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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Theoretical Model Of The Effect Of Bone Defects On Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Finite Element Approach, Piyush Walia Jan 2010

A Theoretical Model Of The Effect Of Bone Defects On Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Finite Element Approach, Piyush Walia

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Presence of either a Hill Sachs or a Bony Bankart lesion has been indicated as a possible cause of subluxation and anterior shoulder dislocation. Previous studies have investigated only effects of these isolated lesions on the glenohumeral instability of the shoulder. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the effect of both Bony Bankart lesion and Hill-Sachs lesion in the glenohumeral joint on the stability of the shoulder. We hypothesize that as the size of the lesion increases, the glenohumeral joint's stability will decrease. We further hypothesize that the presence of both defects together will reduce the glenohumeral ...


Application Of Differential Scanning Calorimetry To Characterize Thin Film Deposition Processes, Andrew John Roger Snell Jan 2010

Application Of Differential Scanning Calorimetry To Characterize Thin Film Deposition Processes, Andrew John Roger Snell

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With the recent increase in awareness on the environmental impact of industrial coating processes, chromate-based coating processes have been elevated to the rank of the technologies targeted by the EPA for rapid replacement by environmentally friendly processes. Therefore, there is a clear need for advances in coating technologies to identify alternative industrial practices. This thesis characterizes a process developed at Cleveland State University as an alternative deposition technique to generate uniform coatings onto solid substrates. A kinetic analysis to extract scale up parameters involved in the reaction kinetics leading to high-performance coatings is demonstrated in this research. The work consists ...


Surface Microtopography Modulation Of Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Eun Jung Kim Jan 2010

Surface Microtopography Modulation Of Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Eun Jung Kim

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The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a biodegradable and implantable scaffold with precise surface topographies that can provide osteoconductive stimuli to connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs), and subsequently, enhance bone regeneration applications without the complications of autogenous cancellous bone grafts. This dissertation presents the modification of surface microtextures to provide osteoconductive stimuli to CTPs for bone regeneration applications. First, the effect of surface topography on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was validated through experiments using surface post microtextures and CTPs. Post microtextures accelerated CTP growth behaviors compared to smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and standard cell culture dishes. Second ...


Evaluation Of Upper Motor Neuron Pathology In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis By Mri;Towards Identifying Noninvasive Biomarkers Of The Disease, Venkateswaran Rajagopalan Jan 2010

Evaluation Of Upper Motor Neuron Pathology In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis By Mri;Towards Identifying Noninvasive Biomarkers Of The Disease, Venkateswaran Rajagopalan

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the commonest adult motor neuron disease (MND) which causes progressive muscle paralysis and death usually within 5 years of symptom onset. As a result, only ̃30,000 individuals in the United States are afflicted at any one time even though 5,000 or more individuals are diagnosed yearly. The diagnosis of ALS requires evidence of degeneration in upper motor neurons (UMNs) in the brain and in lower motor neurons (LMNs) that exit the brainstem and spinal cord to innervate skeletal muscles. Diagnosis can be incorrect or delayed when disease is early or atypical because non-invasive ...


Finite Element Modeling Of Stress Urinary Incontinence Mechanics, Thomas A. Spirka Jan 2010

Finite Element Modeling Of Stress Urinary Incontinence Mechanics, Thomas A. Spirka

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Stress urinary incontinence is characterized by the involuntary transurethral loss of urine caused by an increase in abdominal pressure in the absence of a bladder contraction that raises the vesical pressure to a level that exceeds urethral pressure. Adult women are most commonly affected by SUI which is believed to be caused in part by injuries to the pelvic floor sustained during childbirth. In spite of the large number of women affected by SUI, little is known about the mechanics associated with the maintenance of continence in women. In theory the mechanics underlying the mechanics of female continence can be ...


Cell-Taught Gene Therapy For The Preservation And Regeneration Of Cardiac Tissue Following Chronic Heart Failure, Srividya Sundararaman Jan 2010

Cell-Taught Gene Therapy For The Preservation And Regeneration Of Cardiac Tissue Following Chronic Heart Failure, Srividya Sundararaman

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Heart failure is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in the Western world. Although cell therapy has demonstrated improvement in cardiac function, these benefits are being attributed to the activation of paracrine factors, rather than the differentiation and integration of the transplanted cells into the host tissue. Based on this knowledge the focus of this thesis work was to deliver paracrine factors, and evaluate its effect on cardiac function. Gene therapy has evolved as a promising option to deliver pro-angiogenic proteins to infarct zones, thus providing cardiac benefit. This study has identified a gene design without the use of ...


Design, Development And Biomechanical Analysis Of Scaffolds For Augmentation Of Rotator Cuff Repairs, Amit Aurora Jan 2010

Design, Development And Biomechanical Analysis Of Scaffolds For Augmentation Of Rotator Cuff Repairs, Amit Aurora

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Rotator cuff tears are a source of debilitating pain that commonly affects more than 40 of our aging population. Despite advances in surgical treatment, the failure rate of rotator cuff repairs is as high as 20-90 . Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds have recently been investigated as augmentation devices for rotator cuff repairs, but none has yet demonstrated both the appropriate biological and mechanical properties for mitigating re-tears and enhancing healing. This dissertation proposes to engineer the mechanical properties of allograft fascia lata in a manner that will allow its use as an augmentation device for rotator cuff repairs. This dissertation ...


The Thermodynamics Of Fluid-Phase Benzene Via Molecular Simulation, John L. Tatarko Jan 2010

The Thermodynamics Of Fluid-Phase Benzene Via Molecular Simulation, John L. Tatarko

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Accurate values for thermodynamic properties throughout the fluid phase are a requirement for the design of separation processes. To date, very few pure substances have been completely characterized because of time and monetary constraints. Low cost computing power now permits complete determination of the thermodynamic properties of pure substances via molecular simulation. Molecular simulation is computational statistical mechanics. Benzene is an important industrial chemical and pharmaceutical precursor. It is the prototypical, symmetric, hexagonal molecule and is an ideal candidate for molecular simulation. The molecular models of three researchers in the field are submitted for Monte Carlo simulation in the virtual ...


Directional Solidification Of Al - 7 Wt Si Alloy, Ravi Shanker Rajamure Jan 2010

Directional Solidification Of Al - 7 Wt Si Alloy, Ravi Shanker Rajamure

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Al - 7 wt Si alloy has been directionally solidified from an aluminum single crystal seed with its [100] orientation parallel to the growth direction with a positive thermal gradient of 40 K/cm and over the range of growth speeds. Growth speed dependence of primary Dendrite Spacing and Primary Dendrite trunk Diameter has been analyzed during the step increase and step decrease in the growth speeds. Frequency distribution of Nearest Neighbor dendrites obtained from the statistical analysis shows the hexagonal distribution of dendrites. The interdendritic convection was present in the form of transverse macrosegregation and non uniform distribution of dendrites ...