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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Theses/Dissertations

Syracuse University

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Molecular Investigation Of The Intestinal Barrier In Health And Disease, Santita Ebangwese May 2019

Molecular Investigation Of The Intestinal Barrier In Health And Disease, Santita Ebangwese

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The intestinal epithelial barrier contributes to the absorption of nutrients and in maintaining homeostasis. Several intestinal disorders such as Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis show common pathological features corresponding to a decreased intestinal epithelial barrier function, which makes it imperative to investigate the functional units of the intestinal barriers formed by complex protein interfaces called the tight junctions. Among the diverse set of transmembrane proteins involved in the formation of tight junctions, the mal-distribution of claudin family of proteins show direct correlation to compromised barrier functioning. Interestingly, claudin-3 expression reduces drastically in compromised barriers, while an increased expression of ...


Development Of An Inflammatory Joint Fluid Corrosion Assessment Method For Metallic Biomaterials, Kathleen Pieri May 2016

Development Of An Inflammatory Joint Fluid Corrosion Assessment Method For Metallic Biomaterials, Kathleen Pieri

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

There is currently no systematic way to analyze the corrosion response of orthopedic alloys in contact with human joint fluid. The goal of this project was to design and test a small device that can successfully run electrochemical tests on retrieved inflamed joint fluids. Methods of fluid testing analysis were also explored. The a small electrochemical cell was created using polypropylene for the body and an electrode cartridge that could be disposed of after each test. In total the device could hold 4 mL of liquid. Testes were preformed using titanium, stainless steel, and CoCrMo alloys as the working electrodes ...


Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik May 2014

Investigating The Shelf Life Of Benzoyl Peroxide Coated Nozzles For Bone Cement Application, Alysen Leigh Demzik

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Two-solution bone cements (TSBC) were developed to address the limitations of current powder-liquid bone cements, however are characterized by a limited shelf life due to spontaneous free radical polymerization. As a solution to pre-polymerization concerns, the initiator benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was removed from the cement solution and incorporated into a thin film coating within the static mixing nozzle, allowing the BPO to integrate with the TSBC as it is mixed for use. Only short-term storage of BPO-coated nozzles and the subsequent effects on bone cement properties is known. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time ...


A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li May 2014

A Study Of Ciliary Beating In Chlamydomonas, Xin Li

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The goal of this research is to understand how a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas-reinhardtii, responds to red light (670nm) and sound waves, by monitoring the beating frequency of its two cilia, which control cell motility. Ciliary beating frequency (BF) is proportional to the production of ATP, mainly generated by photosynthesis. A photosynthesis inhibitor, 3-(3-, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU) decreases ATP production by photosynthesis. I used DCMU as a tool to analyze the red light effect on BF.

In the process of studying the effect of red light, I unexpectedly discovered experimental conditions for unstable ciliary beating (as shown in ...


Raman Spectroscopic Investigation Of Chondroitinase Abc Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury In An Organotypic Model, Shane Ruberto Dec 2013

Raman Spectroscopic Investigation Of Chondroitinase Abc Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury In An Organotypic Model, Shane Ruberto

Theses - ALL

This study investigated (1) the ability of an organotypic model of spinal cord injury (SCI) to recapitulate significant pathobiological events of in vivo SCI from a Raman spectroscopic perspective, and (2) the Raman spectroscopic effects of chondroitinase ABC (cABC) treatment on said model of SCI. Tissue from mouse spinal cords was excised, sectioned, and placed into culture, before being systematically injured to induce trauma. Cultures with and without cABC treatment were assessed using Raman spectroscopy at varying times post-injury. We demonstrate that Raman spectral phenomena characteristic of SCI can be observed using an organotypic model. By comparing these phenomena with ...


Polysaccharide-Based Nanocarriers For Improved Drug Delivery, Nan Zhang Aug 2013

Polysaccharide-Based Nanocarriers For Improved Drug Delivery, Nan Zhang

Dissertations - ALL

The field of drug delivery has provided a solution to the limited efficacy and high toxicity of many drugs. Nano-sized drug carriers are popular because their size allows for selective accumulation in the diseased area. Polysaccharides are non-toxic and biodegradable natural polymers that can serve as the basis for these nano-sized carriers. Polysialic acid (PSA) is such a polysaccharide with strong hydrophilicity that may reduce uptake by the reticuloendothelial system and prolong drug circulation. In this study, we developed PSA-based nanocarriers, specifically micelles and nanoparticles, for improved drug delivery with improved efficacy and minimized toxicity. PSA-based micelle systems were developed ...


