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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Theses/Dissertations

ETD Archive

2011

Keyword

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

An Assessment Of The Accuracy Of Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping In Turbulent Flow Through Orifices, Sahitya Pidaparthi Jan 2011

An Assessment Of The Accuracy Of Magnetic Resonance Phase Velocity Mapping In Turbulent Flow Through Orifices, Sahitya Pidaparthi

ETD Archive

Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping (MRPVM) is an established clinical technique to measure blood flow. The acquired information can be used to diagnose a variety of cardiovascular disease. One of the main limitations of MRPVM is that it cannot quantify the flow under turbulent flow conditions. Such conditions develop in certain cases such as in heart valve stenosis and arterial stenosis. Specifically, heart valve stenosis is a serious disease in which the valve does not open as much as necessary for blood to pass through. As a result, the heart has to overwork to overcome the increased resistance. If untreated ...


Characterization Of Elastin-Like Polypeptides Using Viscometry, Hamdan Noman Alanazi Jan 2011

Characterization Of Elastin-Like Polypeptides Using Viscometry, Hamdan Noman Alanazi

ETD Archive

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a class of polypeptide polymers that are gaining interest in various potential applications. These polymers are responsive to the changes in their environment by exhibiting conformational changes and aggregation. Monodisperse elastin-like polypeptides, (GVGVP)40, (GVGVP)40-foldon, and (GVGVP)60-foldon are made in bacterial expression system. An Ubbelohde capillary viscometer was set up to characterize the structural changes of these ELPs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. For the ELP-foldon, the relative viscosity measurements were utilized to calculate the intrinsic viscosities using Kraemer and Huggins equations. The known molecular weights of the ELPs and the experimentally determined ...


Modification, Expression, And Purification Of Hyperactive Antifreeze Proteins From Insect Tenebrio Molitor, Sen Bu Jan 2011

Modification, Expression, And Purification Of Hyperactive Antifreeze Proteins From Insect Tenebrio Molitor, Sen Bu

ETD Archive

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), also known as thermal hysteresis proteins, can protect organisms from damage caused by freezing by lowering the freezing point of fluids. AFPs can bind to small ice crystals, inhibit ice growth, and change the morphology of ice crystals. The difference between the freezing temperature and the melting temperature is termed thermal hysteresis (TH). There are different types of AFPs, such as fish AFPs (type I, II, III, and IV) and insect AFPs. These AFPs can also be classified by their thermal hysteresis activity: moderately active AFPs and hyperactive AFPs. Previous research groups successfully constructed AFP (type I ...


Quantification Of Scenedesmus Dimorphus Growth And Substrate Kinetics For Continuous Photobioreactor Design, Daniela Ribita Jan 2011

Quantification Of Scenedesmus Dimorphus Growth And Substrate Kinetics For Continuous Photobioreactor Design, Daniela Ribita

ETD Archive

Increasing gas prices, limited fossil fuel resources and U.S. dependence on foreign oil make research in alternative fuels a priority. The feasibility of producing fuels from microalgae is economically dependent on improvements in lipid productivity by the algae. The research presented here focuses on the development of a mathematical model to describe the biomass and lipid productivity in a continuously-operated photobioreactor (PBR) system. Five different cell lysing methods were evaluated for the purpose of improving the methods of analysis of lipid synthesis. The two most promising methods were found to be mortar and pestle and organic solvent cell fractionation ...


One-Dimensional Radial Diffusion Of Small Molecules (376 Da) In Bone Tissue, Kurt W. Farrell Jan 2011

One-Dimensional Radial Diffusion Of Small Molecules (376 Da) In Bone Tissue, Kurt W. Farrell

ETD Archive

The flow of nutrients through any biological tissue is important to maintain homeostasis. If the transport process is understood, medical research teams can better design medications, prosthetic implants, and tissue scaffolds. Additionally, transport rates help physicians to better understand disease states and wound healing, including minor injuries such as breaks and sprains, which will aid in better diagnoses. We developed a novel method that measures the rate of diffusion in vitro, of fluorescein sodium salt. Samples were incubated at 37°C in a 5 CO2 atmosphere for various periods of time. Samples were sliced and analyzed using Image-Pro Plus and ...


Algea Suspension Dewatering With An Inclined Gravity Settler, Jing Hou Jan 2011

Algea Suspension Dewatering With An Inclined Gravity Settler, Jing Hou

ETD Archive

Biofuel has been studied for several decades as a feasible substitute for petroleum, which may solve the energy crisis. Having a high oil content and growth rate, algae biofuels have received lots of attention recently, and have been considered as one of the most promising technologies to reduce the dependence of fossil fuels. In the process of producing algae biofuel, the dewatering process constitutes a significant part of the cost of the algae biofuel, impeding progress towards large-scale commercial use. An inclined settler utilizes gravity to separate algae cells from the fluid, with little energy consumption. The separation ability of ...


Design Of An Implant For First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Atul Kumar Jan 2011

Design Of An Implant For First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Hemiarthroplasty, Atul Kumar

ETD Archive

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and it affects 27 million US adults. OA disease involves all of the tissues of the diarthrodial joint and ultimately, may lead to softening, ulceration, loss of articular cartilage, sclerosis and polished appearance of the subchondral bone, osteophytes, and subchondral cysts. The first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ1) is affected in up to 42 cases of OA. Besides osteoarthritis, other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout also affect the MTPJ1. Involvement of MTPJ1 with these conditions invariably leads to deformed toe such as hallux valgus and hallux rigidus. Over 150 surgical techniques ...


