, restores natural height and lordosis of the segment, and preserves motion at the joint. Patient anatomy, implant selection, and implant placement play significant roles in a patient's outcomes after total disc replacement surgery. Thus, the objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop a ...


Neuromodulation Based Control Of Autonomous Robots On A Cloud Computing Platform, Cameron Muhammad Jan 2014

Neuromodulation Based Control Of Autonomous Robots On A Cloud Computing Platform, Cameron Muhammad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, the advancement of neurobiologically plausible models and computer networking has resulted in new ways of implementing control systems on robotic platforms. The work presents a control approach based on vertebrate neuromodulation and its implementation on autonomous robots in the open-source, open-access environment of robot operating system (ROS). A spiking neural network (SNN) is used to model the neuromodulatory function for generating context based behavioral responses of the robots to sensory input signals. The neural network incorporates three types of neurons- cholinergic and noradrenergic (ACh/NE) neurons for attention focusing and action selection, dopaminergic (DA) neurons for rewards- ...


Representing Intersubject Variability With A Statistical Shape And Alignment Model Of The Knee, Chandreshwar Rao Jan 2013

Representing Intersubject Variability With A Statistical Shape And Alignment Model Of The Knee, Chandreshwar Rao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Prior statistical shape models have not considered multiple structures in the knee joint to characterize anatomic variation which are required to investigate joint mechanics further for the successful knee replacement. Accordingly, the study's objective was to develop statistical shape and alignment model (SSAM) to capture intersubject variability and demonstrate the ability to generate realistic instances for use in finite element analysis (FEA). SSAM described the variability in the training set of 20 subjects with a series of modes of variation obtained by performing principal component analysis (PCA). PCA produced modes of variation with the first 3 modes representing 70 ...


Explicit Finite Element Modeling Of The Human Lumbar Spine, Milind Rao Jan 2012

Explicit Finite Element Modeling Of The Human Lumbar Spine, Milind Rao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Validated finite element (FE) models of the functional spinal unit (FSU) and lumbar spine are essential in design-phase device development and in assessing the mechanics associated with normal spine function and degenerative disc disease (DDD), as well as the impact of fusion and total disc replacement (TDR). Although experimental data from fully intact specimens can be used for model calibration and validation, the contributions from the individual structures (disc, facets, and ligaments) may be inappropriately distributed. Hence, creation of decompression conditions or device implantations that require structure removal may not have the proper resulting mechanics. An explicit FE formulation may ...