Improving Bioactivity And The Anti-Bacterial Properties Of Two-Solution Bone Cement Containing Cross-Linked Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma) Nanospheres (Η-Tsbc), Shailly Jariwala May 2013

Improving Bioactivity And The Anti-Bacterial Properties Of Two-Solution Bone Cement Containing Cross-Linked Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma) Nanospheres (Η-Tsbc), Shailly Jariwala

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering - Dissertations

The high viscosity standard two-solution bone cements (STSBC) developed in our laboratory exhibits several advantages over other commercial powder-liquid cement formulations. However, the high monomer concentration, viscosity, and exothermal temperature are considered a major limitation to the use of this material. Modified two-solution cements containing cross-linked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanospheres (η-TSBC), as part of the polymer phase, were fabricated as the first step for optimization of cement viscosity for application of the material in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures using vertebroplasty (VP) and kyphoplasty (KP). The η-TSBC exhibited reduced viscosity, lower polymerization exotherm, and residual monomer in comparison to STSBC ...


Controlling Bacterial Persister Cells With Low Level Electric Currents, Henry Lars Peterson May 2013

Controlling Bacterial Persister Cells With Low Level Electric Currents, Henry Lars Peterson

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Bacterial persister cells present a growing concern as they inherit the ability to tolerate high concentrations of antibiotics and repopulate after an antibiotic treatment leading to chronic diseases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes many human infections including skin infections and those associated with burn injuries, and implanted medical devices, and are associated with Cystic Fibrosis. Recently, the Ren Lab developed a novel approach to eliminate persister cells of P. aeruginosa, including those in biofilms, using low level electric currents. To evaluate the safety of this method and to better understand how the underlying elements, this study focused on the cytotoxicity of treatments ...


Characterization Of Polyacrylonitrile Carbon Fibers, Christian Burke Iversen Dec 2012

Characterization Of Polyacrylonitrile Carbon Fibers, Christian Burke Iversen

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering – Theses

Carbon fiber composites are a widely used, advanced material with exceedingly high strength to weight properties. In this thesis, a literature overview of carbon fiber manufacturing was provided, as well as a thorough analysis of in- house electrospun polyacrylonitrile fiber stabilization and surface modification of the resulting carbon fibers. In the first section, an overview of precursor fiber fabrication is provided, followed by an analysis of stabilization using surface and bulk composition, dimensional analysis, and functional group analysis via FTIR. The second section uses the current stabilization procedure to develop carbon nanofibers. Fibers first underwent a nitric acid oxidation time ...


Voltage Effects On Cells Cultured On Metallic Biomedical Implants, Seyed Morteza Haerihosseini Dec 2012

Voltage Effects On Cells Cultured On Metallic Biomedical Implants, Seyed Morteza Haerihosseini

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering - Dissertations

Electrochemical voltage shifts in metallic biomedical implants occur in-vivo due to a number of processes including mechanically assisted corrosion. Surface potential of biomedical implants and excursions from resting open circuit potential (OCP), which is the voltage they attain while in contact with an electrolyte, can significantly change the interfacial properties of the metallic surfaces and alter the behavior of the surrounding cells, compromising the biocompatibility of metallic implants. Voltages can also be controlled to modulate cell function and fate. To date, the details of the physico-chemical phenomena and the role of different biomaterial parameters involved in the interaction between cells ...


Nitric Oxide Releasing Polymers For Vascular Graft Applications, Ifeanyi U. Onyejekwe Aug 2012

Nitric Oxide Releasing Polymers For Vascular Graft Applications, Ifeanyi U. Onyejekwe

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering - Dissertations

Nitric oxide [NO] is an endogenous gas involved in a multitude of physiological functions, ranging from vasodilatation, inflammatory response to inhibition of platelet aggregation. Significant interest exists for therapeutic application of exogenous NO, particularly for the improvement of foreign-body responses of biomaterials. One challenge amongst several others that must be taken into consideration is NO's short half-life, ranging from 2-3 s, in physiological systems. Researchers have worked on synthesizing materials, formally referred to as NO donors/NONOates capable of preserving NO and spontaneous gas release upon contact with blood under physiological conditions. Two groups of these commercially available NO ...