3d Imaging For Planning Of Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures, Uma Numburi Jan 2011

3d Imaging For Planning Of Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures, Uma Numburi

ETD Archive

Novel minimally invasive surgeries are used for treating cardiovascular diseases and are performed under 2D fluoroscopic guidance with a C-arm system. 3D multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) images are routinely used for preprocedural planning and postprocedural follow-up. For preprocedural planning, the ability to integrate the MDCT with fluoroscopic images for intraprocedural guidance is of clinical interest. Registration may be facilitated by rotating the C-arm to acquire 3D C-arm CT images. This dissertation describes the development of optimal scan and contrast parameters for C-arm CT in 6 swine. A 5-s ungated C-arm CT acquisition during rapid ventricular pacing with aortic root ...


Development Of A Muscle Force Optimization Algorithm To Improve Center Of Pressure During Simulated Walking, Lawrence Dean Noble Jan 2011

Development Of A Muscle Force Optimization Algorithm To Improve Center Of Pressure During Simulated Walking, Lawrence Dean Noble

ETD Archive

The Universal Musculoskeletal Simulator (UMS) was developed at the Cleveland Clinic to facilitate general purpose orthopaedic research that allows investigators to study the in vitro forces applied to bones, tendons and ligaments during simulated exercise of cadaver joint systems. In its original state, the UMS hardware consisted of a rotopod (a specialized hexapod robot), a single rotary tendon actuator and custom LabVIEW software for coordinated control and operation of the system. The focus of this work was to 1) enhance the UMS with a multi-tendon actuator system, 2) develop a muscle force optimization algorithm and evaluate it with a static ...


Effect Of Step Change In Growth Speed During Directional Solidification On Array Morphology Of Al-7 Wt Si Alloy, Swapna Pakiru Jan 2011

Effect Of Step Change In Growth Speed During Directional Solidification On Array Morphology Of Al-7 Wt Si Alloy, Swapna Pakiru

ETD Archive

No abstract provided.


Measurement Of White Matter Structure Changes In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Using Fractal Analysis, Zao Liu Jan 2011

Measurement Of White Matter Structure Changes In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Using Fractal Analysis, Zao Liu

ETD Archive

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is recognized as a motor neuron disorder affecting the structure and function of the brain and neuromuscular system. Very little is known, however, that the nervous system degeneration is dependent on disease phenotypes of ALS. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of brain white matter (WM) structure degeneration in four ALS patient groups characterized by their clinical signs and neuroimaging measurements. Fractal dimension (FD) of three-dimensional (3D) brain WM images was quantitatively analyzed to evaluate the WM structural complexity, including complexity levels of the WM skeleton, surface and general structures in ALS ...


Investigations Of Anatomical Connectivity In The Internal Capsule Of Macaques With Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Kyle Andrew Ignatius Taljan Jan 2011

Investigations Of Anatomical Connectivity In The Internal Capsule Of Macaques With Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Kyle Andrew Ignatius Taljan

ETD Archive

Understanding anatomical connectivity is crucial for improving outcomes of deep brain stimulation surgery. Tractography is a promising method for noninvasively investigating anatomical connectivity, but connections between subcortical regions have not been closely examined by this method. As many connections to subcortical regions converge at the internal capsule (IC), we investigate the connectivity through the IC to three subcortical nuclei (caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus) in 6 macaques. We show that a statistical correction for a known distance-related artifact in tractography results in large changes in connectivity patterns. Our results suggest that care should be taken in using tractography to assess ...


A Left Ventricular Motion Phantom For Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mehmet Ersoy Jan 2011

A Left Ventricular Motion Phantom For Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mehmet Ersoy

ETD Archive

The mammalian left ventricle (LV) has two distinct motion patterns: wall thickening and rotation. The purpose of this study was to design and build a low-cost, non-ferromagnetic LV motion phantom, for use with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that is able to produce physiologically realistic LV wall thickening and rotation. Cardiac MRI is continuously expanding its range of techniques with new pulse sequences, including new tissue tagging techniques which allow intra-myocardial deformation to be visualized. An essential step in the development of new cardiac MRI techniques is validating their performance in the presence of motion. MRI-compatible dynamic motion phantoms are ...


Assessment Of Circumferential Myocardial Function Using Radial Tagged Mri, Yujaung Kim Jan 2011

Assessment Of Circumferential Myocardial Function Using Radial Tagged Mri, Yujaung Kim

ETD Archive

The extent of myocardial abnormalities is related to cardiac disease. The assessment of myocardial function of the left ventricular (LV) described by the LV myocardial deformation plays an important role to understand the effects of cardiovascular disease and therapeutic interventions on LV motion. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is widely agreed as the most accurate noninvasive imaging modality for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. In addition, myocardial-tagging technique can track the myocardial deformation by labeling specific regions. Although the grid tagging is popular in cardiac research use, it has not been adopted into routine clinical examination with unreliable ...


A Concept For Direct Control Of Rotary Blood Pump Speed By Inlet Pressure, Ibrahim Seven Jan 2011

A Concept For Direct Control Of Rotary Blood Pump Speed By Inlet Pressure, Ibrahim Seven

ETD Archive

Heart failure remains a major health problem for the world. Heart transplantation is the most effective treatment for end stage heart failure. A major problem with heart transplantation is finding adequate numbers of appropriate donors. The lack of donor numbers in the world creates a significant clinical need for blood pumping devices. The ability of ventricular assist devices to relieve the consequences of less than terminal heart failure further creates a need for assist therapy. Current new ventricular assist devices are built around continuous flow technology. These nonpulsatile assist devices have had major clinical success in relieving symptoms and increasing ...