The Role Of Fluorescence And Human Factors In Quantitative Transdermal Blood And Tissue Analysis Using Nir Raman Spectroscopy, Bin Deng Aug 2012

The Role Of Fluorescence And Human Factors In Quantitative Transdermal Blood And Tissue Analysis Using Nir Raman Spectroscopy, Bin Deng

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering - Dissertations

This research is part of an ongoing project aimed at the application of combined near infrared (NIR) Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasive in vivo blood analysis including but not limited to glucose monitoring. Coping with practicalities of human factors and exploring ways to obtain and use knowledge gained about autofluorescence to improve algorithms for blood and tissue analysis are the general goals of this research. Firstly, the study investigated the various sources of human factors pertinent to our concerns, such as fingerprints, turgor, skin hydration and pigmentation. We then introduced specialized in vivo apparatus including means for precise and ...


Design And Implementation Of A Shoulder Simulator, Chelsea Lynn Kowal May 2012

Design And Implementation Of A Shoulder Simulator, Chelsea Lynn Kowal

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The main objective of this thesis project is to build a shoulder simulator to be able to understand the mechanics of the shoulder, specifically the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles. The shoulder simulator should be able to mimic the important motions of the human shoulder by pulling on tendons of cadaver shoulders and moving the shoulder in various specified motions. In my thesis project, I worked on creating a shoulder simulator that would control the rotator cuff muscles along with the three deltoid muscles. In order to do this, I needed to design and test the shoulder simulator using cadaver ...


Escherichia Coli Hm22 Biofilm Viability When In Contact With Implant-Grade, Titanium-6aluminum-4-Vanadium Alloy Under Varied Electrochemical Conditions, Alexander Ross Weiss May 2012

Escherichia Coli Hm22 Biofilm Viability When In Contact With Implant-Grade, Titanium-6aluminum-4-Vanadium Alloy Under Varied Electrochemical Conditions, Alexander Ross Weiss

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Maternal Diet On Fetal Development, Catherine Wilcox Apr 2011

The Effect Of Maternal Diet On Fetal Development, Catherine Wilcox

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Using mice as a model system, this study aimed to compare the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), high sugar diet (HSD) and a control diet (CD) on fetal growth and development at the time of birth (post-natal day 0 or PND 0), post-natal day 7 (PND 7) and post-natal day 14 (PND 14). Published literature has documented the effects of a negative in-utero environment on fetal development, but currently there is limited research regarding the continued effects on development after birth. Mouse pups were harvested and then imaged in 3-D using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system. Total ...


Issues On Clean Diesel Combustion Technology Using Supercritical Fluids: Thermophysical Properties And Thermal Stability Of Diesel Fuel, Ronghong Lin Jan 2011

Issues On Clean Diesel Combustion Technology Using Supercritical Fluids: Thermophysical Properties And Thermal Stability Of Diesel Fuel, Ronghong Lin

Biomedical and Chemical Engineering - Dissertations

The clean diesel combustion technology using supercritical fluids is aimed to both improve fuel economy and reduce harmful emissions. This novel process involves preparation, injection and combustion of supercritical fuel/diluents mixtures. Design and development of this new process require a deep understanding of fuel properties. The current study has attempted to address three fuel property related issues: fuel surrogates, diffusivity and thermal stability.

Fuel surrogates are often used in engine research to mimic real fuel properties. In this work, ten diesel fuel surrogates were investigated, and the ability of these surrogates to predict diesel fuel properties was evaluated. It ...


Liquid Crystalline Elastomers: Effects Of Substrate Anisotropy On Cell Behavior, Christine Depompeo May 2010

Liquid Crystalline Elastomers: Effects Of Substrate Anisotropy On Cell Behavior, Christine Depompeo

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

One of the major challenges in tissue engineering today is inducing organization at the cellular level in vitro. Most biological tissues exhibit anisotropic behavior. They perform differently and have different mechanical properties in different directions. This environment is difficult to mimic with traditional cell culturing methods. The development of anisotropic cell substrates may have the potential to encourage the organization required at the cellular level to induce in vitro tissue formation, an exciting prospect for the advancement of the field of tissue engineering.

It is well known that liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are highly organized polymers with temperature-dependent properties. Previous ...


Waste To Work Using Eccrine Sweat Battery Modules To Enhance Pedestrian Safety, Lauren J. Vesty May 2010

Waste To Work Using Eccrine Sweat Battery Modules To Enhance Pedestrian Safety, Lauren J. Vesty

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

There is a need for increased pedestrian visibility. Improved athletic clothing with built in visibility features would enhance a roadside athlete’s safety. This experiment aims to create such an athletic shirt, while incorporating wearable biotechnology. A sweat battery that produced a voltage of 0.49 V and a current of 5.16 mA was created to power the visibility aspects of the shirt. The battery uses an aluminum anode, a carbon cathode, a sponge block as the container and semi-permeable membrane, and the body’s eccrine sweat as the electrolyte solution. The battery cells were arranged into blocks to ...


Analysis Of The Performance Of Iodinated Contrast X-Ray Attenuator Under Physiologically Relevant Conditions, Peter Frey May 2009

Analysis Of The Performance Of Iodinated Contrast X-Ray Attenuator Under Physiologically Relevant Conditions, Peter Frey

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

X-ray is a radiological tool utilized in healthcare institutions around the world to diagnose abnormalities such as bone fractures or the presence of foreign material within patients. The ability for healthcare providers to properly diagnose a problem is improved with advancements in the quality of radiological images. One way to improve image quality is to optimize the contrast range within a single image created by different attenuating characteristics in various types of tissue. In this study, I used a proof-of-concept prototype model of an x-ray attenuation system and an experimental protocol to examine its capacity to equalize x-ray beam signal ...


Loss Of Visual Function In Light-Stressed Mice, Ana Stachowiak May 2007

Loss Of Visual Function In Light-Stressed Mice, Ana Stachowiak

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Because of the highly devastating effects of retinal degenerative diseases, the study of mechanisms of vision loss is imperative. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading causes of blindness in the elderly. In this study I examined how extreme light exposure, which causes light stress in rodents, affects the visual and retinal function of 3 strains of mice. I hypothesized that, three strains of mice, C57BL/6J, ALR/Lj and BALB/c, would all show significant changes in visual and retinal function. I used behavior testing to assess visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as well as electroretinogram (ERG) recordings to ...


Possibilities Of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Like Activity In Somatosensory Mechanoreceptors Such As Pacinian Corpuscles?, Kevin Kopko May 2006

Possibilities Of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Like Activity In Somatosensory Mechanoreceptors Such As Pacinian Corpuscles?, Kevin Kopko

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Pacinian Corpuscles (PCs) are somatosensory mechanoreceptors, composed of a central neurite, surrounded by layers of lamellae that make up the inner core, which are specialized glial cells, and fibroblast derived outer-core lamellae of the surrounding capsule. Several components specific to a chemical synapse (Vglut1, Vamp1, SNAP-23) were localized to both the neurite and the inner-core cells in feline mesenteric PCs using immunocytochemistry. However, it has long been postulated that the first synapse of the PC occurs at the dorsal column nuclei, or spinal cord, and that no classical synapse is present in the distal ending of the capsulated receptor. While ...


Predictive Measures Of Tooth/Tooth Contact In Mastication, Elizabeth Klodd May 2006

Predictive Measures Of Tooth/Tooth Contact In Mastication, Elizabeth Klodd

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Understanding the process of mastication, or chewing, is very important in humans. Understanding the way people chew can help craniofacial repair to victims of accidents or other conditions. Stages of chewing and swallowing have been categorized; however, it is currently unknown when exactly the teeth meet during mastication. Vertical motion data were obtained from seven subjects while chewing food of different consistencies. A videofluorograph collected the data and they were manipulated in Excel to be plotted as time vs. vertical displacement for the upper incisor tooth. The first and second derivatives of these motion-time charts were taken in order to ...